The Freedom From Religion Foundation (FFRF) is an American non-profit organization based in Madison, Wisconsin, with members from all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The largest national organization advocating for non-theists, FFRF promotes the separation of church and state and educates the public on matters relating to atheism, agnosticism, and nontheism. The FFRF publishes a newspaper, Freethought Today, 10 times a year. Since 2006, as the Freethought Radio Network, FFRF has produced the Freethought Radio show.
|Freedom From Religion Foundation|
|Founder||Anne Nicol Gaylor|
|Legal status||501(c)(3) educational organization|
|Purpose||Separation of church and state, nontheism, atheism, secularism|
|Headquarters||Madison, Wisconsin, United States|
|Annie Laurie Gaylor|
|Affiliations||Nonbelief Relief Inc (501(c)(3))|
The FFRF was co-founded by Anne Nicol Gaylor and her daughter, Annie Laurie Gaylor, in 1976 and was incorporated nationally on April 15, 1978. The organization is supported by over 23,500 members and operates from an 1855-era building in Madison, Wisconsin, that once served as a church rectory. According to the 2011 IRS tax Form-990, FFRF spent just over $200,000 on legal fees and services and just under $1 million on education, outreach, publishing, broadcasting, and events. The allotment for legal fees is primarily used in cases supporting the separation of church and state that involve governmental entities. FFRF also has a paid staff of twenty two, including five full-time staff attorneys and two legal fellows.
Annie Laurie Gaylor, co-president of the FFRF, is the author of Women Without Superstition: No Gods - No Masters and the nonfiction book on clergy pedophilia scandals Betrayal of Trust: Clergy Abuse of Children (out of print) and editor of the anthology Woe to the Women. She edited the FFRF newspaper Freethought Today until July 2008. Her husband, Dan Barker, author of Losing Faith in Faith: From Preacher to Atheist, Godless: How an Evangelical Preacher Became One of America's Leading Atheists, The Good Atheist: Living a Purpose-Filled Life Without God, "Life Driven Purpose", "God: The Most Unpleasant Character in all Fiction" and Just Pretend: A Freethought Book for Children, is a musician and songwriter, a former Pentecostal Christian minister, and co-president of FFRF.
In March 2011, FFRF, along with the Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science, began The Clergy Project, a confidential on-line community that supports clergy as they leave their faith. In 2012, it gave its first Freedom From Religion Foundation and Clergy Project "Hardship Grant" to Jerry DeWitt, a former pastor who left the ministry to join the atheist movement.
In June 2013 FFRF announced that, along with the Secular Student Alliance, it would work on educating students on their religious rights and would assist with rectifying violations and what they have termed "religious infringement into public education".
In 2015, FFRF announced Nonbelief Relief, a new charitable arm. Nonbelief Relief is a humanitarian agency for atheists, agnostics, freethinkers and their supporters "to improve this world, our only world". Nonbelief Relief seeks to remediate conditions of human suffering and injustice on a global scale, whether the result of natural disasters, human actions or adherence to religious dogma.
In June 2004, the FFRF challenged the constitutionality of the White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives. The Foundation's complaint alleged that "the use of money appropriated by Congress under Article I, section 8, to fund conferences that various executive branch agencies hold to promote President Bush's 'Faith-Based and Community Initiatives'" conflicted with the First Amendment. The suit held that "the defendant officials violated the Establishment Clause by organizing national and regional conferences at which faith-based organizations allegedly "are singled out as being particularly worthy of federal funding because of their religious orientation, and the belief in God is extolled as distinguishing the claimed effectiveness of faith-based social services". The FFRF also alleged that "the defendant officials 'engage in myriad activities, such as making public appearances and giving speeches, throughout the United States, intended to promote and advocate for funding for faith-based organizations." The FFRF further asserted, "Congressional appropriations [are] used to support the activities of the defendants." In 2007 the Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that taxpayers do not have the right to challenge the constitutionality of expenditures made by the executive branch.
In May 2007, the FFRF, on behalf of Indiana taxpayers, challenged the creation of a chaplaincy pilot program for the Indiana Family and Social Services Administration (FSSA). The FSSA hired Pastor Michael L. Latham, a Baptist minister, in 2006, at a salary of $60,000 a year. In September 2007, in response to the FFRF's suit, Indiana ended the program.
