Free license

A free license or open license[1][2] is a license agreement which contains provisions that allow other individuals to reuse another creator's work, giving them four major freedoms. Without a special license, these uses are normally prohibited by copyright law or commercial license. Most free licenses are worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, and perpetual (see copyright durations). Free licenses are often the basis of crowdsourcing and crowdfunding projects.

The invention of the term "free license" and the focus on the rights of users were connected to the sharing traditions of the hacker culture of the 1970s public domain software ecosystem, the social and political free software movement (since 1980) and the open source movement (since the 1990s).[3] These rights were codified by different groups and organizations for different domains in Free Software Definition, Open Source Definition, Debian Free Software Guidelines, Definition of Free Cultural Works and the The Open Definition.[1] These definitions were then transformed into licenses, using the copyright as legal mechanism. Since then, ideas of free/open licenses spread into different spheres of society.

Open source, free culture (unified as free and open-source movement), anticopyright, Wikimedia Foundation projects, public domain advocacy groups and pirate parties are connected with free and open licenses.

Classification and licenses

License network by bokanko
Network of licenses (and years of license creation).

By freedom

By type of content

By authors

Problems

By countries

Creative Commons has affiliates in more than 100 jurisdictions all over the world.

European Union

EUPL was created in the European Union.

Germany

Harald Welte created gpl-violations.org

References

  1. ^ a b Open Definition 2.1 on opendefinition.org "This essential meaning matches that of “open” with respect to software as in the Open Source Definition and is synonymous with “free” or “libre” as in the Free Software Definition and Definition of Free Cultural Works."
  2. ^ The Open Source Definition
  3. ^ Kelty, Christpher M. (2008). "The Cultural Significance of free Software - Two Bits" (PDF). Duke University press - durham and london. p. 99. Prior to 1998, Free Software referred either to the Free Software Foundation (and the watchful, micromanaging eye of Stallman) or to one of thousands of different commercial, avocational, or university-research projects, processes, licenses, and ideologies that had a variety of names: sourceware, freeware, shareware, open software, public domain software, and so on. The term Open Source, by contrast, sought to encompass them all in one movement.
  4. ^ PDDL 1.0 on opendatacommons.org

External links

Academic Free License

The Academic Free License (AFL) is a permissive free software license written in 2002 by Lawrence E. Rosen, a former general counsel of the Open Source Initiative (OSI).

The license grants similar rights to the BSD, MIT, UoI/NCSA and Apache licenses – licenses allowing the software to be made proprietary – but was written to correct perceived problems with those licenses:

The AFL makes clear what software is being licensed by including a statement following the software's copyright notice;

The AFL includes a complete copyright grant to the software;

The AFL contains a complete patent grant to the software;

The AFL makes clear that no trademark rights are granted to the licensor's trademarks;

The AFL warrants that the licensor either owns the copyright or is distributing the software under a license;

The AFL is itself copyrighted, with the right granted to copy and distribute without modification.The Free Software Foundation consider all AFL versions through 3.0 as incompatible with the GNU GPL. though Eric S. Raymond (a co-founder of the OSI) contends that AFL 3.0 is GPL compatible. In late 2002, an OSI working draft considered it a "best practice" license. In mid-2006, however, the OSI's License Proliferation Committee found it "redundant with more popular licenses", specifically version 2 of the Apache Software License.

Baike.com

Baike.com (Chinese: 互动百科; pinyin: Hùdòng Bǎikē), formerly Hudong and Hoodong, is a for-profit social network in China, including the world's largest Chinese encyclopedia/news website. It is China's largest wiki site, using paid advertising, with over 7 million articles and more than 5 million volunteers, as of April 2013.

However, Baike.com is a news/neologism encyclopedia, and hence, it does not restrict articles to only long-term, sourced text with balanced point-of-view content. The contributors agree to release their writings with perpetual royalty-free license to publish their content, but it is not free for re-use on other websites. As of January 2017, it had more than 16 million articles.

