Freebase

Freebase was a large collaborative knowledge base consisting of data composed mainly by its community members. It was an online collection of structured data harvested from many sources, including individual, user-submitted wiki contributions.[3] Freebase aimed to create a global resource that allowed people (and machines) to access common information more effectively. It was developed by the American software company Metaweb and ran publicly beginning in March 2007. Metaweb was acquired by Google in a private sale announced 16 July 2010.[4] Google's Knowledge Graph was powered in part by Freebase.[5]

Freebase data was available for commercial and non-commercial use under a Creative Commons Attribution License, and an open API, RDF endpoint, and a database dump was provided for programmers.

On 16 December 2014, Knowledge Graph announced that it would shut down Freebase over the succeeding six months and help with the move of the data from Freebase to Wikidata.[2]

On 16 December 2015, Google officially announced the Knowledge Graph API, which is meant to be a replacement to the Freebase API. Freebase.com was officially shut down on 2 May 2016.[6]

On 8 of September 2018 Google has published at github.com sources of graphd server, which is a Freebase backend.

Freebase
Freebase Logo optimised
Type of site
Online database
Available inEnglish
OwnerMetaweb Technologies (Google)
Websitewww.freebase.com
Alexa rankNegative increase 18,151 (May 2014)[1]
CommercialNo
RegistrationOptional
Launched3 March 2007
Current statusOffline (since 2 May 2016), succeeded by Wikidata[2]
Content license
Creative Commons Attribution License

Overview

On 3 March 2007 Metaweb announced Freebase, describing it as "an open shared database of the world's knowledge", and "a massive, collaboratively edited database of cross-linked data". Often understood as a database model using Wikipedia-turned-database or entity-relationship model, Freebase provided an interface that allowed non-programmers to fill in structured data, or metadata, of general information and to categorize or connect data items in meaningful, semantic ways.

Described by Tim O'Reilly upon the launch, "Freebase is the bridge between the bottom up vision of Web 2.0 collective intelligence and the more structured world of the semantic web".[7]

Freebase contained data harvested from sources such as Wikipedia, NNDB, Fashion Model Directory and MusicBrainz, as well as data contributed by its users. The structured data was licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, [7] and a JSON-based HTTP API was provided to programmers for developing applications on any platform to utilize the Freebase data. The source code for the Metaweb application itself was proprietary.

Freebase ran on a database infrastructure created in-house by Metaweb that used a graph model: Instead of using tables and keys to define data structures, Freebase defined its data structure as a set of nodes and a set of links that established relationships between the nodes. Because its data structure was non-hierarchical, Freebase could model much more complex relationships between individual elements than a conventional database, and it was open for users to enter new objects and relationships into the underlying graph. Queries to the database were made in Metaweb Query Language (MQL) and served by a triplestore called graphd.[8]

Development

Danny Hillis first described his idea for creating a knowledge web he called Aristotle in a paper in 2000,[9] but he said he did not try to build the system until he had recruited technical experts. Veda Hlubinka-Cook, an expert in parallel computing,[3] became Metaweb's Executive Vice President for Product. Kurt Bollacker brought deep expertise in distributed systems, database design, and information retrieval to his role as Chief Scientist at Metaweb. John Giannandrea, formerly Chief Technologist at Tellme Networks and Chief Technologist of the Web browser group at Netscape/AOL, was Chief Technology Officer.[3]

Originally accessible by invitation only, Freebase opened full anonymous read access to the public in its alpha stage of development and later required registration only for data contributions.

On 29 October 2008, at the International Semantic Web Conference 2008, Freebase released its RDF service for generating RDF representations of Freebase topics, allowing Freebase to be used as linked data.[10]

Organization and policy

Freebase's subjects were called "topics", and the data stored about them depended on their "type", as to how they were classified. For example, an entry for Arnold Schwarzenegger, the former governor of California, would be entered as a topic that would include a variety of types describing him as an actor, bodybuilder, and politician.[11] As of January 2014, Freebase had approximately 44 million topics and 2.4 billion facts.[12]

Freebase's types were themselves user-editable.[7] Each type had a number of defined predicates, called "properties".

