Free area of the Republic of China

The Free area of the Republic of China is a term used by the government of the Republic of China (ROC) to refer to the territories under its actual control.[1] The area under the definition consists of the island groups of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and some minor islands. This term is used in the "Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China". As the island of Taiwan is the main component of the whole area, it is therefore also referred to as the "Taiwan Area of the Republic of China" or simply the "Taiwan Area" (Chinese: 臺灣地區). The term "Tai-Peng-Kin-Ma" is also essentially equivalent except that it only refers to the four main islands of the region - Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, to the exclusion of the South China Sea area possessions.[2]

The term is opposed to "Mainland Area",[3] which is practically viewed as being synonymous to mainland China.[4]

Free area of the Republic of China

中華民國自由地區
Zhōnghuá Mínguó Zìyóu Dìqū (Mandarin)
Tiong-hôa Bîn-kok Chū-iû Tē-khu (Taiwanese)
Chûng-fà Mìn-koet Chhṳ-yù Thi-khî (Hakka)
Dṳ̆ng-huà Mìng-guók Cê̤ṳ-iù Dê-kṳ̆ (Matsunese)
Location of Taiwan
Largest citiesNew Taipei
Taichung
Kaohsiung
Taipei
LanguagesMandarin
Taiwanese Hokkien
Hakka
Formosan languages
Matsunese
Ethnic groups
Han Taiwanese
Taiwanese indigenous peoples
Demonym(s)Taiwanese
Area
• Total
36,193 km2 (13,974 sq mi)
Population
• 2018 census
23,681,968
• Density
650/km2 (1,683.5/sq mi)
CurrencyNew Taiwan Dollar (TWD, NTD)
Time zoneUTC+08:00 (National Standard Time)
Driving sideright
Calling code+886
ISO 3166 codeTW
Internet TLD.tw, .台灣, .台湾
Free area of the
Republic of China
Taiwan area
Tai-Peng-Kin-Ma

Background

The term "free area" or "Free China" was used during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–45) to describe the territories under the control of the Kuomintang led Nationalist Government in Chungking (today Chongqing), as opposed to the parts of China under Japanese occupation, including Nanking (today Nanjing) the capital of the Republic of China until the Japanese invasion in 1937.

The Japanese occupation ended with the imperial surrender in 1945, but the term "Free China" was soon to acquire a new meaning in the context of the early Cold War. Following the Communist Party's victory in the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the newly inaugurated People's Republic of China solidified its control of mainland China, while the Kuomintang government retreated to Taiwan and selected Taipei to serve as the provisional capital of the Republic of China. Mainland China was officially considered to be in a state of "Communist Rebellion", and furthermore all territories still under Nationalist administration were said to constitute the "Free Area" of China. This "Period of Communist Rebellion" was officially terminated by the government in May 1, 1991 with the implementation of the Additional Articles of the Constitution.

Prior to the Battle of Dachen Archipelago in 1955, the Free Area also encompassed a group of islands off Zhejiang, up to then part of the ROC province of Chekiang. The islands have since been administered exclusively by the People's Republic of China.

Nomenclature

Various names used to describe the geopolitical area include:

Short name The Free Area Taiwan Area Tai-Peng-Kin-Ma Area Tai-Min region
Long name Free Area of the
Republic of China
Taiwan Area Taiwan-Penghu-
Kinmen-Matsu Area
Taiwan-Fukien region
Chinese 自由地區 臺灣地區 臺澎金馬地區 臺閩地區
Mandarin Zìyóu dìqū Táiwān dìqū Tái-Pēng-Jīn-Mǎ dìqū Tái-Mǐn dìqū
Taiwanese Chū-iû tē-khu Tâi-oân tē-khu Tâi-Phêⁿ-Kim-Má tē-khu Tâi-Bân tē-khu
Hakka Chhṳ-yù thi-khî Thòi-vàn thi-khî Thòi-Phàng-Kîm-Mâ thi-khî Thòi-Mén thi-khî
Matsunese Cê̤ṳ-iù dê-kṳ̆ Dài-uăng dê-kṳ̆ Dài-Pàng-Gĭng-Mā dê-kṳ̆ Dài-Mìng dê-kṳ̆
Note "Free" refers to the area that is not under the Communist Party's control. This term is used by the Additional Articles of the Constitution. Refers to the general area surrounding the island of Taiwan. This term is used by various laws and regulations that governing cross-Strait relations. Refers to the four main archipelagos under the government's jurisdiction. Refers to the two historical provinces under actual administration. Namely, Taiwan (Taiwan and Penghu) and a small part of Fukien (Kinmen and Matsu). is the traditional abbreviation for Fukien.

