Fredrik Pacius

Fredrik Pacius (born Friedrich Pacius) (pronunciation ; March 19, 1809 – January 8, 1891) was a German composer and conductor who lived most of his life in Finland. He has been called the "Father of Finnish music".

Pacius was born in Hamburg. He was appointed music teacher at the University of Helsinki in 1834. In Helsinki he founded a musical society, the student choir Akademiska Sångföreningen and an orchestra. In 1848 Pacius wrote the music to the poem "Vårt land" by Johan Ludvig Runeberg, which was to become Finland's national anthem. Pacius’s music was also used for the Estonian national anthem "Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" and the Livonian ethnic anthem "Min izāmō, min sindimō".

In 1852 he composed Kung Karls jakt (The Hunt of King Charles) which was the first Finnish opera, with a libretto in the style of Romantic nationalism, like the national anthem designed to convince Finland's grand duke (i.e. the Russian Emperor Nicholas I) of the total loyalty of his subjects in Finland. The libretto was written by the author and historian Zacharias Topelius in close collaboration with the composer.

His compositions also include a violin concerto, a symphony, a string quartet and several other operas.

Pacius died in Helsinki, aged 81.

Fredrik Pacius


  • Orchestral
    • Symphony in D minor (1850)
    • Overture in E-flat major (1826)
    • Violin Concerto in F-sharp minor (1845)
  • Vocal music
    • Kung Karls Jakt (Kaarle-kuninkaan metsästys, "King Carl's Hunt"), opera (1852)
    • Prinsessan av Cypern, Singspiel (1860)
    • Die Loreley, opera (1862–87)
    • Cantatas
    • Choruses
    • Lieder
  • Chamber music
    • String Quartet in E-flat major (1826)


  • Tomi Mäkelä, Friedrich Pacius – ein deutscher Komponist in Finnland: mit einer Edition der Tagebücher, Briefe und Arbeitsmaterialien von Silke Bruns, Hildesheim; Zürich [etc.]: Olms; Helsinki: Svenska Litteratursällskapet i Finland, 2014, ISBN 978-3-487-15123-6
  • Tomi Mäkelä, Fredrik Pacius, kompositör i Finland, Svenska Litteratursällskapet i Finland, Helsinki 2009; ISBN 978-951-583-192-7
  • Tomi Mäkelä, Der Pionier. Fredrik Pacius, Opernwelt, 11, 2009, 36–44.

External links

Media related to Fredrik Pacius at Wikimedia Commons

Akademiska Sångföreningen

The Academic Male Voice Choir of Helsinki, in Swedish: Akademiska Sångföreningen, lit. 'The Academic Song Association' (pronounced [akaˈdeːmɪska ˈsɔŋfœreːnɪŋɛn]), abbreviated AS, colloquially also known as Akademen (pronounced [akaˈdeːmɛn]), is a Finland-Swedish academic male-voice choir in Helsinki, Finland. The choir was founded in 1838 by Fredrik Pacius and is the oldest extant choir in Finland. It is one of two male-voice choirs affiliated with the University of Helsinki, the other being the oldest extant Finnish-language choir, the YL Male Voice Choir (Finnish: Ylioppilaskunnan Laulajat). Furthermore, it is one of two Swedish-language choirs affiliated with the University of Helsinki, the other being the Academic Female Voice Choir Lyran (Swedish: Akademiska Damkören Lyran).

Anthem of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

The "State Anthem of the Estonian SSR" was the regional anthem of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (under the Soviet Union) from 1945 to 1990.

During the decades of the Soviet occupation of Estonia, the official Estonian anthem was strictly forbidden. Throughout the years of prohibition, Lydia Koidula's poem, Mu isamaa on minu arm, with a melody by Gustav Ernesaks served as means of expressing national feelings, and was regarded as an unofficial anthem of Estonia. With the restoration of Estonian independence in 1991 however, the official national anthem from 1920 by Fredrik Pacius with lyrics by Johann Voldemar Jannsen was restored.