[U]nlike the W3C approach to the semantic web, which starts with controlled ontologies, Metaweb adopts a folksonomy approach, in which people can add new categories (much like tags), in a messy sprawl of potentially overlapping assertions.[7]

However, Freebase differed from the wiki model in many ways. User-created types were not adopted in the "public commons" until promoted by a Metaweb employee. Also, users could not modify each other's types. The reason Freebase could not open up permissions of schemas is that external applications relied on them; thus, changing a type's schema – for instance by deleting a property or changing a simple property – might have broken queries for API users and even within Freebase itself, for example in saved views.

Discontinuation

On 16 December 2014, the Freebase team officially announced[13] that the website and the application programming interface would be shut down by 30 June 2015. Google provided an update on 16 December 2015 that they would discontinue the Freebase API and widget 3 months after a Suggest widget replacement was launched in early 2016.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Freebase - Alexa". www.alexa.com. Alexa Internet. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Freebase". Google Plus. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  3. ^ a b c Markoff, John (2007-03-09). "Start-up Aims for Database to Automate Web Searching". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-03-09.
  4. ^ Menzel, Jack (July 16, 2010). "Deeper Understanding with Metaweb". Google Official Blog. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
  5. ^ Singhal, Amit (May 16, 2012). "Introducing the Knowledge Graph: Things, Not Strings". Google Official Blog. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
  6. ^ "So long and thanks for all the data!". 2 May 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d O'Reilly, Tim (March 8, 2007). "Freebase Will Prove Addictive". O'Reilly Radar. O'Reilly Media. Archived from the original on October 14, 2008. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
  8. ^ Meyer, Scott (April 8, 2008). "A Brief Tour of Graphd". blog.freebase.com. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
  9. ^ Hillis, W. Daniel (2000). ""Aristotle" (the Knowledge Web)". Retrieved January 20, 2013.
  10. ^ Taylor, Jamie (October 30, 2008). "Introducing the Freebase RDF service". Archived from the original on May 16, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
  11. ^ "Arnold Schwarzenegger". Freebase. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
  12. ^ "Explore Freebase Data". www.freebase.com. Retrieved 2013-02-14.
  13. ^ "Freebase blog". Google Knowledge Graph Team. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.

External links

Applied Minds

Applied Minds, LLC. is an American company founded in 2000 by ex-Disney Imagineers and Bran Ferren, Danny Hillis, and Douglas Carlston that provides technology, design, R&D, and consulting services to multiple firms, including General Motors, Intel, Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, Herman Miller, Harris Corporation, Sony, and Sun MicroSystems. The company's headquarters are in Burbank, California, and it maintains offices in New York and Washington DC.

It supplies products and services in software, aerospace, entertainment, electronics, biotechnology and architectural design. It has spun out several companies including Metaweb Technologies (the creators of Freebase, which was acquired by Google), TouchTable, and Applied Proteomics.

Black cocaine

Black cocaine, also known as Coca Negra, is a mixture of regular cocaine base or cocaine hydrochloride with various other substances. These other substances are added

to camouflage the typical appearance (pigments and dyes, e.g. charcoal),

to interfere with color-based drug tests (mixing thiocyanates and iron salts or cobalt salts forms deep red complexes in solution),

to make the mixture undetectable by drug sniffing dogs (activated carbon may sufficiently absorb trace odors).Since the result is usually black, it is generally smuggled as toner, fingerprint powder, fertilizer, pigment or metal moldings. The pure cocaine base can be recovered from the mixture by extraction (freebase) or acid-base extraction (hydrochloride) using common organic solvents such as acetone.

