Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts

Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, VC, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, KStJ, VD, PC (30 September 1832 – 14 November 1914) was a soldier who was one of the most successful British commanders of the 19th century. He served in the Indian Rebellion, the Expedition to Abyssinia and the Second Anglo-Afghan War before leading British Forces to success in the Second Boer War. He also became the last Commander-in-Chief of the Forces before the post was abolished in 1904. He was known and referred to (but not to his face) as "Bobs".[1] His son (see below) was called "Young Bobs".[2]

The Earl Roberts
Earl Roberts of Kandahar
Birth nameFrederick Sleigh Roberts
Born30 September 1832
Cawnpore, British India
Died14 November 1914 (aged 82)
St Omer, France
AllegianceUnited Kingdom
Service/branchBritish Army
Years of service1851–1904
RankField Marshal
UnitRoyal Artillery
Commands heldCommander-in-Chief of the Forces
Command of British troops in Second Boer War until 1900
Commander-in-Chief, Ireland
Commander-in-Chief, India
Commander-in-Chief in Madras
Governor of Natal
Kabul and Kandahar field forces
Kuram field force
Battles/warsIndian Rebellion

Umbeyla Campaign
1868 Expedition to Abyssinia

Lushai Expedition
Second Anglo-Afghan War

Second Boer War

AwardsVictoria Cross
Knight of the Order of the Garter
Knight of the Order of St Patrick
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Member of the Order of Merit
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire
Knight of the Order of St John
Mentioned in Despatches
RelationsFrederick Roberts (son)
Sir Abraham Roberts (father)
Shield of arms of Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, KVC, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, KStJ, VD, PC
Garter encircled shield of arms of Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel.

Early life

Born at Cawnpore, India, on 30 September 1832, Roberts was the son of General Sir Abraham Roberts,[3] a native of County Waterford in the south-east of Ireland.[3] At the time Sir Abraham was commanding the 1st Bengal European Regiment.[4] Roberts was named Sleigh in honour of the garrison commander, Major General William Sleigh.[3] His mother was Edinburgh-born Isabella Bunbury,[3] daughter of Major Abraham Bunbury from Kilfeacle in County Tipperary.[5]

Roberts was educated at Eton,[3] Sandhurst,[3] and Addiscombe Military Seminary[3] before entering the East India Company Army as a second lieutenant with the Bengal Artillery on 12 December 1851.[3] He became Aide-de-Camp to his father in 1852, transferred to the Bengal Horse Artillery in 1854 and was promoted to lieutenant on 31 May 1857.[6]

Indian Rebellion of 1857

Roberts fought in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 seeing action during the siege and capture of Delhi where he was slightly wounded,[7] and being present at the relief of Lucknow, where, as Deputy Assistant Quartermaster-General, he was attached to the staff of Sir Colin Campbell, Commander-in-Chief, India.[3] He was awarded the Victoria Cross for actions on 2 January 1858 at Khudaganj.[3] The citation reads:

Lieutenant Roberts' gallantry has on every occasion been most marked.

On following the retreating enemy on 2 January 1858, at Khodagunge, he saw in the distance two Sepoys going away with a standard. Lieutenant Roberts put spurs to his horse, and overtook them just as they were about to enter a village. They immediately turned round, and presented their muskets at him, and one of the men pulled the trigger, but fortunately the caps snapped, and the standard-bearer was cut down by this gallant young officer, and the standard taken possession of by him. He also, on the same day, cut down another Sepoy who was standing at bay, with musket and bayonet, keeping off a Sowar. Lieutenant Roberts rode to the assistance of the horseman, and, rushing at the Sepoy, with one blow of his sword cut him across the face, killing him on the spot.[8]

He was also mentioned in despatches for his service at Lucknow in March 1858.[9] In common with other officers he transferred from the East India Company Army to the Indian Army that year.[6]

Abyssinia and Afghanistan

Captured Guns, Kabul WDL11485
Roberts and his staff on horseback inspecting captured Afghan artillery in the Sherpur Cantonment, 1.5 kilometers north of Kabul. British artillery was usually superior to Afghan armament, but occasionally it was ineffective, as at the Battle of Maiwand in July 1880

Having been promoted to second captain on 12 November 1860[10] and to brevet major on 13 November 1860,[11] he transferred to the British Army in 1861 and served in the Umbeyla and Abyssinian campaigns of 1863 and 1867–1868 respectively.[3] Having been promoted to brevet lieutenant colonel on 15 August 1868[12] and to the substantive rank of captain on 18 November 1868,[13] Roberts also fought in the Lushai campaign of 1871–1872.[3]

He was promoted to the substantive rank of major on 5 July 1872,[14] appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) on 10 September 1872[15] and promoted to brevet colonel on 30 January 1875.[16] That year he became Quartermaster-General of the Bengal Army.[12]

He was given command of the Kurram field force in March 1878 and took part in the Second Anglo-Afghan War, distinguishing himself enough at the Battle of Peiwar Kotal in November 1878 to receive the thanks of Parliament, be promoted to the substantive rank of major general on 31 December 1878[17] and be advanced to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) on 25 July 1879.[18]

In September 1879 he was despatched, along with Maurice Abraham Cohen an expert in the Urdu language, to Kabul to seek retribution for the death of Sir Louis Cavagnari, the British envoy there.[12] He was also given the local rank of lieutenant-general on 11 November 1879.[19] He was commander of the Kabul Field Force and brought at least 20 field guns (usually horse-drawn mobile cannons) with his army during the conquest and occupation of Kabul during the second phase of the war. His move against Kabul was sparked by the assassination of Cavagnari, the British envoy in Kabul and the official who had signed the Treaty of Gandamak with Amir Mohammad Yaqub Khan in May of that year.[20]