Legal use

U.S. President Eisenhower visited TAIWAN 美國總統艾森豪於1960年6月訪問臺灣台北時與蔣中正總統-2
With President Chiang Kai-shek, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to onlookers during his visit to Taipei, Taiwan, in June 1960.

The term "free area of the Republic of China" has persisted to the present day in the ROC legislation. The Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China delegates numerous rights to exercise the sovereignty of the state, including that of electing the President and Legislature, to citizens residing in the "free area of the Republic of China". This term was first used in the Constitution with the promulgation of the first set of amendments to the Constitution in 1991 and has been retained in the most recent revision passed in 2005.

The need to use the term "free area" in the Constitution arose out of the discrepancy between the notion that the Republic of China was the sole legitimate government of China and the pressures of the popular sovereignty movement. In the 1980s and 1990s, there were demands, particularly by the Tangwai movement and other groups opposed to one-party authoritarian KMT rule, to restructure the ROC government, long dominated by mainlanders, to be more representative of the Taiwanese people it governed. For example, until 1991, members of the National Assembly and Legislative Yuan elected in 1948 to serve mainland constituencies remained in their posts indefinitely and the President of the Republic of China was to be elected by this same "ten thousand year parliament" (Chinese: 萬年國會) dominated by aging KMT members. However, more conservative politicians, while acquiescing to the need for increased democracy, feared that constitutional changes granting localized sovereignty would jeopardize the ROC government's claims as the legitimate Chinese government and thereby promote Taiwan independence.

According to the Constitution, promulgated in 1947 before the fall of mainland China to the Communists, the national borders of the Republic of China could only be changed through a vote by the National Assembly (amendments passed in 2005 transferred this power to the electorate through the method of referendum). In the absence of such constitutional changes, the Republic of China's official borders were to be regarded as all of mainland China in addition to the territories it controlled. (Until the mid-2000s, maps published in Taiwan depicted mainland provincial and national boundaries as they were in 1949, disregarding changes by the Communist administration post-1949.)

While the 1991 revisions of the Constitution granted the sovereignty rights to the Taiwanese people, it did not explicitly name Taiwan and instead used the term "free area" to maintain the notion that the Republic of China encompassed more than Taiwan. In ordinary legislation, the term "Taiwan Area" is usually used, especially in contexts of trade and exchange. In contrast to the "free area" is the "mainland area", which the Act Governing Relations between the People of the Taiwan Area and the Mainland Area defines as "the territory of the Republic of China outside the Taiwan Area". However, on more practical grounds, the "mainland area" refers simply to mainland China.

In addition, there are two other Acts defining other "areas": the "Hong Kong and Macau Area" (Chinese: 港澳地區). The hand-over of these former European colonies to the People's Republic of China necessitated laws governing the relations of the Taiwan Area with them. The Acts are worded in a manner to avoid discussing whether the Republic of China claims sovereignty over Hong Kong and Macau.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China Archived 2006-07-12 at the Wayback Machine." Republic of China. Retrieved on 7 April 2009.
  2. ^ Corcuff, Stéphane; Edmondson, Robert (2002). Memories of the Future: National Identity Issues and the Search for a New Taiwan. M.E. Sharpe. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-7656-0792-8.
  3. ^ Chen Wei-han (8 June 2016). "NPP to push constitutional reforms". Taipei Times. Taipei. An amendment made to the Constitution in 1991 “to meet the requisites prior to national unification” recognizes the “Chinese mainland area” as opposed to the “free area,” and both areas make up the Republic of China.
  4. ^ Sara L. Friedman (2015). Exceptional States: Chinese Immigrants and Taiwanese Sovereignty. Oakland, California: University of California Press. p. 10. ISBN 0520961560. The Act's use of the spatial language of "area" was a direct reference to the postwar ROC Constitution, which had created two classes of Chinese based on politically differentiated, territorial criteria: those of the "free area," which included Taiwan and the scattered smaller islands under post-1949 ROC control, and those of the "mainland area," who presumably were not free because they lived under Communist rule.