It was reported that in the mid-1980s Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet ordered his army to build a clandestine cocaine laboratory in Chile where chemists mixed cocaine with other chemicals to produce what Pinochet's former top aide for intelligence Manuel Contreras described as a "black cocaine" capable of being smuggled past drug agents in the US and Europe.Black cocaine was detected in Bogota, Colombia in May 1998. In 2008, a new type of black cocaine was discovered by police in Spain. It had been manufactured into rubber-like sheets and made into luggage.

Cocaine

Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein. Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, sweating, and large pupils. High doses can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature. Effects begin within seconds to minutes of use and last between five and ninety minutes. Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery.Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. After a short period of use, there is a high risk that dependence will occur. Its use also increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, and sudden cardiac death. Cocaine sold on the street is commonly mixed with local anesthetics, cornstarch, quinine, or sugar, which can result in additional toxicity. Following repeated doses a person may have decreased ability to feel pleasure and be very physically tired.Cocaine acts by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. This results in greater concentrations of these three neurotransmitters in the brain. It can easily cross the blood–brain barrier and may lead to the breakdown of the barrier. Cocaine is a naturally occurring substance found in the coca plant which is mostly grown in South America. In 2013, 419 kilograms were produced legally. It is estimated that the illegal market for cocaine is 100 to US$500 billion each year. With further processing crack cocaine can be produced from cocaine.Cocaine is the second most frequently used illegal drug globally, after cannabis. Between 14 and 21 million people use the drug each year. Use is highest in North America followed by Europe and South America. Between one and three percent of people in the developed world have used cocaine at some point in their life. In 2013, cocaine use directly resulted in 4,300 deaths, up from 2,400 in 1990. The leaves of the coca plant have been used by Peruvians since ancient times. Cocaine was first isolated from the leaves in 1860. Since 1961, the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine a crime.

Crack cocaine

Crack cocaine, also known simply as crack, is a free base form of cocaine that can be smoked. Crack offers a short but intense high to smokers. The Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment calls it the most addictive form of cocaine. Crack first saw widespread use as a recreational drug in primarily impoverished inner city neighborhoods in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., Los Angeles, and Miami in late 1984 and 1985; its rapid increase in use and availability is sometimes termed as the "crack epidemic".

Cryogenine

Cryogenine, also known as vertine or (10α)-4,5-dimethoxy-2-hydroxylythran-12-one, is a biphenylquinolizidine lactone alkaloid from the plants Sinicuichi (Heimia salicifolia) and H. myrtifolia. The compound has no psychoactive properties in humans up to 310 mg, but has shown anti-inflammatory activity similar to aspirin.The freebase form melts at 250–251 °C and is soluble in moderately polar organic solvents such as chloroform, methylene chloride, benzene, and methanol, but is insoluble in water and petroleum ether.

In the development of thin layer chromatography plates with diazotized p-nitroaniline spray, cryogenine produces a purple spot (as does sinicuichine, another biphenylquinolizidine lactone alkaloid found in Heimia species).

Etaqualone

Etaqualone (Aolan, Athinazone, Ethinazone) is a quinazolinone-class GABAergic and is an analogue of methaqualone that was developed in the 1960s and marketed mainly in France and some other European countries. It has sedative, hypnotic, muscle relaxant and central nervous system depressant properties resulting from its agonist activity at the β-subtype of the GABAA receptor, and was used for the treatment of insomnia.

The dosage and effects are reported to be similar to those of methaqualone, but shorter acting and slightly weaker.

Typical reports use between 50 and 500 mg of etaqualone, depending on desired effects. Old pharmaceutical formulations of Ethinazone were 350 mg tablets.

Etaqualone is thought to act in a similar way to barbiturates and benzodiazepines by increasing the sensitivity of GABAA receptors. Recreational effects include euphoria, relaxation, increased sociability and sexuality, reduction of short-term memory, and loss of coordination. Combination with other depressants has a potentiating effect and can cause overdose. Tolerance to benzodiazepines or alcohol will also reduce effects.