After completing his mission to occupy Kabul, he was appointed commander of the Kabul and Kandahar field force and led his 10,000 troops across 300 miles of rough terrain in Afghanistan to relieve Kandahar and defeat Ayub Khan at the Battle of Kandahar on 1 September 1880.[3] For his services, Roberts again received the thanks of Parliament, and was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) on 21 September 1880[21] and appointed Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) during 1880.[22]

Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts by George Frederic Watts

After a very brief interval as Governor of Natal and Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Transvaal Province and High Commissioner for South Eastern Africa with effect from 7 March 1881,[23] Roberts (having become a baronet on 11 June 1881)[24] was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Madras Army on 16 November 1881.[25] Promoted to the substantive rank of lieutenant general on 26 July 1883,[26] he became Commander-in-Chief, India on 28 November 1885[27] and was advanced to Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE) on 15 February 1887[28] and to Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE) on reorganisation of the Order on 21 June 1887.[29] This was followed by his promotion to a supernumerary general on 28 November 1890[30] and to the substantive rank of general on 31 December 1891.[31] On 23 February 1892 he was created Baron Roberts of Kandahar in Afghanistan and of the City of Waterford.[32]


After relinquishing his Indian command and becoming Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India (GCSI) on 3 June 1893,[33] Lord Roberts was relocated to Ireland as Commander-in-Chief of British forces there from 1 October 1895.[34] He was promoted field marshal on 25 May 1895[35] and created a knight of the Order of St Patrick during 1897.[36]

While in Ireland, Roberts completed a memoir of his years in India, which was published in 1897 as Forty-one Years in India: from Subaltern to Commander-in-chief.[37]

Second Anglo-Boer War

Roberts Enters Kimberley
Lord Roberts enters the city of Kimberley after the relief of the besieged city during February 1900.

On 23 December 1899 Roberts returned to South Africa on the RMS Dunottar Castle to take overall command of British forces in the Second Boer War, subordinating the previous commander, General Redvers Buller. His appointment was a response to a string of defeats in the early weeks of the war and was accompanied by the despatch of huge reinforcements.[38] For his headquarters staff, he appointed military men from far and wide: Lord Kitchener (Chief of Staff) from the Sudan, Frederick Burnham (Chief of Scouts), the American scout, from the Klondike, George Henderson from the Staff College, Neville Chamberlain from Afghanistan and William Nicholson (Military Secretary) from Calcutta.[39] Roberts launched a two-pronged offensive, personally leading the advance across the open veldt into the Orange Free State, while Buller sought to eject the Boers from the hills of Natal - during which, Lord Roberts's son was killed, earning a posthumous V.C.[40]

Having raised the Siege of Kimberley, at the Battle of Paardeberg on 27 February 1900 Roberts forced the Boer General Piet Cronjé to surrender with some 4,000 men.[41] After another victory at Poplar Grove, Roberts captured the Free State capital Bloemfontein on 13 March. His further advance was delayed by his disastrous attempt to reorganise his army's logistic system on the Indian Army model in the midst of the war. The resulting chaos and shortage of supplies contributed to a severe typhoid epidemic that inflicted far heavier losses on the British forces than they suffered in combat.[42]

On 3 May Roberts resumed his offensive towards the Transvaal, capturing its capital Pretoria on 31 May. Having defeated the Boers at Diamond Hill and linked up with Buller, he won the last victory of his career at Bergendal on 27 August.[43]

Strategies devised by Roberts, to force the Boer commandos to submit, included concentration camps and the burning of farms. Conditions in the concentration camps, which had been conceived by Roberts as a form of control of the families whose farms he had destroyed, began to degenerate rapidly as the large influx of Boers outstripped the ability of the minuscule British force to cope. The camps lacked space, food, sanitation, medicine, and medical care, leading to rampant disease and a very high death rate for those Boers who entered. Eventually 26,370 women and children (81% were children) died in the concentration camps.[44] The Boer forces disintegrated, and with the war apparently effectively over, Roberts handed over command on 12 December to Lord Kitchener.[45] He returned to England to receive yet more honours: he was made a Knight of the Order of the Garter[46] and also created Earl Roberts of Kandahar in Afghanistan and Pretoria in the Transvaal Colony and of the City of Waterford and Viscount St Pierre.[47]

He became a Knight of Grace of the Order of St John on 11 March 1901[48] and then a Knight of Justice of that order on 3 July 1901.[49] He was also awarded the German Order of the Black Eagle during the Kaiser´s visit to the United Kingdom in February 1901.[50][51] He was among the original recipients of the Order of Merit in the 1902 Coronation Honours list published on 26 June 1902,[52] and received the order from King Edward VII at Buckingham Palace on 8 August 1902.[53][54]

Later life

Lord Roberts became the last Commander-in-Chief of the Forces on 3 January 1901.[55] During his time in office he introduced the Short Magazine Lee Enfield Rifle and the 18-pounder Gun and provided improved education and training for soldiers.[56] In September 1902, Lord Roberts and St John Brodrick, Secretary of State for War, visited Germany to attend the German army maneuvers as guest of the Emperor Wilhelm.[57] He served as Commander-in-Chief for three years before the post was abolished as recommended by Lord Esher in the Esher Report in February 1904.[3]

He was the initial president of the Pilgrims Society during 1902.[58]

National Service League

Field Marshall Earl Roberts
Field Marshal Earl Roberts

In retirement he was a keen advocate of introducing conscription in Britain (directing the National Service League) to prepare for a great European war.[3] Following his return from the Boer War, he was instrumental in promoting the mass training of civilians in rifle shooting skills through membership of shooting clubs, and a facsimile of his signature appears to this day on all official targets of the National Smallbore Rifle Association.[59]