External links

Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China

The Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China are the revisions and constitutional amendments to the original constitution to meet the requisites of the nation and the political status of Taiwan. The Additional Articles is usually attached after the original constitution as a separate document. It also has its own preamble and article ordering different from the original constitution.The Additional Articles are the fundamental law of the present government of the Republic of China on Taiwan since 1991, last amended in 2005.

China Education Ministry

China Education Ministry may refer to:

Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, that regulates all aspects of the educational system in mainland China

Ministry of Education (Republic of China), that is responsible for incorporating educational policies and managing public schools throughout the Free Area of the Republic of China

Chinese Regional Bishops' Conference of Taiwan

The Chinese Regional Bishops' Conference (CRBC; Chinese: 天主敎會臺灣地區主敎團), informally known as the Bishops' Conference of Taiwan, is the episcopal conference of the Free Area of the Republic of China and is the highest organ of the Roman Catholic Church in Greater China. The current conference chair is the Most Rev. John Hung Shan-chuan, S.V.D. Catholics in the independent jurisdictions of Hong Kong, Macau and Mongolia are represented in the Federation of Asian Bishops' Conferences, not the Chinese Regional Bishops' Conference.

Constitution of the Republic of China

The Constitution of the Republic of China, with its Additional Articles, is the supreme law of the Republic of China currently effective in Taiwan. It was ratified by the Kuomintang-led National Constituent Assembly session on December 25, 1946 and adopted on December 25, 1947.

Intended for the entire territory of the Republic of China as it was then constituted, it was never extensively nor effectively implemented due to the outbreak of the Chinese Civil War in mainland China at the time of the constitution's promulgation. The newly elected National Assembly soon ratified the Temporary Provisions against the Communist Rebellion on May 10, 1948. The Temporary Provisions symbolises the country's entering into the state of emergency and granted the Kuomintang-led government of the Republic of China extra-constitutional powers.

Following the ROC government's retreat to Taiwan on December 7, 1949, the Temporary Provisions together with martial law made the country an authoritarian one-party state despite the constitution. Democratization began in the 1980s. Martial law was lifted in 1987, and in 1991 the Temporary Provisions were repealed. The Additional Articles of the Constitution was passed to reflect the government's actual jurisdiction and realization of cross-Strait relations. The Additional Articles also significantly changed the structure of the government to a semi-presidential system with a unicameral parliament, which formed the basis of a multi-party democracy in Taiwan.

During the 1990s and early 2000s, the Constitution's origins in the mainland led to supporters of Taiwan independence to push for a new Taiwanese constitution. However, attempts by the Democratic Progressive Party administration to create a new Constitution during the second term of DPP President Chen Shui-bian failed, because the then opposition Kuomintang controlled the Legislative Yuan. It was only agreed to reform the Constitution of the Republic of China, not to create a new one. It was lastly amended in 2005, with the consent of both the KMT and the DPP. The most recent revision to the constitution took place in 2004.

Demographics of Taiwan

The population of Taiwan, officially known as the Republic of China (ROC), is approximately 23.57 million, spread across a total land area of about 36,000 km2; it is the seventeenth most densely populated country in the world with a population density of about 650 inhabitants per square kilometer.

The original population of the island of Taiwan and its associated islands, i.e. not including Kinmen and the Matsu Islands, consisted of Taiwanese aborigines, speaking Austronesian languages and sharing mitochondrial DNA contribution with island peoples of Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Immigration of Han Chinese to the Penghu islands started as early as the 13th century, while settlement of the main island occurred from the 16th century, stimulated by the import of workers from Fujian by the Dutch in the 17th century. According to governmental statistics, over 95% of the Republic of China's population is of Han Chinese ethnicity, while 2.3% are Taiwanese aborigines of Austronesian ethnicity. Half the population are followers of one or a mixture of 25 recognized religions. Around 93% of the religious population are followers of a mixture of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism, while a minority 4.5% are followers of Christianity (include Catholics and Protestants).