Ethaqualone can be present as a free base, insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol and nonpolar solvents, or as a water-soluble hydrochloride salt which is about 85% as potent as the freebase by weight.

The most common route of administration of ethaqualone is oral, but snorting the salt or smoking the free base have also been reported.

Free base

Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine, as opposed to its conjugate acid (protonated) form. The amine is often an alkaloid, such as nicotine, cocaine, morphine, and ephedrine, or derivatives thereof.

Freebase (disambiguation)

Freebase was an online database service.

Freebase may also refer to:

Free base or freebase, the pure basic form of an amine, as opposed to its salt form

Freebase (mixtape), 2014 mixtape by 2 Chainz

Internet Speculative Fiction Database

The Internet Speculative Fiction Database (ISFDB) is a database of bibliographic information on genres considered speculative fiction, including science fiction and related genres such as fantasy fiction and horror fiction. The ISFDB is a volunteer effort, with both the database and wiki being open for editing and user contributions. The ISFDB database and code are available under Creative Commons licensing and there is support within both Wikipedia and ISFDB for interlinking. The data are reused by other organizations, such as Freebase, under the creative commons license.

It's a Beautiful Life (album)

It's a Beautiful Life is the only studio album by English supergroup Freebass, featuring bassists Peter Hook (Joy Division, New Order), Gary Mounfield (The Stone Roses), Andy Rourke (The Smiths) and vocalist Gary Briggs (Haven). It was released on 20 September 2010 through Hook's Haçienda Records label. The band broke up before the album's release.

Knowledge Graph

The Knowledge Graph is a knowledge base used by Google and its services to enhance its search engine's results with information gathered from a variety of sources. The information is presented to users in an infobox next to the search results. Knowledge Graph infoboxes were added to Google's search engine in May 2012, starting in the United States, with international expansion by the end of the year. The Knowledge Graph was powered in part by Freebase. The information covered by the Knowledge Graph grew significantly after launch, tripling its size within seven months (covering 570 million entities and 18 billion facts) and answering "roughly one-third" of the 100 billion monthly searches Google processed in May 2016. The Knowledge Graph has been criticized for providing answers without source attribution or citation.

Information from the Knowledge Graph is presented as a box, which Google has referred to as the "knowledge panel", to the right (top on mobile) of search results. According to Google, this information is retrieved from many sources, including the CIA World Factbook, Wikidata, and Wikipedia. In October 2016, Google announced that the Knowledge Graph held over 70 billion facts. There is no official documentation on the technology used for the Knowledge Graph implementation.Information from the Knowledge Graph is used to answer direct spoken questions in Google Assistant and Google Home voice queries.

Lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide

Lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide (LA-SS-Az, LSZ) is an analog of LSD developed by the team led by David E. Nichols at Purdue University. It was developed as a rigid analog of LSD with the diethylamide group constrained into an azetidine ring in order to map the binding site at the 5-HT2A receptor. There are three possible stereoisomers around the azetidine ring, with the (S,S)-(+) isomer being the most active, slightly more potent than LSD itself in drug discrimination tests using trained rats.There have been several unconfirmed reports of lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide being synthesized in illicit laboratories and distributed on blotter paper or in liquid solution under names such as "diazedine" and "λ".In 2013 LSZ also appeared on some designer drug and research chemical markets in the UK. LSZ later gained international popularity through a small cluster of mail-order novel psychedelic shops that appeared in 2012.

Metaweb

Metaweb Technologies, Inc. was a San Francisco-based company that developed Freebase, described as an "open, shared database of the world's knowledge". The company was co-founded by Danny Hillis, Veda Hlubinka-Cook and John Giannandrea in 2005.Metaweb was acquired by Google in 2010. Google shut down Freebase in 2016, transferring all its data to Wikidata.

N-Methyl-N-ethyltryptamine

N-Methyl-N-ethyltryptamine (MET) is a psychedelic tryptamine. It is closely related to DMT and DET.