In 1907 a selection of his speeches was published under the title A Nation in Arms. Roberts provided William Le Queux with information for his novel The Invasion of 1910 and checked the proofs.[60] In 1910 Roberts' friend Ian Hamilton, in co-operation with the Secretary of State for War, Richard Haldane, published Compulsory Service in which he attacked Roberts' advocacy of conscription. This caused much hurt to Roberts. He replied, with the help of Leo Amery and J. A. Cramb, with Fallacies and Facts (1911).[61]

In an important speech in Manchester's Free Trade Hall on 22 October 1912 Roberts pointed out that Cobden and Bright's prediction that peace and universal disarmament would follow the adoption of free trade had not happened. He further warned of the threat posed by Germany:

In the year 1912, just as in 1866 and just as in 1870, war will take place the instant the German forces by land and sea are, by their superiority at every point, as certain of victory as anything in human calculation can be made certain...We may stand still. Germany always advances and the direction of her advance, the line along which she is moving, is now most manifest. It is towards...complete supremacy by land and sea.[62]

Field Marshall Lord Roberts
Roberts on his 82nd birthday, in First World War uniform.

He claimed that Germany was making enormous efforts to prepare for war and ended his speech by saying:

Gentlemen, only the other day I completed my eightieth year...and the words I am speaking to-day are, therefore, old words—the result of years of earnest thought and practical experience. But, Gentlemen, my fellow-citizens and fellow-Britishers, citizens of this great and sacred trust, this Empire, if these were my last words, I still should say to you—“arm yourselves” and if I put to myself the question, How can I, even at this late and solemn hour, best help England,—England that to me has been so much, England that for me has done so much—again I say, “Arm and prepare to acquit yourselves like men, for the day of your ordeal is at hand.”[63]

The historian A. J. A. Morris claimed that this speech caused a sensation due to Roberts' warnings about Germany.[64] It was much criticised by the Liberal and Radical press. The Manchester Guardian was disgusted at the

insinuation that the German Government's views of international policy are less scrupulous and more cynical than those of other Governments...Prussia's character among nations is, in fact, not very different from the character which Lancashire men give to themselves as compared with other Englishmen. It is blunt, straightforward, and unsentimental.[65]

The Nation claimed Roberts had an "unimaginative soldier's brain" and that Germany was "a friendly Power" who since 1870 "has remained the most peaceful and the most self-contained, though doubtless not the most sympathetic, member of the European family".[66] The historian John Terraine, writing in 1993, said: "At this distance of time the verdict upon Lord Robert's Manchester speech must be that, in speaking out clearly on the probability of war, he was doing a patriotic service comparable to Churchill's during the Thirties".[67]

Kandahar ski race

Roberts became vice-president of the Public Schools Alpine Sports Club during 1903.[68] Eight years later on 11 January 1911, the Roberts of Kandahar Challenge Cup (so named because Roberts donated the trophy cup) was organised at Crans-Montana (Crans-sur-Sierre) by winter sports pioneer Arnold Lunn.[69] An important part of the history of skiing, the races was a forerunner of the downhill ski race.[70] The Kandahar Ski Club, founded by Lunn, was named after the Cup and subsequently lent its name to the Arlberg-Kandahar ski race. The name Kandahar is still used for the premier races of the FIS Alpine Ski World Cup circuit.[71]

He took part in the funeral processions following the deaths of Queen Victoria in January 1901[72] and King Edward VII in May 1910.[73]

Curragh incident

Roberts was approached for advice about the Ulster Voluntary Force, formed in January 1913 by Ulstermen who had no wish to be part of a Home Rule Ireland. Too old himself to take active command, Roberts recommended Lieutenant General Sir George Richardson, formerly of the Indian Army, as commander.[74]

On the morning of 20 March — the morning of Paget's speech which provoked the Curragh incident, in which Hubert Gough and other officers threatened to resign rather than coerce Ulster — Roberts, aided by Wilson, drafted a letter to the Prime Minister, urging him not to cause a split in the army.[75]

Roberts had asked the CIGS John French to come and see him at Ascot on 19 March; French had been too busy but invited Roberts to visit him when next in London. On the morning of 21 March Roberts and French had an acrimonious telephone conversation in which Roberts told French that he would share the blame if he collaborated with the Cabinet's "dastardly" attempt to coerce Ulster, and then, after French told him that he would "do his duty as a soldier" and obey lawful orders, put the phone down on him. Soon after, Roberts received a telegram from Hubert Gough, purporting to ask for advice, although possibly designed to goad him into further action. Roberts requested an audience with King George V, who told him that Seely (Secretary of State for War), to whom the King had recently spoken, had complained that Roberts was "at the bottom" of the matter, had incited Gough, and had called the politicians "swine and robbers" in his phone conversation with French. Roberts indignantly denied this, claiming that he had not been in contact with Gough for "years" and that he had advised officers not to resign.[76] Roberts's claim may not be the whole truth as Gough was on first name terms with Roberts's daughter and later gave her copies of key documents relating to the Incident.[77]

Lord roberts of kandahar
Lord Roberts of Kabul and Kandahar on his Celebrated Charger[78]

Roberts also had an interview with Seely (he was unable to locate French, who was in fact himself having an audience with the King at the time) but came away thinking him "drunk with power", although he learned that Paget had been acting without authority (in talking of "commencing active operations" against Ulster and in offering officers a chance to discuss hypothetical orders and to threaten to resign) and left a note for Hubert Gough to this effect. This note influenced the Gough brothers in being willing to remain in the Army, albeit with a written guarantee that the Army would not have to act against Ulster. After Roberts's lobbying, the King insisted that Asquith make no further troop movements in Ulster without consulting him.[76]