During the 20th century the population of Taiwan rose more than sevenfold, from about 3 million in 1905 to more than 22 million by 2001. This high growth was caused by a combination of factors, very high fertility rates up to the 1960s, and low mortality rates, and a surge in population as the Chinese Civil War ended, and the Kuomintang (KMT) forces retreated, bringing an influx of 1.2 to 2 million soldiers and civilians to Taiwan in 1948–1949. Consequently, the natural growth rate was very rapid, especially in the late 1940s and 1950s, with an effective annual growth rate as high as 3.68% during 1951–1956. Including the Kuomintang forces, which accounted in 1950 for about 25% of all persons on Taiwan, immigration of mainland Chinese (now approximately 13% of the present population) at the end of the 1940s was a major factor in the high population growth of Taiwan.Fertility rates decreased gradually thereafter, and in 1984 the rate reached the replacement level (2.1 children per woman, which is needed to replace the existing population). Fertility rates have continued to decline and in 2010 Taiwan was experiencing a population growth of less than 0.2% and a fertility rate of only 0.9, which is the lowest rate ever recorded in Taiwan. The population of Taiwan is projected to peak at about 23.7 million in 2024 and decrease thereafter.The official national language is Standard Chinese, although around 70% also speak Taiwanese Hokkien and 10% speak Hakka. Japanese speakers are becoming rare as the elderly generation who lived under Japanese rule are dying out but many young Taiwanese use English or Japanese as second language. Aboriginal languages are gradually becoming extinct as the aborigines have become acculturated despite a program by the ROC government to preserve the languages.

Elections in Taiwan

Elections in Taiwan are held on national and local level. On the national level, the head of state, the President, and members of the national legislature, the Legislative Yuan, are elected directly by citizens of Taiwan. National elections are held every four years.

Local self-government bodies including special municipalities, counties, cities, townships, county-administered cities, indigenous districts and villages have their own elections. The heads as well as legislators of the self-government bodies are all directly elected by citizens who have registered their residency in the respective territory. Local elections are held every four years at intervals between national elections.

Elections are supervised by the Central Election Commission (CEC), an independent agency under the central government, with the municipality, county and city election commissions under its jurisdiction. The minimum voting age is twenty years. Voters must satisfy a four-month residency requirement before being allowed to cast a ballot.

Free China

The term "Free China" may mean:

Free China (Second Sino-Japanese War), areas of China not under the control of the invading Imperial Japanese Army

Free area of the Republic of China, a term used by the ROC government to contrast itself with the People's Republic of China and avoid acknowledging their control over mainland China; often shortened to "Free China" and used in contrast to "Red China"

Free China Journal, a former publication of the government of the Republic of China

Free China (junk) (zh:自由中國號), a Chinese junk boat

The Free China Movement, a coalition of about 30 pro-democracy and human rights organizations promoting democracy in China

The Republic of China (commonly known as 'Taiwan' since the 1970s), as a counterpart to 'Communist China' or 'Red China' (People's Republic of China).

Free China:The Courage to Believe a 2012 film.

Free China Relief Association, a Non-Governmental Organization.

Free China (Second Sino-Japanese War)

The term Free China, in the context of the Second Sino-Japanese War, refers to those areas of China not under the control of the Imperial Japanese Army or any of its puppet governments, such as Manchukuo, the Mengjiang government in Suiyuan and Chahar, or the Provisional Government of the Republic of China in Peiping (now Beijing). The term came into more frequent use after the Battle of Nanjing, when Chiang Kai-shek evacuated the government of the Republic of China to Chungking (now Chongqing).

Free Territory (disambiguation)

The Free Territory was an anarchist society in what is now Ukraine during the Ukrainian Revolution.

Free Territory may also refer to:

Free Territory of Trieste, a city state bordering Italy and Yugoslavia that existed from 1947 to 1977.

Free area of the Republic of China, a legal and political description of territories under the control of the Republic of China (Taiwan).

Free zone

Free Zone may refer to:

Azad Kashmir, meaning the "free" part of Kashmir

Free economic zone or free port, a designated area in which companies are taxed very lightly or not at all in order to encourage economic activity

Free-trade zone, an area in which goods may be landed, handled, manufactured or reconfigured, and reexported without the intervention of customs authorities

Free Zone (film), a 2005 film directed by Amos Gitai

Free Zone (region), a region of Western Sahara, a disputed territory in Africa

Free Zone (Scientology), a colloquial term for various groups and individuals who practice Scientology beliefs and techniques independently of the Church of Scientology and without official sanction by church authorities

Special economic zone, an area in which business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country

The Zone libre, the part of France during World War II to remain unoccupied by foreign troops under the June 1940 armistice between France and GermanyFreezone may refer to:

Salicylic acid, by trade name Freezone

List of Chinese administrative divisions by population

This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of China in order of their total resident populations. It includes all provinces, autonomous regions, direct-controlled municipalities and special administrative regions.