In April 2003, the FFRF, on behalf of Montana residents, sued the Montana Office of Rural Health and its executive director David M. Young along with the Montana State University-Bozeman and the Montana Faith-Health Cooperative. It was alleged that Young favored faith-based nursing parish programs for state funding. In October 2004, the Federal District Court for the District of Montana held that the state's "direct and preferential funding of inherently and pervasively religious parish nursing programs was undertaken for the impermissible purpose, and has the impermissible effect, of favoring and advancing the integration of religion into the provision of secular health care services." According to the court, the state funding of faith-based healthcare violated the First Amendment.
In April 2006, the FFRF sued to challenge the pervasive integration of "spirituality" into health care by the Department of Veteran Affairs. Specifically stating that the practice of asking patients about their religion in spiritual assessments, the use of chaplains to treat patients, and drug and alcohol treatment programs that incorporate religion violated the separation of state and church. The case was later dismissed after the Hein decision because of lack of standing.
In 2001, the FFRF, on behalf of anonymous plaintiffs, sued the Rhea County School District. The plaintiffs alleged that weekly bible classes were being held for all students in the elementary schools. In June 2004, the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed a district judgment holding that it was unconstitutional for the school district to "teach the Bible as literal truth" to students, including first graders.
In March 2005, the FFRF filed suit against the University of Minnesota because of its involvement with the Minnesota Faith Health Consortium, a partnership with Luther Seminary, which is affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, and Fairview Health Services, stating that state taxpayer funds are helping to fund a faith-based organization. In September 2005 the University agreed to end the partnership and to cease teaching "courses on the intersection of faith and health", with the FFRF agreeing to drop its lawsuit.
In April 2005, the FFRF filed a lawsuit against the U.S. Department of Education because of its distribution of funds to the Alaska Christian College, a Bible college run by the Evangelical Covenant Church of Alaska. The foundation stated that in the students' first year at the college, they take only religious-based courses, and finish that year with a Certificate of Biblical Studies. The college, the foundation says, "does not offer traditional college courses, such as math or English". In October 2005 the FFRF and the U.S. Department of Education settled the lawsuit, with the Department of Education agreeing not to distribute $435,000 of federal funds to the College.
In October 2000, the FFRF brought suit, as taxpayers in the state of Wisconsin, against Faith Works located in Milwaukee. Their case stated that a faith-based addiction-treatment program should not be used as a court ordered treatment program using taxpayer funds. In January 2002 the ruling was decided in the FFRF's favor; that receiving hundreds of thousands of dollars in public money is in violation of the Establishment Clause. The judge wrote "Because I find that the Department of Workforce Development's grant to Faith Works constitutes unrestricted, direct funding of an organization that engages in religious indoctrination, I conclude that this funding stream violates the establishment clause." On Appeal, in April 2003, The Seventh Circuit later ruled against the FFRF on the narrower issue of whether prisoners joining specific faith-based programs on their own free will are coerced by government endorsement of religion.
The FFRF brought a suit against the awarding of a federal grant to MentorKids USA, a group providing mentors to children of prisoners, alleging that only Christian mentors were hired and that they were to give monthly reports on the children's religious activities. In January 2005, the court vacated HHS's funding of this group citing "federal funds have been used by the MentorKids program to advance religion in violation of the Establishment Clause".
In May 2006 the FFRF filed suit against the Federal Bureau of Prisons alleging that its decision to fund not only multi-faith-based but also single-faith-based programs violated constitutional standards for separation of state and church. The parties later agreed to a dismissal of that claim, but additional counts within the lawsuit, alleging separate violations, continued.
In 1995 the FFRF sued the state of Wisconsin for designating Good Friday as a state legal holiday. In 1996 the federal district court ruled that Wisconsin's Good Friday holiday was indeed a First Amendment violation because the "promotion of Christianity is the primary purpose of the law."
In December 2007 the FFRF, on behalf of a group of concerned Green Bay residents and invoking the First Amendment rights of all of the city's residents, sued the city because of the placement of a nativity scene at Green Bay's city hall. Before the case was heard, the city removed the nativity scene. The judge then dismissed the suit, citing lack of jurisdiction. Since the nativity scene already was removed and a moratorium imposed on future such displays, there remained no basis for continued dispute. He went on to say, "the plaintiffs have already won. ...the Plaintiffs have won a concrete victory that changes the circumstances on the ground."