There is very little information on the human pharmacology or toxicity of MET. The freebase is believed to be active via vaporization at 15 mg and orally at 80-100 mg.

OpenRefine

OpenRefine, formerly called Google Refine and before that Freebase Gridworks, is a standalone open source desktop application for data cleanup and transformation to other formats, the activity known as data wrangling. It is similar to spreadsheet applications (and can work with spreadsheet file formats); however, it behaves more like a database.

It operates on rows of data which have cells under columns, which is very similar to relational database tables. An OpenRefine project consists of one table. The user can filter the rows to display using facets that define filtering criteria (for example, showing rows where a given column is not empty). Unlike spreadsheets, most operations in OpenRefine are done on all visible rows: transformation of all cells in all rows under one column, creation of a new column based on existing column data, etc. All actions that were done on a dataset are stored in a project and can be replayed on another dataset.

Unlike spreadsheets, no formulas are stored in the cells, but formulas are used to transform the data, and transformation is done only once. Transformation expressions can be written in General Refine Expression Language (GREL), Jython (i.e. Python) and Clojure.The program has a web user interface. However, it is not hosted on the web (SAAS), but is available for download and use on the local machine. When starting OpenRefine, it starts a web server and starts a browser to open the web UI powered by this web server.

Semantic wiki

A semantic wiki is a wiki that has an underlying model of the knowledge described in its pages. Regular, or syntactic, wikis have structured text and untyped hyperlinks. Semantic wikis, on the other hand, provide the ability to capture or identify information about the data within pages, and the relationships between pages, in ways that can be queried or exported like a database through semantic queries.

Semantic wikis were first proposed in the early 2000s, and began to be implemented seriously around 2005. As of 2013, the best-known semantic wiki software, and the only one with significant usage on public websites, is Semantic MediaWiki.

Special Forces (Alice Cooper album)

Special Forces is the thirteenth studio album by Alice Cooper, released in 1981, and was produced by Richard Podolor, most famous as the producer for Three Dog Night. Singles included “You Want It, You Got It”, “Who Do You Think We Are” and “Seven and Seven Is”. Flo and Eddie, former members of The Turtles, performers, and radio personalities, performed on this album.Alice Cooper appeared on The Tomorrow Show with Tom Snyder to promote the album, being interviewed and looking very gaunt in full military-drag make-up, after which he played live versions of “Who Do You Think We Are” and “Seven and Seven Is”. Cooper toured Special Forces through USA, Canada, France, Spain and the United Kingdom, but other than the aforementioned songs he played no further Special Forces songs live, except for snippets of “Vicious Rumours” at a few shows in the US and Scotland. With the exception of “Who Do You Think We Are”, which was a regular part of setlists during the Eyes of Alice Cooper tour in 2004, none of the songs from Special Forces has been performed live since 1982.French television special Alice Cooper a Paris was recorded in January 1982, before the start of the Special Forces European tour - Cooper's first tour of Europe since 1975. The tour was a major success.

Special Forces is the first of three albums which Alice refers to as his "blackout" albums, followed by Zipper Catches Skin, and DaDa, as he has no recollection of recording them, due to substance abuse. Cooper stated “I wrote them, recorded them and toured them and I don’t remember much of any of that”, though in fact he toured only Special Forces.The Special Forces tour, ending in February 1982, would be Cooper's last for over four years, as he succumbed to the abuse of freebase cocaine and a subsequent relapse of alcoholism, until his return to the road in October 1986 with "The Nightmare Returns" tour.

Welcome to the Infant Freebase

Welcome to the Infant Freebase is the debut album by the Swedish rock band The Soundtrack of Our Lives.

The album was originally conceived as a double album, but their record company disagreed.

It includes the singles "Instant Repeater '99", "Blow My Cool", "Mantra Slider", and "Firmament Vacation", and the song "Instant Repeater '99" was used for the closing credits of the movie Spun.

The vinyl release of this record also includes the tracks from the Homo Habilis Blues EP.

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