List of cities in Taiwan

In the structural hierarchy of the administrative divisions in Taiwan, there are three types of administrative divisions with the Chinese word shì (市, "city") in their names.

The 23 cities in Taiwan:

Largest cities of Taiwan

List of islands of Taiwan

The islands comprising the area of Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), are classified into various island groups. The island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is the largest island and the main component of whole ROC governing territories. Islands that are claimed by the ROC but not administered, such as the Dadeng Islands, Senkaku Islands and most of South China Sea Islands, are excluded from the list.

At the adoption of Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China in the 1990s, these islands collectively became the Free area of the Republic of China, which legally defines the area effectively under the ROC government's control.

Mainland Affairs Council

The Mainland Affairs Council (MAC) is a Taiwanese cabinet-level administrative agency under the Executive Yuan. The MAC is responsible for the planning, development, and implementation of policies between the Republic of China on Taiwan and the People's Republic of China which administers mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau. The MAC's counterpart body in the PRC is the Taiwan Affairs Office. Both states officially claim each other's territory, however the Republic of China controls only Taiwan and surrounding islands, and therefore is usually known as "Taiwan", sometimes referred to as the "Free Area" of the Republic of China by the Constitution of the Republic of China. The People's Republic of China controls mainland China as well as Hong Kong, Macau, Hainan, and other islands and is therefore usually known simply as "China".

The Mainland Affairs Council is administered by a cabinet level Minister. The current Minister is Chen Ming-tong.

The council plays an important role in setting policy and development of relations with mainland China and advising the central government. The agency funds and indirectly administers the Straits Exchange Foundation which is the official intermediary with the PRC.

Mainland China

Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It includes Hainan island and strictly speaking, politically, does not include the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, even though both are partially on the geographic mainland (continental landmass).

There are two terms in Chinese for "mainland":

Dàlù (大陆; 大陸), which means "the continent", and

Nèidì (内地; 內地), literally "inland" or "inner land".In the PRC, the usage of the two terms are strictly speaking not interchangeable. To emphasize "equal footing" in Cross-Strait relations, the term must be used in official contexts with reference to Taiwan, with the PRC referring to itself as "the mainland side" (as opposed to "the Taiwan side"). But in its relations with Hong Kong and Macau, the PRC government refers to itself as "the Central People's Government", and Mainland China excluding Hong Kong and Macau is referred as Nèidì.

"Mainland area" is the opposing term to "free area of the Republic of China" used in the ROC Constitution.

Nationalist China

Nationalist China may refer to:

The Republic of China (1912–49) under the Kuomintang rule (1928–49) and its Nationalist government (1925–48)

The free area of the Republic of China ruled by the Kuomintang before the democratization of Taiwan

Pars pro toto

Pars pro toto (; Latin: [ˈpars proː ˈtoː.toː]), Latin for "a part (taken) for the whole", is a figure of speech where the name of a portion of an object, place, or concept represents its entirety. It is distinct from a merism, which is a reference to a whole by an enumeration of parts; metonymy, where an object, place, or concept is called by something or some place associated with the object, place, or concept; or synecdoche, which can refer both to this and its inverse: the whole representing a part.

In the context of language, pars pro toto means that something is named after a part of it, or after a limited characteristic, in itself not necessarily representative for the whole. For example, "glasses" is a pars pro toto name for something that consists of more than just two pieces of glass.

Examples of common pars pro toto usage in political geography include "Russia" or "Russians", for the entire former Russian Empire or former Soviet Union or its people, China for People's Republic of China, Holland for the Netherlands, and, particularly in languages other than English, using the translation of "England" in that language for "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". Among English-speakers "Great Britain" or "Britain" is a common pars pro toto shorthand for the entire United Kingdom. Switzerland's name (in German Schweiz) comes from its central Canton of Schwyz.

The inverse of a pars pro toto is a totum pro parte, in which the whole is used to describe a part, such as widespread use of "America" (which originally named the entire western hemisphere to place it geographically, with alliteration, alongside Asia, Africa, "Europa", and ultimately Antarctica and Australia) in place of "United States of America", "United States" or "US".

The term synecdoche is used for both, as well as similar metaphors, though in Greek it literally means "simultaneous understanding".

Taiwan (disambiguation)

Taiwan, formally the Republic of China (ROC) or "Chinese Taipei", is a state in East Asia now primarily located on Taiwan Island (Formosa).