Roberts wrote to French (22 March) denying the "swine and robbers" comment, although French's reply stressed his hurt that Roberts had thought so ill of him.[79]


Roberts died of pneumonia at St Omer, France, on 14 November 1914 while visiting Indian troops fighting in the First World War.[3] His body was taken to Ascot by special train for a funeral service on 18 November before being taken to London.[80] After lying in state in Westminster Hall (one of two individuals who were not members of the royal family to do so during the 20th century, the other being Sir Winston Churchill), he was given a state funeral and was then buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.[3]

Roberts had lived at Englemere House at Ascot in Berkshire. His estate was probated during 1915 at £77,304[3] (equivalent to £7.29 million today).[81]


Statue of Earl Roberts, Kelvingrove Park, Glasgow
Statue of Earl Roberts by Harry Bates, Kelvingrove Park, Glasgow

On 28 February 1908 he was awarded the Volunteer Officers' Decoration in recognition of his honorary service in the Volunteer Force.[82]

His long list of honorary military posts included: honorary colonel of the 2nd London Corps from 24 September 1887,[83] honorary colonel of the 5th Battalion, the Sherwood Foresters (Derbyshire Regiment) from 29 December 1888,[84] honorary colonel of the 1st Newcastle upon Tyne (Western Division), Royal Artillery from 18 April 1894,[85] honorary colonel of the Waterford Artillery (Southern Division) from 4 March 1896,[86] colonel-commandant of the Royal Artillery from 7 October 1896,[87] honorary colonel of the 3rd Battalion, the Loyal North Lancashire Regiment from 1 January 1898,[88] honorary colonel of the City of London Imperial Volunteers from 10 March 1900,[89] honorary colonel of the 3rd Volunteer Battalion, the Gloucestershire Regiment from 5 September 1900,[90] colonel of the Irish Guards from 17 October 1900,[91] honorary colonel of the 2nd Hampshire (Southern Division), Royal Garrison Artillery from 15 August 1901,[92] honorary colonel of the 3rd (Dundee Highland) Volunteer Battalion, the Black Watch (Royal Highlanders) from 19 September 1903,[93] honorary colonel of the North Somerset Yeomanry from 1 April 1908,[94] honorary colonel of the 6th Battalion, the City of London (Rifles') Regiment from 1 April 1908,[95] honorary colonel of the 1st Wessex Brigade from 1 April 1908,[96] honorary colonel of 6th Battalion, The Gloucestershire Regiment from 1 April 1908,[97] honorary colonel of The Waterford Royal Field Reserve Artillery from 2 August 1908[98] and honorary colonel of 1st (Hull) Battalion, The East Yorkshire Regiment from 11 November 1914 (three days before his death).[99] Additionally he was Colonel of the National Reserve from 5 August 1911.[100]

Lord Roberts received civic honours from a number of universities, cities and livery companies, including:


Roberts married Nora Henrietta Bews on 17 May 1859; they had six children of whom three, a son and two daughters, survived infancy.[3] His son Frederick Hugh Sherston Roberts VC was killed in action on 17 December 1899 at the Battle of Colenso during the Boer War. Roberts and his son were one of only three pairs of fathers and sons to be awarded the VC. Today, their Victoria Crosses are in the National Army Museum. His barony became extinct, but by the special remainder granted with them he was succeeded in the earldom and viscountcy by his elder surviving daughter, Aileen.[110] She was succeeded by her younger sister Edwina, who died in 1955.[3]

Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts by John Singer Sargent
Lord Roberts by John Singer Sargent.


  • Field Marshal Lord Roberts of Kandahar, Forty-One Years in India: from Subaltern to Commander-in-chief (1897, reprinted Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, 2005)


In 1914, Lady Roberts unveiled a memorial statue[111] to her late husband in Kelvingrove Park, Glasgow.[112]

There is an equestrian statue of Roberts on Horse Guards Parade in London.[113]

Roberts Barracks at Larkhill Garrison[114] and the town of Robertsganj in Uttar Pradesh are named after him.[115]

Lord Roberts French Immersion Public School in London, Ontario,[116] Lord Roberts Junior Public School in Scarborough, Ontario,[117] and Lord Roberts Elementary Schools in Vancouver, British Columbia,[118] and Winnipeg, Manitoba are named after him.[119] Roberts is also a Senior Boys house at the Duke of York's Royal Military School.[120]

The Lord Roberts Centre – a facility at the National Shooting Centre built for the 2002 Commonwealth Games, and HQ of the National Smallbore Rifle Association (which Roberts was fundamental in founding) is named in his honour.[121]

On 29 May 1900 Pretoria surrendered to the British commander-in-chief, Lord Roberts.[122] Due to the prevalence of malaria and because the area had become too small, he relocated his headquarters from the vicinity of the Normal College to a high-lying site 10 km south-west of the city – hence the name Roberts Heights.[122] Roberts Heights, a busy military town, the largest in South Africa and resembling Aldershot, soon developed.[122] On 15 December 1938 the name was changed to Voortrekkerhoogte[122] and again to Thaba Tshwane on 19 May 1998.[123]

On a visit to the Victoria Falls, one of the larger islands just upstream of the Falls was named Kandahar Island in his honour.[124]

The grave of Roberts' charger Vonolel (named after a Lushai King whose descendants Roberts had fought in 1871) is marked by a headstone in the gardens of The Royal Hospital Kilmainham in Dublin.[125]