D-Bus

In computing, D-Bus (for "Desktop Bus"),

is a software bus, is an inter-process communication (IPC) and remote procedure call (RPC) mechanism that allows communication between multiple computer programs (that is, processes) concurrently running on the same machine. D-Bus was developed as part of the freedesktop.org project, initiated by Havoc Pennington from Red Hat to standardize services provided by Linux desktop environments such as GNOME and KDE.The freedesktop.org project also developed a free and open-source software library called libdbus, as a reference implementation of the specification. This library should not be confused with the D-Bus itself; indeed, other implementations of the D-Bus client library also exist, such as GDBus (GNOME), QtDBus (Qt/KDE), dbus-java and sd-bus (part of systemd).

DP code

DP is a free software package for physicists implementing ab initio linear-response TDDFT (time-dependent density functional theory) in frequency-reciprocal space and on a plane wave basis set.

It allows to calculate both dielectric spectra, such as EELS (electron energy-loss spectroscopy), IXSS (inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy) and CIXS (coherent inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy), and also optical spectra, e.g. optical absorption, reflectivity, refraction index.

The systems range from periodic/crystalline solids, to surfaces, clusters, molecules and atoms made of insulators, semiconductors and metal elements. It implements the RPA (random phase approximation), the TDLDA or ALDA (adiabatic local-density approximation) plus other non-local approximations, including or neglecting local-field effects. It is distributed under the scientific software open-source academic for free license.

Disco (software)

Disco is an application for Mac OS X developed by Austin Sarner, Jasper Hauser and Jason Harris.

The software is an optical disc authoring utility, which allows users to burn CDs and DVDs with multisession support, disc duplication, burning VIDEO_TS folders, disc spanning as well as a searchable disc index, dubbed Discography. Disco also features an interactive "3D smoke" animation which is visible when burning. This smoke responds to microphone input, as well as mouse input, causing perturbations in the smoke effect.

Disco was designed as a low-cost alternative to the popular Mac OS X optical disc authoring application, Roxio Toast.

Since its launch in 2007, Disco was available as shareware, requiring users to purchase a license after burning seven discs with it on a single computer. In July 2011, a free license code to activate the application was published on its official website, effectively making the application available as freeware.

Dojo Toolkit

Dojo Toolkit (stylized as dōjō toolkit) is an open-source modular JavaScript library (or more specifically JavaScript toolkit) designed to ease the rapid development of cross-platform, JavaScript/Ajax-based applications and web sites. It was started by Alex Russell, Dylan Schiemann, David Schontzler, and others in 2004 and is dual-licensed under the modified BSD license or the Academic Free License (≥ 2.1).The Dojo Foundation was a non-profit organization created with the goal to promote the adoption of the toolkit. In 2016, the foundation merged with jQuery Foundation to become JS Foundation.

Fantom (programming language)

Fantom is a general purpose object-oriented programming language created by Brian and Andy Frank that runs on the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), JavaScript, and the .NET Common Language Runtime (CLR) (.NET support is considered "prototype" status). Its primary design goal is to provide a standard library API that abstracts away the question of whether the code will ultimately run on the JRE or CLR. Like C# and Java, Fantom uses a curly brace syntax. The language supports functional programming through closures and concurrency through the Actor model. Fantom takes a "middle of the road" approach to its type system, blending together aspects of both static and dynamic typing.

Free music

Free music can also mean free improvisation: improvised music without any rules, and not in any particular style.

For information on swapping of (non-free) music see File sharing, Napster or eMule.

Free music or libre music is music that, like free software, can freely be copied, distributed and modified for any purpose. Thus free music is either in the public domain or licensed under a free license by the artist or copyright holder themselves, often as a method of promotion. It does not mean that there should be no fee involved. The word free refers to freedom (as in free software), not to price.The Free Music Philosophy generally encourages creators to free music using whatever language or methods they wish. A Free Music Public License (FMPL) is available for those who prefer a formal approach.