Finnish opera

The origins of Finnish opera can be traced to the late 18th or 19th century, when the first opera performances were staged in Finland. It is generally assumed that the first opera performance in Finland took place in 1768 in Turku, when the troupe of Carl Gottlieb Seuerling presented the opera Adam und Eva by Johann Theile. However other sources state that there was no orchestra at this performance.The first opera to be composed in Finland was Kung Karls jakt with music by Fredrik Pacius and a libretto by Zacharias Topelius. It was first performed in Helsinki on 24 March 1852.The first opera performance in Finnish language is supposed to be Lucia di Lammermoor presented by the Finnish National Theatre in 1873. There were 25-30 operas in the repertoire of the company.The Domestic Opera established by Aino Ackté and Edvard Fazer gave its first performance 2 October 1911. It later became the Finnish National Opera.Savonlinna Opera Festival takes place annually at the medieval Olavinlinna in the city of Savonlinna. Aino Ackté organised the first festival in Savonlinna summer 1912.After Finland gained independence in 1917, Russian-owned Alexander Theatre become property of Finland. It was given "temporarily" for the Finnish Opera, which used it for 70 years while waiting for the purpose-built opera house to be constructed.Finnish opera got international reputation in the 1970s with works by Joonas Kokkonen and Aulis Sallinen. Kokkonen's opera Last temptations (1975) was staged in Metropolitan in New York in 1983 and received over 500 performances worldwide.Famous singers include Martti Talvela, Karita Mattila and Soile Isokoski. BBC Music Magazine named Mattila as one of the top 20 sopranos of the recorded era in 2007.In the 21st century, Kaija Saariaho's works have become the most performed operas.

Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums

The Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums (translation: Academic School of the Johanneum, short: Johanneum) is a Gymnasium (or Grammar School ) in Hamburg, Germany. It is Hamburg's oldest school and was founded in 1529 by Johannes Bugenhagen. The school´s focus is on the teaching of Latin and ancient Greek. It is proud of having educated some of Germany's political leaders as well as some of Germany's notable scientists. The school is operated and financed by the city of Hamburg.

Germans in Finland

Germans in Finland are immigrants from Germany residing in Finland.

Kung Karls jakt

Kung Karls jakt (English: King Charles' Hunt; Finnish: Kaarle-kuninkaan metsästys) is an opera with music by Fredrik Pacius and a libretto by Zacharias Topelius. It was the first opera to be composed in Finland. Kung Karls jakt was first performed in Helsinki on 24 March, 1852. Although the text is in Swedish (Swedish and Finnish are both official languages in Finland) it concerns an event from Finnish history when Finland was a province of Sweden in the 17th century. The work takes the form of a Singspiel with spoken dialogue between the musical numbers (the king himself does not sing). The music is heavily influenced by contemporary German and Italian opera, with a few Finnish elements such as the use of a kantele in one scene.

List of Finnish composers

This is a list of Finnish composers, organized by date of birth.

List of people on the postage stamps of Estonia

This is a list of people on postage stamps of Estonia.

Betti Alver (2006)

Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (2003)

Matthias Johann Eisen (2007)

Gustav Ernesaks (1994, 2008)

Friedrich Robert Faehlmann (1938, 1998)

Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (1994)

Jüri Jaakson (2010)

Carl Robert Jakobson (2002)

Johann Voldemar Jannsen (1994, 1999)

Gerd Kanter (2008)

Lydia Koidula (1993, 2002)

Johann Köler (2001, small portrait in margin of block)

Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald (1938, 2003)

Adam Johann von Krusenstern (2003)

Juhan Kukk (2010)

Aleksander Kunileid (1995)

Julius Kuperjanov (2009)

Johan Laidoner (2009)

August Mälk (2000)

Guglielmo Marconi (1996)

Lennart Meri (1999, 2009)

Felix Moor (2001)

Alfred Neuland (1996)

Erki Nool (2001)

Ragnar Nurkse (2007)

Fredrik Pacius (1999)

Kristjan Palusalu (2008)

Louis Pasteur (1995)

Konstantin Päts (1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940)

Ants Piip (2009)

Arnold Rüütel (2003)

Heinrich von Stephan (1997)

Kristina Šmigun (2006)

Otto Strandman (2008)

Anton Hansen Tammsaare (2003)

Eduard Tubin (2005)

Marie Under (1996)

Andrus Veerpalu (2002, 2006)


"Maamme" (Finnish: [ˈmɑːmːe̞ˣ]) or "Vårt land" (Finland Swedish: [ˈvoːrt ˈlanːd]; both meaning "Our Land") is Finland's national anthem. The music was composed by the German immigrant Fredrik Pacius, with (original Swedish) words by Johan Ludvig Runeberg, and with this music it was performed for the first time on 13 May 1848. Originally it was written for the 500th anniversary of Porvoo and for that occasion it was Runeberg himself who wrote the music. The poem has been influenced by the "Szózat" (Appeal) of Mihály Vörösmarty,

both in style and content.The melody of "Maamme" is also used for the national anthem of Estonia with a similarly themed text, "Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" ("My Fatherland, My Happiness and Joy", 1869). It is also considered to be the ethnic anthem for the Livonians as "Min izāmō" ("My Fatherland").

Min izāmō

"Min izāmō" (English: "My Fatherland"). is the ethnic anthem of the Livonians. The song was written by Kōrli Stalte (1870–1947), a poet and spiritual leader of Livonians, to a melody composed by Fredrik Pacius (the same melody is used for national anthems of Finland and Estonia). It is written in the Livonian language. Translated, the title of the song means "My Fatherland".