In 2011 in response to the city of Warren, Michigan's refusal to remove a nativity display in the civic center, the FFRF sought to place a winter solstice display. The mayor refused the request and the FFRF brought suit. The suit was dismissed by Judge Zatkoff of the U.S. District Court; the dismissal was upheld by the U.S. 6th Circuit Court in 2013.
In September 2011, the FFRF, along with the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), sued the Giles County, Virginia school district on behalf of anonymous plaintiffs. A display of the Ten Commandments had been placed beside a copy of the U.S. Constitution at Giles County public schools. Prior to the suit, in January and June 2011, the FFRF and the ACLU had sent letters to the school board requesting removal of the display. The school superintendent ordered that the displays of the Ten Commandments be removed. The Giles County school board met in June 2011 and voted to overturn the superintendent's decision to remove the display. After the suit was filed, the school board in 2012 agreed to remove the display and to pay attorneys' fees.
In May 2012, the FFRF, acting on a complaint from a resident, asked the city of Woonsocket, Rhode Island, to remove a Latin cross from a World War I and II memorial on public land. The city refused to do so. The FFRF states that it is currently looking for a plaintiff in the area to represent for a suit, which the FFRF have yet to do, citing the difficulty with another case that occurred with another plaintiff in the state, Jessica Ahlquist, in the case Ahlquist v. Cranston.
On July 24, 2012, after receiving a letter from the FFRF, the Steubenville, Ohio, city council decided to remove the image of the Christ the King Chapel at the Franciscan University of Steubenville from its town logo.
In August 2012 the FFRF, on behalf of a resident, threatened a lawsuit challenging a Latin cross that had been displayed on top of the water tower of Whiteville, Tennessee. After the FFRF wrote three initial letters, but before the lawsuit was filed, the town removed one arm of the cross. The removal cost the town $4,000, and as part of the settlement the town paid $20,000 in the FFRF's attorneys fees. The town also agreed never to replace the missing arm and not to place other crosses on public property.
In August 2012 the FFRF, on behalf of a Montana resident, sued the United States Forest Service. A special use permit for the placement of a statue of Jesus on federal land was granted in 1954 at the request of the Knights of Columbus. The Forest Service continued to grant renewals of the permit until 2010. When the Service declined to renew, the Knights declined to remove the statue citing "tradition" and the "historical" value of the statue. After on-line protests the statue was allowed to stay and the permit granted. The FFRF filed suit in February 2012. In June 2013, a federal judge found in favor of the defendants, allowing the statue to remain. In August 2013, the FFRF filed an appeal of the decision.
In 2012 the FFRF wrote several letters to Prudhommes Restaurant, in Columbia, Pennsylvania, explaining that offering a 10% discount to Sunday patrons who present a church bulletin is a violation of state and federal law, specifically the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The individual who brought the matter to the FFRF's attention has filed a discrimination complaint with the Pennsylvania Human Relations. The FFRF is only involved in an advisory capacity.
In October 2008, the FFRF filed suit against the U.S. government over the statute establishing the National Day of Prayer (NDoP). In 2010, Federal judge Barbara Brandriff Crabb ruled it unconstitutional as it is "an inherently religious exercise that serves no secular function". This ruling was appealed by the U.S. government. In April 2011, the U.S. Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals dismissed the FFRF's challenge to the NDoP, holding that the FFRF did not have standing to challenge the NDoP statute or proclamations and that only the President was injured enough to challenge the NDoP statute.
The FFRF, in January 2013, after receiving a complaint from a resident, asked the city council of Rapid City, South Dakota, to eliminate its practice of beginning each city council meeting with a Christian prayer. After the FFRF sent a second letter in February 2013, the mayor stated at that time that prayers would continue.
The FFRF filed suit against the IRS over the parish exemption that allows "ministers of the gospel" to claim part of their salary as an income-tax-free housing allowance. This was originally filed in 2009, in California, then subsequently dropped and re-filed in 2011, in Wisconsin, because of standing. In August 2012, a federal judge stated that the suit could go forward. In August 2013, the Justice Department argued that leaders of an atheist group may qualify for the parish exemption. Gaylor states "this is not what we are after," going on to say that the government should not give religious groups any special treatment.