Some free music is licensed under licenses that are intended for software (like the GPL) or other writings (the GFDL). But there are also licenses especially for music and other works of art, such as EFF's Open Audio License, LinuxTag's Open Music License, the Free Art license and some of the Creative Commons Licences.

GNU Lesser General Public License

The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) is a free-software license published by the Free Software Foundation (FSF). The license allows developers and companies to use and integrate a software component released under the LGPL into their own (even proprietary) software without being required by the terms of a strong copyleft license to release the source code of their own components. However, any developer who modifies an LGPL-covered component is required to make their modified version available under the same LGPL license. For proprietary software, code under the LGPL is usually used in the form of a shared library, so that there is a clear separation between the proprietary and LGPL components. The LGPL is primarily used for software libraries, although it is also used by some stand-alone applications.

The LGPL was developed as a compromise between the strong copyleft of the GNU General Public License (GPL) and more permissive licenses such as the BSD licenses and the MIT License. The word "Lesser" in the title shows that the LGPL does not guarantee the end user's complete freedom in the use of software; it only guarantees the freedom of modification for components licensed under the LGPL, but not for any proprietary components.

HAL (software)

HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer or rather Hardware Annotation Library) is a software subsystem for UNIX-like operating systems providing hardware abstraction.

HAL is now deprecated on most Linux distributions and on FreeBSD. Functionality is being merged into udev on Linux as of 2008–2010 and devd on FreeBSD. Previously, HAL was built on top of udev.Some other OS-es which don't have an alternative like udev or devd still use HAL.

The purpose of the hardware abstraction layer was to allow desktop applications to discover and use the hardware of the host system through a simple, portable and abstract API, regardless of the type of the underlying hardware.HAL for Linux OS was originally envisioned by Havoc Pennington. It became a freedesktop.org project, and was a key part of the software stack of the GNOME and KDE desktop environments. It is free software, dual-licensed under both the GNU General Public License and the Academic Free License.HAL is unrelated to the concept of Windows NT kernel HALs, which handle some platform-specific core functionality within the kernel, such as interrupt routing.

Internet Speech Audio Codec

internet Speech Audio Codec (iSAC) is a wideband speech codec, developed by Global IP Solutions (GIPS) (acquired by Google Inc in 2011). It is suitable for VoIP applications and streaming audio. The encoded blocks have to be encapsulated in a suitable protocol for transport, e.g. RTP.

It is one of the codecs used by AIM Triton, the Gizmo5, QQ, and Google Talk. It was formerly a proprietary codec licensed by Global IP Solutions. As of June 2011, it is part of open source WebRTC project, which includes a royalty-free license for iSAC when using the WebRTC codebase.

List of widget toolkits

This article provides a list of widget toolkits (also known as GUI frameworks), used to construct the graphical user interface (GUI) of programs, organized by their relationships with various operating systems.

Magento

Magento is an open-source e-commerce platform written in PHP. The software was originally developed by Varien, Inc, a US private company headquartered in Culver City, California, with assistance from volunteers.

Varien published the first general-availability release of the software on March 31, 2008. Roy Rubin, the former CEO of Varien, later sold a substantial share of the company to eBay, which eventually completely acquired and then sold the company to Permira; Permira later sold it to Adobe.On November 17, 2015, Magento 2.0 was released. Among the features changed in V2 are the following: reduced table locking issues, improved page caching, enterprise-grade scalability, inbuilt rich snippets for structured data, new file structure with easier customization, CSS Preprocessing using LESS & CSS URL resolver, improved performance and a more structured code base.

Magento employs the MySQL or MariaDB relational database management system, the PHP programming language, and elements of the Zend Framework. It applies the conventions of object-oriented programming and model–view–controller architecture. Magento also uses the entity–attribute–value model to store data. On top of that, Magento 2 introduced the Model-View-ViewModel pattern to its front-end code using the JavaScript library Knockout.js.