Osmo Vänskä

Osmo Antero Vänskä (born 28 February 1953) is a Finnish conductor, clarinetist and composer.

He started his musical career as an orchestral clarinetist with the Turku Philharmonic (1971–76). He then became the principal clarinet of the Helsinki Philharmonic from 1977 to 1982. During this time, he started to study conducting with Jorma Panula at the Sibelius Academy, where his classmates included Esa-Pekka Salonen and Jukka-Pekka Saraste. In 1982, he won the International Besançon Competition for Young Conductors.

Vänskä became principal guest conductor of the Lahti Symphony Orchestra in 1985, and chief conductor in 1988. He concluded his tenure with the Lahti Symphony Orchestra in 2008 and is now the orchestra's Conductor Laureate. His complete set of Sibelius symphonies with the Lahti Symphony Orchestra, also on the BIS label, has garnered widespread acclaim. He has recorded extensively with the Lahti orchestra for the BIS label, including music by Kalevi Aho, Einojuhani Rautavaara, Bernhard Crusell, Uuno Klami, Tauno Marttinen, Robert Kajanus, Sofia Gubaidulina, Joonas Kokkonen, Jan Sandström, Jean Sibelius, and Fredrik Pacius.

Vänskä was chief conductor of the Iceland Symphony Orchestra from 1993 to 1996. In 1996, he was appointed chief conductor of the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra (BBCSSO), and served in that capacity until 2002. With the BBCSSO, he made recordings of the complete Carl Nielsen symphonies for the BIS label. In June 2014, the Iceland Symphony Orchestra announced the return of Vänskä to the orchestra as its next principal guest conductor, effective with the 2014-2015 season.In 2003, Vänskä became the music director of the Minnesota Orchestra. He and the orchestra have received critical praise, and he is generally regarded as having enhanced the quality of the orchestra. In 2004, Vänskä and the Minnesota Orchestra began a five-year project to record the complete Beethoven symphonies on the BIS label. In 2005, Vänskä signed a contract extension with the Minnesota Orchestra through at least 2011. In September 2009, the orchestra announced the extension of Vänskä's contract through the 2014–2015 season. He announced his resignation on 1 October 2013, one year after management locked out the musicians in a longstanding labor dispute. In January 2014 Vänskä and the Minnesota Orchestra won a Grammy for best orchestral performance for the album of Sibelius' Symphonies Nos. 1 and 4. He was re-appointed music director of the Minnesota Orchestra in April 2014 with a two-year contract, which was extended in May 2015 to last until August 2019. In July 2017, the orchestra announced a further extension of Vänskä's contract through the 2021-2022 season. On December 5, 2018 he announced that he would not renew the contract when it expires in August 2022, but would act as guest conductor.In May 2008, an orchestral piece composed by Vänskä titled "The Bridge" was premiered by the Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra, led by William Schrickel, assistant-principal bassist of the Minnesota Orchestra. Vänskä himself attended the world premiere.Vänskä has been married twice. He and his former wife Pirkko, a freelance drama critic, have three grown children, one of whom, Olli, plays violin in the Finnish folk metal band Turisas. The couple separated in 2009. In April 2015, Vänskä married Erin Keefe, the Minnesota Orchestra concertmaster. They maintain a residence in Minneapolis, and plan to remain there after he steps down as Music Director. In private life, one of his hobbies is riding motorcycles.

Pertti Mäkinen

Pertti Kalervo Mäkinen, born 16 September 1952 in Tyrvää, is a Finnish sculptor who is the designer of the Finnish 1 euro coin. He has also designed several commemorative coins for the Mint of Finland.

Mäkinen worked as a metal worker before entering an art school in the Finnish town Kankaanpää in 1976. After his graduation in 1979, Mäkinen has worked as a sculptor. He lives and works in Lavia.

Prinsessan av Cypern (Larsson)

Prinsessan av Cypern (The Princess of Cyprus) is an opera in four acts by Lars-Erik Larsson, with a Swedish libretto by Zacharias Topelius, first performed in Stockholm in 1937, but subsequently withdrawn by its composer.

Prinsessan av Cypern (Pacius)

Prinsessan av Cypern (The Princess of Cyprus) is a four-act fairy opera by Fredrik Pacius, with a Swedish libretto by Zacharias Topelius. It is sometimes referred to as a singspiel or simply as incidental music to the play.

Swedish Theatre

The Swedish Theatre (Swedish: Svenska Teatern) is a Swedish-language theatre in Helsinki, Finland, and is located at the Erottaja (Swedish: Skillnaden) square, at the end of Esplanadi (Swedish: Esplanaden). It was the first national stage of Finland.

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