On November 21, 2013, a federal judge ruled in the FFRF's favor. In January 2014, the Department of Justice filed an appeal in federal court. In November 2014, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit issued its decision, concluding that the federal tax code provision that treats church-provided housing allowances to ministers as income tax-free must stand.
In November 2012, The FFRF filed a lawsuit against the IRS for not enforcing its own electioneering laws. The FFRF cited in its suit the placement of full page ads by the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association; the diocese requiring priests to read a statement urging Catholics to vote; and the institution of "Pulpit Freedom Sunday". The group claimed that not enforcing the federal tax codes that prohibit tax-exempt religious organizations from electioneering is a violation of the First Amendment of the Constitution. The group stated that the increasing involvement of religious institutions in politics was "blatantly and deliberately flaunting the electioneering restrictions". The IRS had filed a motion to dismiss in federal court, but in August 2013 it was decided that the lawsuit could proceed stating that the FFRF "has standing to seek an order requiring the IRS to treat religious organizations no more favorably than it treats the Foundation".
In December 2012 the FFRF filed suit against the IRS for not requiring the yearly filing of a 990 Form for religious institutions, which is required for all other non-profit organizations. This action is pending.
In December 2013, the FFRF was permitted to hang a banner at the capital after a nativity scene was placed by a private group.
On December 23, 2009, William J. Kelly, conservative activist and candidate for Illinois Comptroller, attempted to remove a FFRF sign at a holiday display. The case was dismissed on several grounds, including that the lawsuit ran afoul of the First Amendment prohibition against content-based discrimination and that the plaintiff's rights had not been violated.
A plaque with the same text as the Wisconsin State Capitol sign was displayed for the 2008 Christmas season at the state capitol in Olympia, Washington, next to a nativity scene. The sign was stolen and then later found and returned to the state capitol. The addition of the sign incited a large number of individuals and groups to request other additions, such as a Festivus pole, a request by the Westboro Baptist Church for a sign stating "Santa Claus will take you to hell" (among other things), a sign paying homage to the Flying Spaghetti Monster, and many others.
There are no gods, no devils, no angels, no heaven or hell.
There is only our natural world.
Religion is but myth and superstition that hardens hearts and enslaves minds.
In 2013, a natural nativity featuring Charles Darwin, Albert Einstein and Mark Twain as the three wise men, the Statue of Liberty and an astronaut as angels and an African American girl baby doll to represent that "humankind was birthed in Africa" was added.
In 2013, the FFRF was allowed to place a sign in the rotunda, after complaints from its members, as a response to the crèches and other religious symbols that are already in place at the statehouse.
On July 14, 2017, a statue of Clarence Darrow was unveiled in Dayton, Tennessee on the Rhea County Courthouse lawn, funded by a $150,000 donation from the FFRF. The courthouse was the site of the historic 1925 Scopes Monkey Trial wherein Darrow unsuccessfully defended a teacher, John T. Scopes, who was found guilty of teaching evolution in a public school in violation of what was then a Tennessee state law. The statue was placed just a few feet away from a statue of William Jennings Bryan, Darrow's creationist opponent in the trial, which had been erected in 2005 by nearby Bryan College.
In 2011 the FFRF was contacted by a local Austin citizen regarding the placement of a nativity scene on Henderson County courthouse property. A letter of complaint was sent. After it was decided that the nativity scene would remain, the FFRF petitioned to have its own banner placed on the site, but county officials declined to discuss its placement. The FFRF banner was placed without permission on the courthouse property, but was soon removed. In April 2012 the request to place the banner was denied.
Freethought Radio, called the "only weekly Freethought radio broadcast anywhere", is an hour-long show broadcast live on WXXM-FM Saturdays at 11 a.m. CDT. It had also been broadcast on Air America before that service ceased operation in March, 2010. The show is hosted by the co-presidents of FFRF, Dan Barker and Annie Laurie Gaylor. Regular features include "Theocracy Alert" and "Freethinkers Almanac". The latter highlights historic freethinkers, many of whom are also songwriters. The show's intro and outro make use of John Lennon's "Imagine", which has an antireligious theme. A podcast archive is available at the FFRF website.