Maqetta

Maqetta is a free and open-source, web-based WYSIWYG HTML editor designed to edit HTML5 documents and web applications. Its name is derived from the Spanish word maqueta, that means “mock-up”. The Maqetta application itself is authored in HTML, and therefore runs in the browser, without requiring additional plugins or downloads.

As of May 2013, active development of Maqetta has stopped.Maqetta was developed by IBM and later donated to the Dojo Foundation as an open-source project under the terms of either the modified (revised) BSD license or the Academic Free License (= 2.1).

The editor was developed in response to a perceived need for open-source HTML5 programming tools equivalent in capability to those available for Adobe Flash and Microsoft Silverlight.The downloadable server component can run on a remote server or on the same computer as the client software (the web browser).

MochiKit

MochiKit is a light-weight JavaScript library written and maintained by Bob Ippolito.

Inspired by the Python networking framework, Twisted, it uses the concept of deferred execution to allow asynchronous behaviour. This has made it useful in the development of interactive web pages which maintain a dialog with the web server, sometimes called Ajax applications.

Of particular note is its ability to load and manipulate JSON-encoded data sets, and MochiKit.DOM, a set of functions to easily create dynamic page components.

MochiKit forms the foundation of the client-side functionality of the TurboGears Python web-application stack. Perhaps as a result of the author's involvement in the Python community, MochiKit exhibits many idioms familiar to Python programmers, and is commonly used in Python-based web applications.

MorgueFile

morgueFile is a website database for free high resolution digital stock photography for either corporate or public use.

The name comes from the term "morgue file", which refers to post-production materials for use of reference, an inactive job file. The term is popular in the newspaper business to describe the file that holds past issues flats. The term has also been used by illustrators, comic book artist, designers and teachers.

The site, first conceived by Michael Connors in 1996, bills itself as a resource for creatives by creatives: "The purpose of this site is to provide free image reference material for use in all creative pursuits. This is the world wide web's morguefile." Members can upload images as Free Photos, with the MorgueFile Free License, as part of their image portfolio (retaining rights), or as part of their storage space, to share with a limited audience.

The MorgueFile Free License allows adaptation and commercial use, without attribution. The conditions of the license prohibit using the work on a stand-alone basis (the original, without alteration) and claiming authorship of the original: https://morguefile.com/license. Regarding usage, Morguefile's About Page states, "all photos found in the Morguefile archive are free for you to download and re-use in your work, be it commercial or not."

PHPEdit

PHPEdit is a commercial IDE developed by the French company WaterProof SARL. It is written in Delphi and runs on the Microsoft Windows operating system, and is designed mainly for the PHP language, but supports many other languages such as CSS, HTML, JavaScript, INI, PHPEditScript, PlainText, SQL, XML, and XSLT. PHPEdit currently costs €89.00 despite the most recent version being released in 2012. A free license is available, but only for non commercial use (personal homepage or own studies).As of August 2017, both PHPEdit and Waterproof websites are dead; product status is unknown.

TeamCity

TeamCity is a Java-based build management and continuous integration server from JetBrains.

It was first released on October 2, 2006. TeamCity is commercial software and licensed under a proprietary license. A Freemium license for up to 100 build configurations and 3 free Build Agent licenses is available. Open Source projects can request a free license.

Wikipedia – The Missing Manual

Wikipedia: The Missing Manual is a 2008 book by John Broughton. It is a how-to guide that explains the process of contributing to the Internet encyclopedia Wikipedia."For anyone who is interested in becoming part of the noble experiment, this book is an excellent introduction," wrote reviewer Robert Slade. Wikipedia: The Missing Manual is part of O'Reilly Media's Missing Manual series, which was created by David Pogue, technology columnist for The New York Times and Scientific American.

On January 26, 2009, O'Reilly announced that the content of the book was being released under a free license compatible with Wikipedia and that it would be available for editing in the Help area of Wikipedia.The book has a spin-off, Wikipedia Reader's Guide: The Missing Manual, consisting of Appendix B (slightly expanded) and Chapter 1 from the book.

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