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  81. ^ UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  82. ^ "No. 28114". The London Gazette. 28 February 1908. p. 1402.
  83. ^ "No. 25741". The London Gazette. 23 September 1887. p. 5101.
  84. ^ "No. 25888". The London Gazette. 28 December 1888. p. 7421.
  85. ^ "No. 26504". The London Gazette. 17 April 1894. p. 2176.
  86. ^ "No. 26717". The London Gazette. 3 March 1896. p. 1271.
  87. ^ "No. 26791". The London Gazette. 3 November 1896. p. 6008.
  88. ^ "No. 26924". The London Gazette. 31 December 1897. p. 7856.
  89. ^ "No. 27172". The London Gazette. 9 March 1900. p. 1632.
  90. ^ "No. 27226". The London Gazette. 4 September 1900. p. 5469.
  91. ^ "No. 27238". The London Gazette. 16 October 1900. p. 6324.
  92. ^ "No. 27357". The London Gazette. 20 September 1901. p. 6175.
  93. ^ "No. 27598". The London Gazette. 18 September 1903. p. 5791.
  94. ^ "No. 28180". The London Gazette. 25 September 1908. p. 6944.
  95. ^ "No. 28188". The London Gazette. 23 October 1908. p. 7652.
  96. ^ "No. 28180". The London Gazette. 25 September 1908. p. 6946.
  97. ^ "No. 28253". The London Gazette. 21 May 1909. p. 3874.
  98. ^ "No. 28200". The London Gazette. 27 November 1908. p. 9032.
  99. ^ "No. 28969". The London Gazette. 10 November 1914. p. 9135.
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  109. ^ "Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener in the City". The Times (36893). London. 8 October 1902. p. 4.
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  113. ^ Tabor, inside front cover
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  125. ^ "The grave of Vonolel, the famous and bemedalled horse". 22 June 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2011.


Memorial of Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts in Glasgow
Monument of Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, in Glasgow.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Roberts, Frederick Sleigh Roberts, Earl" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 403–405.

  • Atwood, Rodney (2008). The March to Kandahar: Roberts in Afghanistan. Pen & Sword publishing. ISBN 978-1-84884-672-2.
  • Atwood, Rodney (2011). Roberts and Kitchener in South Africa. Pen & Sword publishing. ISBN 978-1-84884-483-4.
  • Hannah, W. H. (1972). Bobs, Kipling's General: The Life of Field-Marshal Earl Roberts of Kandahar, V.C. London: Lee Cooper. ISBN 085052038X. OCLC 2681649.
  • Heathcote, Tony (1999). The British Field Marshals 1736–1997. Pen & Sword Books Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-696-5.
  • Holmes, Richard (2004). The Little Field Marshal: A Life of Sir John French. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84614-0.
  • Low, Charles Rathbone (1883). Major-General Sir Frederick Roberts: a Memoir. London, W.H. Allen & Co. ASIN B008UD4EBK.
  • Orans, Lewis P. "Lord Roberts of Kandahar. Biography". The Pine Tree Web. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  • Pakenham, Thomas (1991). The Scramble for Africa. Abacus. ISBN 978-0349104492.
  • Roberts, Frederick Sleigh (1895). The Rise of Wellington. London: Sampson Low, Marston and Co. OCLC 2181145.
  • Roberts, Frederick Sleigh (1896). Forty-One Years in India. London: Richard Bentley and Son. ISBN 978-1402177422.
  • Tabor, Paddy (2010). The Household Cavalry Museum. Ajanta Book Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84820-882-7.
  • Vibart, H.M. (1894). Addiscombe: its heroes and men of note. Westminster: Archibald Constable. pp. 592–603.

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
Sir Neville Chamberlain
Commander-in-Chief, Madras Army
Succeeded by
Sir Herbert MacPherson
Preceded by
Sir Donald Stewart, Bt
Commander-in-Chief, India
Succeeded by
Sir George White
Preceded by
The Viscount Wolseley
Commander-in-Chief, Ireland
Succeeded by
Prince Arthur, Duke of
Connaught and Strathearn
Preceded by
Sir Redvers Buller
Commander-in-Chief of
British Forces in South Africa

Succeeded by
The Lord Kitchener of Khartoum
Preceded by
The Viscount Wolseley
Commander-in-Chief of the Forces
Succeeded by
Sir Neville Lyttelton
as Chief of the General Staff
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Sir Collingwood Dickson
Master Gunner, St James's Park
Succeeded by
Sir Robert Biddulph
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Earl Roberts
Succeeded by
Aileen Mary Roberts
Baron Roberts of Kandahar
1832 in South Africa

The following lists events that happened during 1832 in South Africa.

1832 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1832 in the United Kingdom.

Abercrombie-class monitor

The Abercrombie class of monitors served in the Royal Navy during the First World War.

Baron Roberts

The title Baron Roberts has been held by three people:

Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts (1832–1914), British general, created Baron Roberts of Kandahar in 1892

Wyn Roberts, Baron Roberts of Conwy (b. 1930), Welsh Conservative politician

Roger Roberts, Baron Roberts of Llandudno (b. 1935), Welsh Liberal Democrat politician

Equestrian statue of the Earl Roberts, London

The equestrian statue of the Earl Roberts is an outdoor sculpture of Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts by Harry Bates, installed at Horse Guards Parade in London, United Kingdom.

Frederick Hugh Sherston Roberts

Frederick Hugh Sherston Roberts, VC (8 January 1872 – 17 December 1899) was a British Army officer and recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Roberts was the son of the famous Victorian commander Field Marshal Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts.