FFRF has held conventions since 1977, one year after the group formed and one year prior to its official incorporation. The 2016 convention was the 39th annual convention. Previous conventions included speakers such as Christopher Hitchens, awards are presented to recognize contributions to the advancement of the freethought community, "NonPrayer Breakfasts" with "moments of bedlam," and piano music by FFRF Co-President Dan Barker.
Charity Navigator gives FFRF a four star rating and reports in 2013 FFRF had revenues of $3,878,938 USD, with a net surplus (after expenses) of $1,715,563 and net assets of $11,519,770. Officer compensation for the "co-presidents" husband and wife Dan Barker and Annie Laurie Gaylor was $88,700 and $86,500 ($175,200 combined) or approximately 10% of the net surplus.
The Emperor Has No Clothes Award has been awarded by the Foundation since 1999 in recognition of "plain speaking" on the shortcomings of religion by public figures.
Anne Nicol Gaylor (November 25, 1926 – June 14, 2015) was an American atheist and reproductive rights advocate. She co-founded the Freedom from Religion Foundation and an abortion fund for Wisconsin women. She wrote the book Abortion Is a Blessing and edited The World Famous Atheist Cookbook. In 1985 Gaylor received the Humanist Heroine Award from the American Humanist Association, and in 2007 she was given the Tiller Award by NARAL Pro-Choice America.Annie Laurie Gaylor
Annie Laurie Gaylor (born November 2, 1955) is an American atheist, secular and women's rights activist and a co-founder of – and, with her husband Dan Barker, a current co-president of – the Freedom From Religion Foundation. She was also the editor of the organization's newspaper, Freethought Today (published ten times per year) until 2015. Gaylor is the author of several books, including Woe to the Women: The Bible Tells Me So, Betrayal of Trust: Clergy Abuse of Children and, as editor, Women Without Superstition: No Gods – No Masters.Butterfly McQueen
Thelma "Butterfly" McQueen (January 7, 1911 – December 22, 1995) was an American actress. Originally a dancer, McQueen first appeared in film in 1939 as Prissy, Scarlett O'Hara's maid, in the film Gone with the Wind. She was unable to attend the movie's premiere because it was held at a whites-only theater.
Often typecast as a maid, she said: "I didn't mind playing a maid the first time, because I thought that was how you got into the business. But after I did the same thing over and over, I resented it. I didn't mind being funny, but I didn't like being stupid." She continued as an actress in film in the 1940s, and then moved to television acting in the 1950s.Clergy housing allowance
The Clergy housing allowance is an allowance paid to ordained ministers in Canada and the United States.Dan Barker
Daniel Edwin Barker (born June 25, 1949) is an American atheist activist who served as an evangelical Christian preacher and musician for 19 years but left Christianity in 1984. He and his wife Annie Laurie Gaylor are the current co-presidents of the Freedom From Religion Foundation. He has written numerous articles for Freethought Today, an American freethought newspaper. He is the author of several books including Losing Faith in Faith: From Preacher to Atheist.Barker has been an invited speaker at Rock Beyond Belief. He is on the speakers bureau of the Secular Student Alliance.Don Addis
Donald Gordon "Don" Addis (September 13, 1935 – November 29, 2009) was an American comic strip artist.
He received his bachelor's degree from the University of Florida, where he was in charge of the production lab for the student newspaper, The Alligator (later The Independent Florida Alligator). His work includes a self-published collection of his work at the U of F, numerous freelance cartoons for Playboy magazine, and the syndicated newspaper strips:
Briny Deep (1980–1981)
The Great John L., also known as Babyman (1982–1985)
Bent Offerings (1988–2004)Addis was a longtime member of the Freedom From Religion Foundation. He received the Foundation’s Freethought in the Media “Tell It Like It Is” award at the 2005 national convention in Orlando.Addis received the National Cartoonist Society Newspaper Panel Cartoon Award for 1992 for his work on Bent Offerings.
He retired as an editorial cartoonist and columnist with the St. Petersburg Times Publishing Company in 2004, where he had worked since 1964.Don Addis was known for creating his hugely popular "Addis rocks", particularly shaped pieces of granite with sour cartoon faces drawn on them. He never sold them although they were in great demand. He always raffled them off for charity or gave them to people as prized gifts.