Taiwan or Taiwanfu may also refer to:

Taiwan (city) or Taiwanfu, a former name of Tainan, a major city in southeastern Taiwan Island

Taiwan Prefecture or Taiwanfu, a prefecture of the Qing Dynasty between 1684 and 1887, headquartered in present-day Tainan

Taiwanfu River, a former name of the Zengwen, Tainan's major river

Historical states or territories primarily based on Taiwan Island:

Kingdom of Tungning, a Southern Ming stronghold in the early Qing Dynasty

Spanish Formosa, Spanish colonies on the island

Dutch Formosa, a Dutch colony headquartered in present-day Tainan

Republic of Taiwan, better known as the Republic of Formosa, a state that briefly existed in Taiwan in 1895

Taiwan Area, better known as the Free area of the Republic of China, the territory of ROC not lost to the Chinese Communists

Various present-day designations of Taiwan as Chinese territory:

the area covered by the United States' Taiwan Relations Act (the island of Taiwan and the Penghu archipelago, but not the outer islands)

Taiwan Province, Republic of China, a nominal administrative division covering much of Taiwan and the Penghu Islands

"Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China", a political designation reflecting that state's claim of sovereignty

"Taiwan, China", a controversial term presenting Taiwan as part of "China"Tai Wan ("big bay") is the name of several places in Hong Kong, including:

Tai Wan, Hung Hom, an area in Kowloon, which includes Tai Wan Road

Tai Wan, a beach at Tai Long Wan, Sai Kung in the east of the New Territories

Tai Wan, a bay and village on the island of Po Toi

Vice President of the Republic of China

The Vice President of the Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國副總統; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Fù Zǒngtǒng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tiong-hôa Bîn-kok Hù-chóng-thóng), commonly known as the Vice President of Taiwan, is the second-highest executive official of Taiwan. The existing office was created in 1948 under the 1947 Constitution of the Republic of China. After the Kuomintang lost mainland China to the Chinese Communists during the Chinese Civil War, the government, along with its presidency, retreated to Taiwan. The Communist Party of China has since established the People's Republic of China on the mainland side. Chen Chien-jen is the current Vice President of the Republic of China.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhōnghuá Mínguó Zìyóu Dìqū
Bopomofoㄓㄨㄥ ㄏㄨㄚˊ ㄇㄧㄣˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ㄗˋ ㄧㄡˊ ㄉㄧˋ ㄑㄩ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhJonghwa Min'gwo Tzyh'you Dihchiu
Wade–GilesChung¹-hua² Min²-kuo² Tzŭ⁴-yu² Ti⁴-chü¹
Tongyong PinyinJhonghuá Mínguó Zìhyóu Dìcyu
MPS2Jūnghuá Mínguó Tz̀yóu Dìchiū
Hakka
Pha̍k-fa-sṳChûng-fà Mìn-koet Chhṳ-yù Thi-khî
Southern Min
Hokkien POJTiong-hôa Bîn-kok Chū-iû Tē-khu
Tâi-lôTiong-hûa Bîn-kok Tsū-iû Tē-khu
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUCDṳ̆ng-huà Mìng-guók Cê̤ṳ-iù Dê-kṳ̆
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinTáiwān Dìqū
Bopomofoㄊㄞˊ ㄨㄢ ㄉㄧˋ ㄑㄩ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhTair'uan Dihchiu
Wade–GilesT'ai²-wan¹ Ti⁴-chü¹
Tongyong PinyinTáiwan Zìhyóu Dìcyu
MPS2Táiwān Dìchiū
Hakka
Pha̍k-fa-sṳThòi-vàn Thi-khî
Southern Min
Hokkien POJTâi-oân Tē-khu
Tâi-lôTâi-uân Tē-khu
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUCDài-uăng Dê-kṳ̆
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinTái Péng Jīn Mǎ
Bopomofoㄊㄞ´ ㄆㄥ´ ㄐㄧㄣ ㄇㄚˇ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhTair Perng Jin Maa
Wade–GilesT'ai² P'êng² Chin¹ Ma³
Tongyong PinyinTái Péng Jin Mǎ
MPS2Tái Péng Jin Mǎ
Hakka
Pha̍k-fa-sṳThòi-Phàng-Kîm-Mâ
Southern Min
Hokkien POJTâi-Phêⁿ-Kim-Má
Tâi-lôTâi-Phênn-Kim-Má
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUCDài-Pàng-Gĭng-Mā
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