Frederick Roberts

Frederick or Fred Roberts may refer to:

Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts (1832–1914), Anglo-Irish soldier

Frederick Hugh Sherston Roberts (1872–1899), his son, Anglo-Irish soldier and Victoria Cross recipient

Frederick Madison Roberts (1879–1952), first African-American elected to the California State Assembly

Frederick Roberts (politician) (1876–1941), British Labour Party Member of Parliament 1918–1931 and 1935–1941

Fred Roberts (born 1960), American basketball player

Fred Roberts (American football), coach of the Oklahoma Sooners in 1901

Fred Roberts (Royal Air Force officer) (1913–1996), Welsh RAF officer and cricketer

Fred Roberts (footballer, born 1905) (1905–1988), Irish footballer

Fred Roberts (footballer) (1909–1979), English football forward, played for Birmingham and Luton Town in the 1930s

Fred Roberts (rugby union) (1881–1956), New Zealand rugby union footballer who played for The Original All Blacks

Frederick G. Roberts (1862–1936), English cricketer for Gloucestershire

Frederick Roberts (Somerset cricketer) (1881–?), English cricketer for Somerset

Frederick Roberts (cricketer, born 1848) (1848–1903), English cricketer for Surrey

Fred S. Roberts (born 1943), professor of mathematics at Rutgers University

Fred Roberts, soldier and editor of the First World War trench newspaper The Wipers Times

HMS Roberts (F40)

HMS Roberts was a Royal Navy Roberts-class monitor of the Second World War. She was the second monitor to be named after Field Marshal Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts.

Built by John Brown & Company, of Clydebank, she was laid down 30 April 1940, launched 1 April 1941 and completed on 27 October 1941. She reused the twin 15-inch gun turret of the First World War monitor Marshal Soult.

Index of Sri Lanka-related articles (F)

This page lists Sri Lanka-related articles with titles beginning with an alphabet letter F.

F. B. Norris

F. B. Walgampahe

F. G. Morley

F. G. Natesa Iyer

F. H. B. Koch

F. H. Grinlinton

F. H. Gunasekara

F. I. R. (film)

F. L. Woodward

F. M. G. Rowley

F. M. Rajarathnam

F. R. Ellis

FINA Independent Athletes at the 2015 World Aquatics Championships

FM Derana

FM99 Sri Lanka



FNCC Awards

Fa Hien Cave

Faculties and institutions of University of Colombo

Faculties and institutions of University of Peradeniya

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya

Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya

Faculty of Applied Sciences, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka

Faculty of Arts, University of Colombo

Faculty of Arts, University of Peradeniya

Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Peradeniya

Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya

Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Colombo

Faculty of Law, University of Colombo

Faculty of Management and Finance, University of Colombo

Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo

Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya

Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya

Faculty of Royal College Colombo

Faculty of Science, University of Colombo

Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya

Faf du Plessis

Fair & Lovely

Fairlie Dalphatado

Faisal Hossain

Faisz Musthapha

Faiszer Musthapha

Fakir Aftabuddin Khan


Family Party (film)

Family Tracing Unit (Sri Lanka)

Far East Combined Bureau

Far far

Farah Mahbub (judge)

Farali potatoes

Farhad Reza

Farhadabad Union

Faridganj Upazila

Farook Shamsher

Farrokh Khambata

Farsan (food)

Farveez Maharoof

Fascellina chromataria

Fashion (2015 film)

Fast Attack Flotilla

Fatehpur Union (Hathazari)

Father's Day (2012 film)

Fathima Beevi

Fatickchari Coronation Model High School

Fatikchhari Upazila



Faujdarhat Cadet College

Faujdarhat Collegiate School

Faujdarhat Junction railway station

Faujdarhat K. M. High School

Faz Husain

Fazil Marija

Fazle Kabir

Fazlul Qadir Chaudhry

Febi Mani

Federal Party (Sri Lanka)

Federalism in Sri Lanka

Federation of Tamil Sangams of North America

Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Convention (Revised), 1949

Felis chaus kelaarti

Felix Cole

Felix Dias Bandaranaike

Felix Perera

Felix R. de Zoysa

Felix Reginald Dias Bandaranaike I

Felix Reginald Dias Bandaranaike II

Feni (liquor)

Feni District

Feni Government College

Feni Sadar Upazila

Feni, Bangladesh

Fenia (food)



Fenugreek production in India

Ferdinand Bonnel

Ferdinand Kittel

Ferdous Ara

Ferdousi Mazumder

Ferial Ashraff


Fernando de Albuquerque

Fernando de Monroy

Fernão Carvalho

Fernão Gomes de Lemos

Festivals in Sri Lanka

Ficus exasperata

Ficus fergusonii


Fiddle (film)

Field Ornithology Group of Sri Lanka

Field marshal (Sri Lanka)

Fierce Light

Fifth Assembly of Tamil Nadu

Filipe Mascarenhas

Film Magazine (magazine)


Final Articles Revision Convention, 1946

Final Articles Revision Convention, 1961

Financial Crimes Investigation Division

Fire (1996 film)

Fire and Spice

Fire services in Sri Lanka

Fireman (film)

First Battle of Elephant Pass

First Board of Ministers of Ceylon

First Dudley Senanayake cabinet

First Geneva Convention

First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

First Sirimavo Bandaranaike cabinet

Fish head curry

Fish moolie

Fishing cat


Fitzroy Crozier

Five Fingers (2005 film)

Flacillula lubrica

Flag of Central Province, Sri Lanka

Flag of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka

Flag of Mon State

Flag of North Central Province, Sri Lanka

Flag of North Eastern Province, Sri Lanka

Flag of North Western Province, Sri Lanka

Flag of Northern Province, Sri Lanka

Flag of Sabaragamuwa Province

Flag of Southern Province, Sri Lanka

Flag of Sri Lanka

Flag of Uva Province

Flag of Western Province, Sri Lanka

Flag of the Jaffna Kingdom

Flash (2007 film)