Addis died of lung cancer at the age of 74 on November 29, 2009.Hein v. Freedom From Religion Foundation
Hein v. Freedom From Religion Foundation, 551 U.S. 587 (2007), was a decision by the United States Supreme Court which ruled that taxpayers do not have the right to challenge the constitutionality of expenditures by the executive branch of the government.
The issue was whether taxpayers have the right to challenge the existence of the White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives. The case centered on three Supreme Court precedents: Flast v. Cohen, 392 U.S. 83 (1968), Bowen v. Kendrick, 487 U.S. 589 (1988), and Valley Forge Christian College v. Americans United for Separation of Church & State, 454 U.S. 464 (1982).
In a 5-4 vote the Supreme Court ruled that the Foundation did not have standing to sue and ordered the Appeals court finding reversed.List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 551
This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 551 of the United States Reports:
Uttecht v. Brown, 551 U.S. 1 (2007)
Safeco Ins. Co. of America v. Burr, 551 U.S. 47 (2007)
Sole v. Wyner, 551 U.S. 74 (2007)
Claiborne v. United States 551 U.S. 87 (2007) (vacated as moot)
Erickson v. Pardus, 551 U.S. 89 (2007)
Beck v. PACE Int'l Union, 551 U.S. 96 (2007)
Fry v. Pliler, 551 U.S. 112 (2007)
United States v. Atlantic Research Corp., 551 U.S. 128 (2007)
Watson v. Philip Morris Cos., 551 U.S. 142 (2007)
Long Island Care at Home Ltd. v. Coke, 551 U.S. 158 (2007)
Davenport v. Washington Ed. Assn., 551 U.S. 177 (2007)
Permanent Mission of India v. City of New York, 551 U.S. 193 (2007)
Bowles v. Russell, 551 U.S. 205 (2007)
Powerex Corp. v. Reliant Energy Services Inc., 551 U.S. 224 (2007)
Brendlin v. California, 551 U.S. 249 (2007)
Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC v. Billing, 551 U.S. 264 (2007)
Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Assn. v. Brentwood Academy, 551 U.S. 291 (2007)
Tellabs Inc. v. Makor Issues & Rights Ltd., 551 U.S. 308 (2007)
Rita v. United States, 551 U.S. 338 (2007)
Morse v. Frederick, 551 U.S. 393 (2007)
Wilkie v. Robbins, 551 U.S. 537 (2007)
Federal Election Comm'n v. Wisconsin Right to Life Inc., 551 U.S. 449 (2007)
Hein v. Freedom From Religion Foundation Inc., 551 U.S. 587 (2007)
National Assn. of Home Builders v. Defenders of Wildlife, 551 U.S. 644 (2007)
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School Dist. No. 1, 551 U.S. 701 (2007)
Leegin Creative Leather Products Inc. v. PSKS Inc., 551 U.S. 877 (2007)
Panetti v. Quarterman, 551 U.S. 930 (2007)
Dada v. Mukasey, 551 U.S. 1188 (2007) (cert. granted)Mack Butler
Mack Butler (born April 27, 1963) is an American politician. He served as a Republican member of the Alabama House of Representatives.Massachusetts v. Mellon
Massachusetts v. Mellon, 262 U.S. 447 (1923), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court rejected the concept of taxpayer standing. The case was consolidated with Frothingham v. Mellon. The plaintiffs in the cases, Frothingham and Massachusetts, sought to prevent certain federal government expenditures which they considered to violate the Tenth Amendment. The court rejected the suits on the basis that neither plaintiff suffered particularized harm, writing:
We have no power per se to review and annul acts of Congress on the ground that they are unconstitutional. The question may be considered only when the justification for some direct injury suffered or threatened, presenting a justiciable issue, is made to rest upon such an act. ... The party who invokes the power must be able to show not only that the statute is invalid but that he has sustained or is immediately in danger of sustaining some direct injury as the result of its enforcement, and not merely that he suffers in some indefinite way in common with people generally.
This case is considered the beginning of the doctrine of standing. Prior to it the doctrine was that all persons had a right to pursue a private prosecution of a public right.The Warren Court would later carve out an exception to this rule in Flast v. Cohen, but later cases have confirmed that Flast is an exceedingly limited exception to Frothingham's general rule (see Valley Forge Christian College v. Americans United for Separation of Church and State and Hein v. Freedom From Religion Foundation).National Day of Prayer
The National Day of Prayer (36 U.S.C. § 119) is an annual day of observance held on the first Thursday of May, designated by the United States Congress, when people are asked "to turn to God in prayer and meditation". Each year since its inception, the president has signed a proclamation, encouraging all Americans to pray on this day.The modern law formalizing its annual observance was enacted in 1952, although earlier days of fasting and prayer had been established by the Second Continental Congress from 1775 until 1783, and by President John Adams in 1798 and 1799. Thomas Jefferson established a day of prayer and thanksgiving, but this occurred while he served as governor of Virginia.The constitutionality of the National Day of Prayer was unsuccessfully challenged in court by the Freedom From Religion Foundation after their first attempt was unanimously dismissed by a federal appellate court in April 2011.Ron Reagan
Ronald Prescott Reagan (born May 20, 1958) is an American former radio host and political analyst for KIRO radio and later, Air America Radio, where he hosted his own daily three-hour show. He is a commentator and contributor to programming on the MSNBC cable news and commentary network. His liberal views contrast those of his late father, Republican United States President Ronald Reagan.Ruth Hurmence Green
Ruth Hurmence Green (January 12, 1915 – July 7, 1981) gained notability within the atheist community with the publication of her book The Born Again Skeptic’s Guide to the Bible in 1979. This book has since been the best selling publication from the Freedom From Religion Foundation. She was also the author of many other essays which were published posthumously in The Book of Ruth in 1982.
She is most widely known for the phrase, "There was a time when religion ruled the world. It is known as the Dark Ages."Secular movement
The secular movement refers to a social and political trend in the United States, beginning in the early years of the 20th century, with the founding of the American Association for the Advancement of Atheism in 1925 and the American Humanist Association in 1941, in which atheists, agnostics, secular humanists, freethinkers, and other nonreligious and nontheistic Americans have grown in both numbers and visibility. There has been a sharp increase in the number of Americans who identify as religiously unaffiliated, from under 10 percent in the 1990s to 20 percent in 2013. The trend is especially pronounced among young people, with about one in three Americans younger than 30 identifying as religiously unaffiliated, a figure that has nearly tripled since the 1990s.The secular movement in the United States has caused friction in the culture war and in other areas of American society. It is generally opposed to the Christian right and promotes liberal positions on social issues such as gay rights, reproductive rights, and separation of church and state. This doesn't mean that all "secularists" believe these things, just the movement as a whole has moved in a more "liberal" or "civil libertarian" direction.Soddy Daisy High School
Soddy Daisy High School (SDHS) is a public high school located in Soddy-Daisy, Tennessee that is part of the Hamilton County Schools district. Originally the towns of Soddy and Daisy each had their own high schools. In 1937 a comprehensive school was built between the two towns on Old Dayton Pike and the names of the towns were combined to name the school. The current building, at 618 Sequoyah Access Road, was opened in 1983. A round gymnasium was built many years after the old school and still stands on the original site. It serves as a wrestling arena for the present school. A memorial built from the bricks of the old school is located on the current high school grounds.
In 2010 the school was the subject of a complaint from the Freedom From Religion Foundation about the school's practice of Christian school prayers at football games and other public events.The school has a combined 462 state and national championships. The mascot of Soddy Daisy High School is a "Trojan" selected by the senior class of 1940 over the "Rams".Ten Commandments Monument (Little Rock, Arkansas)
The Ten Commandments Monument is an outdoor monument installed on the Arkansas State Capitol grounds in Little Rock, Arkansas, in the United States. The monument is being challenged as unconstitutional by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). The ACLU says that the monument demonstrates a religious preference, violating the First Amendment and the religious preference prohibiton clause of the Arkansas State Constitution.The Clergy Project
The Clergy Project (TCP) is a nonprofit organization based in the United States that provides peer support to current and former religious leaders who no longer have faith. The group's focus is to provide private online forums for its participants, and assistance through career transition grants, hardship grants, and free sessions of psychotherapy.