Flat Island Wildlife Sanctuary

Flattened rice

Flavian Aponso

Flavors (film)

Fleeting Beauty

Flemingo Liners

Flight lieutenant

Flood Plains National Park

Florence Farr

Florence Senanayake

Flowers of the Sky

Flying Fish (film)

Flying officer

Folk Museum (Anuradhapura)

Fonseca (surname)

Food Food Maha Challenge

Food street

Football Federation of Sri Lanka

Football at the 2006 South Asian Games

Football at the 2014 Lusophony Games

Football for Hope

Football in Sri Lanka

For Sale (2013 film)

Forced Labour Convention

Ford Hospital and Research Centre

Foreign relations of Sri Lanka

Forester Augustus Obeysekera

Fort (Colombo)

Fort Beschutter

Fort Fredrick

Fort Hammenhiel

Fort MacDowall

Fort Pyl

Fort Road Food Street

Fort railway station

Forts in Sri Lanka

Forward (Sri Lanka)

Four Four Bravo

Four Friends (2010 film)

Four Seasons Wines

Fourth Geneva Convention

Foy's Lake

Frances E. Willis

Francis Alfred Cooper

Francis Bacon (cricketer)

Francis Conninsby Hannan Clarke

Francis Fleming

Francis George Stevens

Francis Graeme Tyrrell

Francis Itty Cora

Francis Reid

Francis Rowe (Cambridge cricketer)

Francis Soertsz

Francis Spring

Francis Whyte Ellis

Francis de Zoysa

Francisco de Mello e Castro

Francisco de Meneses

Francissca Peter

Frangipani (film)

Frank Gunasekera

Frank Hadow

Frank Marcus Fernando

Frank Sebaratnam

Frank Wall

Frazer Road

Fred Goodwill

Freddie Silva

Frederic Waldock

Frederic de Winton

Frederica Jansz

Frederick Charles Loos

Frederick Dornhorst

Frederick G. Donnan

Frederick Gordon Pearce

Frederick Haines

Frederick North, 5th Earl of Guilford

Frederick Price (civil servant)

Frederick Richard Saunders

Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts

Fredrick Richard Senanayake

Fredrick de Saram

Fredrick de Silva

Free Media Movement

Free Press (magazine)

Free Software Foundation Tamil Nadu

Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention

Freedom of religion in Sri Lanka

Freedom of the press in Sri Lanka

French Ambassador to Sri Lanka

Friday (2012 film)

Fried cauliflower

Friedrich Rückert

Friedrich Wilhelm von Driberg

Friends (1999 film)

Friends (2002 film)

Frisilia serrata

Frontline Socialist Party


Fulgazi Upazila

Fulvus roundleaf bat


Funambulus obscurus

Funny Boy

Funtasia Water Park

Future Minds

List of Anglo-Indians

The following is a list of both definitions of Anglo-Indians.

List of Second Anglo-Afghan War Victoria Cross recipients

The Victoria Cross (VC) was awarded to 16 members of the British Armed Forces for action during the Second Afghan War of 1878–1880. The Victoria Cross is a military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. The VC was introduced in Great Britain on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War, and takes precedence over all other orders, decorations and medals. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and to civilians under military command. The first ceremony was held on 26 June 1857, when Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in Hyde Park.The original Royal Warrant did not contain a specific clause regarding posthumous awards, although official policy was to not award the VC posthumously. Between 1897 and 1901, several notices were issued in the London Gazette regarding soldiers who would have been awarded the VC had they survived. In a partial reversal of policy in 1902, six of the soldiers mentioned were granted the VC, but not "officially" awarded the medal. In 1907, the posthumous policy was completely reversed and medals were sent to the next of kin of the six officers and men. The Victoria Cross warrant was not officially amended to explicitly allow posthumous awards until 1920, but one quarter of all awards for the First World War were posthumous.In the 19th century, Afghanistan was seen as an important buffer state to the north-west of British-ruled India. In 1866 Sher Ali Khan came to power and was initially well disposed towards Britain. During the next 10 years, relations between the two countries deteriorated, primarily over the issue of Russian encroachment on Afghanistan. In 1878, Sher Ali reluctantly allowed a Russian mission to Kabul, and refused entry to the Viceroy Lord Lytton. After this refusal, Britain sent him an ultimatum that demanded a British envoy be accepted into Afghanistan; when this was ignored, Britain sent in three columns of British troops. The three British columns proceeded over the Bolan Pass to Kandahar, the Khyber Pass to Ali Masjid and through the Kurram Valley to Kabul. After several large victories for the British in 1878, fighting continued in the harsh mountainous terrain through the early months of 1879. As the British marched on Kabul, Sher Ali fled, leaving Yakub Khan to sign the Treaty of Gandamak on 26 May 1879 which required a British envoy in Kabul and the relinquishing of foreign affairs to the British. When the Afghan army mutinied in late 1879, Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts launched punitive actions and he occupied Kabul on 6 October 1879. After a popular uprising in December, Roberts withdrew to Sherpur where they were besieged for three weeks before launching a major attack on 22–23 December where they returned to Kabul and occupied it once again. Abdur Rahman Khan was instated as Emir in July 1880 but Ayub Khan led a rebel force which defeated the British at the Battle of Maiwand and besieged Kandahar. Roberts led a force from Kabul to Kandahar that defeated the rebels at the Battle of Kandahar on 1 September 1880. British forces withdrew in 1887 after Abdur Khan confirmed the initial Treaty of Gandamak and Britain's control over foreign policy.

List of Second Boer War Victoria Cross recipients

The Victoria Cross (VC) was awarded to 78 members of the British Armed Forces for action during the Second Boer War. The Victoria Cross is a military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. The VC was introduced in Great Britain on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War, and takes precedence over all other orders, decorations and medals. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and to civilians under military command. The first ceremony was held on 26 June 1857, when Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in Hyde Park.The Second Boer War was fought from 11 October 1899 to 31 May 1902, between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics of the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic). After a set of failed negotiations over foreigner land rights in the territories, led by Joseph Chamberlain, both sides issued ultimatums. When the ultimatums were rejected, war was declared. The war had three distinct phases. First, the Boers mounted pre-emptive strikes into British-held territory in Natal and the Cape Colony, besieging the British garrisons of Ladysmith, Mafeking and Kimberley. The Boers then won a series of tactical victories against a failed British counteroffensive to relieve the three sieges. The second phase began after British forces under Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts launched counteroffensives with increased troop numbers. After Natal and the Cape Colony were secure, the British were able to invade the Transvaal and the republic's capital, Pretoria, was captured in June 1900. The third phase began in March 1900, when the Boers engaged a protracted hard-fought guerrilla warfare against the British forces. In an effort to cut off supplies to the raiders, the British, now under the leadership of Lord Kitchener, responded with a scorched earth policy of destroying Boer farms and moving civilians into concentration camps.The British Government had expected the campaign to be over within months, and the protracted war became increasingly unpopular especially after revelations about the conditions in the concentration camps. Emily Hobhouse, a campaigner, had forced the British Government to set up the Fawcett Commission, led by suffragist Millicent Fawcett, into the conditions at the camps. Hobhouse published reports from the camps which told of thousands of deaths from disease and malnutrition. These reports helped to sway public opinion against the war. The demand for peace led to a settlement of hostilities, and in 1902, the Treaty of Vereeniging was signed. The two republics were absorbed into the British Empire, although the British were forced to make a number of concessions and reparations to the Boers. The granting of limited autonomy for the area ultimately led to the establishment of the Union of South Africa.

The original Royal Warrant, was silent on whether the VC could be awarded posthumously. From 1857 until 1897, 18 recipients were gazetted after their deaths but only 12 of the next of kin received the actual medal. In the other six cases there was a memorandum stating that they would have been recommended for the VC had they survived. By 1899, the precedent had been established that the VC could be awarded posthumously if the recommendation for the award was submitted prior to the recipient’s death from wounds. Two such awards were granted during the Second Boer War, the well known award to Frederick Roberts, the son of Lord Roberts VC and to Francis Parsons. In 1900 and 1901, three memoranda were issued for Herman Albrecht, Robert Digby-Jones and David Younger stating they would have been recommended for the VC had they survived. In a partial reversal of policy restricted to the Second Boer War, it was announced in the London Gazette on 8 August 1902, that the next of kin of the three soldiers mentioned in memoranda would be sent medals. In the same gazette, the first three posthumous awards were gazetted to Alfred Atkinson, John Barry and Gustavus Coulson. In 1907, the posthumous policy was reversed and medals were sent to the next of kin of the remaining six officers and men. Although the Victoria Cross warrant was not amended to specifically include posthumous awards until 1920, one quarter of all awards for the First World War were posthumous.

List of people from Kanpur

Kanpur has been regarded as the second largest city after Lucknow of the largest state in India. This is a list of notable people from Kanpur, this includes, people born in or associated with the city.

Lord Roberts

Lord Roberts may refer to:

John Roberts, 2nd Baron Roberts (1606–1685), English politician and soldier during the English Civil War and English Restoration. In 1679 he was created Viscount Bodmin and Earl of Radnor

Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts (1832–1914), Anglo-Irish soldier of the British Army in the Victorian Era

Wyn Roberts, Baron Roberts of Conwy (1930–2013), Welsh Conservative peer

Roger Roberts, Baron Roberts of Llandudno (born 1935), Welsh Liberal Democrat peer

Lord Roberts (electoral district), a provincial electoral division in the Canadian province of Manitoba

Major General Roberts

Major General Roberts may refer to:

Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts (1832–1914), one of the most successful British commanders of the Victorian era

George Philip Bradley Roberts (1906–1997), British commander of an armoured division during World War II

Sebastian Roberts (b. 1954), British Army general

Maurice Abraham Cohen

Maurice (Moses) Abraham Cohen (1851-1923) was a linguist and pioneer of Jewish education in Sydney, Australia.Cohen was born in the Polish/Ukrainian town of Rava-Ruska to a Polish-Jewish family of Sephardic origin, being a direct descendant of Abraham De Mosso Cohen, the Rabbi who established the Spanish-Jewish community of Zamosc. Maurice Abraham moved to the UK at an early age to be educated at Jews College London.


Robertsganj (Hindi: रॉबर्ट्सगंज, Urdu: رابرٹس گنج) is a city and a municipal board in Sonbhadra district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

Robertsganj is located in the southeastern corner of the state. Robertsganj is the administrative headquarters of Sonbhadra District.The district Sonbhadra and Robertsganj as its district headquarter was created by carving off the southern part of the earlier Mirzapur district on 4 March 1989. Son, Karmnasha, Chandra Prabha, Rihand, Kanhar, Renu, Ghagar and Belan Rivers drain this area. The city is named after Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts.

Located between Vindhyan Range and Kaimur Range, this area had been the centre of activities of pre-historic man which is evident from the rock paintings (pre-historic cave art) found in abundance in this region.

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