Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, VC, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, KStJ, VD, PC (30 September 1832 – 14 November 1914) was a soldier who was one of the most successful British commanders of the 19th century. He served in the Indian Rebellion, the Expedition to Abyssinia and the Second Anglo-Afghan War before leading British Forces to success in the Second Boer War. He also became the last Commander-in-Chief of the Forces before the post was abolished in 1904. He was known and referred to (but not to his face) as "Bobs". His son (see below) was called "Young Bobs".
The Earl Roberts
|Birth name||Frederick Sleigh Roberts|
|Born||30 September 1832|
Cawnpore, British India
|Died||14 November 1914 (aged 82)|
St Omer, France
St Paul's Cathedral, London
|Years of service||1851–1904|
|Commands held||Commander-in-Chief of the Forces|
Command of British troops in Second Boer War until 1900
Commander-in-Chief in Madras
Governor of Natal
Kabul and Kandahar field forces
Kuram field force
Knight of the Order of the Garter
Knight of the Order of St Patrick
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Member of the Order of Merit
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire
Knight of the Order of St John
Mentioned in Despatches
|Relations||Frederick Roberts (son)|
Sir Abraham Roberts (father)
Born at Cawnpore, India, on 30 September 1832, Roberts was the son of General Sir Abraham Roberts, a native of County Waterford in the south-east of Ireland. At the time Sir Abraham was commanding the 1st Bengal European Regiment. Roberts was named Sleigh in honour of the garrison commander, Major General William Sleigh. His mother was Edinburgh-born Isabella Bunbury, daughter of Major Abraham Bunbury from Kilfeacle in County Tipperary.
Roberts was educated at Eton, Sandhurst, and Addiscombe Military Seminary before entering the East India Company Army as a second lieutenant with the Bengal Artillery on 12 December 1851. He became Aide-de-Camp to his father in 1852, transferred to the Bengal Horse Artillery in 1854 and was promoted to lieutenant on 31 May 1857.
Roberts fought in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 seeing action during the siege and capture of Delhi where he was slightly wounded, and being present at the relief of Lucknow, where, as Deputy Assistant Quartermaster-General, he was attached to the staff of Sir Colin Campbell, Commander-in-Chief, India. He was awarded the Victoria Cross for actions on 2 January 1858 at Khudaganj. The citation reads:
Lieutenant Roberts' gallantry has on every occasion been most marked.
On following the retreating enemy on 2 January 1858, at Khodagunge, he saw in the distance two Sepoys going away with a standard. Lieutenant Roberts put spurs to his horse, and overtook them just as they were about to enter a village. They immediately turned round, and presented their muskets at him, and one of the men pulled the trigger, but fortunately the caps snapped, and the standard-bearer was cut down by this gallant young officer, and the standard taken possession of by him. He also, on the same day, cut down another Sepoy who was standing at bay, with musket and bayonet, keeping off a Sowar. Lieutenant Roberts rode to the assistance of the horseman, and, rushing at the Sepoy, with one blow of his sword cut him across the face, killing him on the spot.
Having been promoted to second captain on 12 November 1860 and to brevet major on 13 November 1860, he transferred to the British Army in 1861 and served in the Umbeyla and Abyssinian campaigns of 1863 and 1867–1868 respectively. Having been promoted to brevet lieutenant colonel on 15 August 1868 and to the substantive rank of captain on 18 November 1868, Roberts also fought in the Lushai campaign of 1871–1872.
He was promoted to the substantive rank of major on 5 July 1872, appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) on 10 September 1872 and promoted to brevet colonel on 30 January 1875. That year he became Quartermaster-General of the Bengal Army.
He was given command of the Kurram field force in March 1878 and took part in the Second Anglo-Afghan War, distinguishing himself enough at the Battle of Peiwar Kotal in November 1878 to receive the thanks of Parliament, be promoted to the substantive rank of major general on 31 December 1878 and be advanced to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) on 25 July 1879.
In September 1879 he was despatched, along with Maurice Abraham Cohen an expert in the Urdu language, to Kabul to seek retribution for the death of Sir Louis Cavagnari, the British envoy there. He was also given the local rank of lieutenant-general on 11 November 1879. He was commander of the Kabul Field Force and brought at least 20 field guns (usually horse-drawn mobile cannons) with his army during the conquest and occupation of Kabul during the second phase of the war. His move against Kabul was sparked by the assassination of Cavagnari, the British envoy in Kabul and the official who had signed the Treaty of Gandamak with Amir Mohammad Yaqub Khan in May of that year.
After completing his mission to occupy Kabul, he was appointed commander of the Kabul and Kandahar field force and led his 10,000 troops across 300 miles of rough terrain in Afghanistan to relieve Kandahar and defeat Ayub Khan at the Battle of Kandahar on 1 September 1880. For his services, Roberts again received the thanks of Parliament, and was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) on 21 September 1880 and appointed Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) during 1880.
After a very brief interval as Governor of Natal and Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Transvaal Province and High Commissioner for South Eastern Africa with effect from 7 March 1881, Roberts (having become a baronet on 11 June 1881) was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Madras Army on 16 November 1881. Promoted to the substantive rank of lieutenant general on 26 July 1883, he became Commander-in-Chief, India on 28 November 1885 and was advanced to Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE) on 15 February 1887 and to Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE) on reorganisation of the Order on 21 June 1887. This was followed by his promotion to a supernumerary general on 28 November 1890 and to the substantive rank of general on 31 December 1891. On 23 February 1892 he was created Baron Roberts of Kandahar in Afghanistan and of the City of Waterford.
After relinquishing his Indian command and becoming Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India (GCSI) on 3 June 1893, Lord Roberts was relocated to Ireland as Commander-in-Chief of British forces there from 1 October 1895. He was promoted field marshal on 25 May 1895 and created a knight of the Order of St Patrick during 1897.
While in Ireland, Roberts completed a memoir of his years in India, which was published in 1897 as Forty-one Years in India: from Subaltern to Commander-in-chief.
On 23 December 1899 Roberts returned to South Africa on the RMS Dunottar Castle to take overall command of British forces in the Second Boer War, subordinating the previous commander, General Redvers Buller. His appointment was a response to a string of defeats in the early weeks of the war and was accompanied by the despatch of huge reinforcements. For his headquarters staff, he appointed military men from far and wide: Lord Kitchener (Chief of Staff) from the Sudan, Frederick Burnham (Chief of Scouts), the American scout, from the Klondike, George Henderson from the Staff College, Neville Chamberlain from Afghanistan and William Nicholson (Military Secretary) from Calcutta. Roberts launched a two-pronged offensive, personally leading the advance across the open veldt into the Orange Free State, while Buller sought to eject the Boers from the hills of Natal - during which, Lord Roberts's son was killed, earning a posthumous V.C.
Having raised the Siege of Kimberley, at the Battle of Paardeberg on 27 February 1900 Roberts forced the Boer General Piet Cronjé to surrender with some 4,000 men. After another victory at Poplar Grove, Roberts captured the Free State capital Bloemfontein on 13 March. His further advance was delayed by his disastrous attempt to reorganise his army's logistic system on the Indian Army model in the midst of the war. The resulting chaos and shortage of supplies contributed to a severe typhoid epidemic that inflicted far heavier losses on the British forces than they suffered in combat.
On 3 May Roberts resumed his offensive towards the Transvaal, capturing its capital Pretoria on 31 May. Having defeated the Boers at Diamond Hill and linked up with Buller, he won the last victory of his career at Bergendal on 27 August.
Strategies devised by Roberts, to force the Boer commandos to submit, included concentration camps and the burning of farms. Conditions in the concentration camps, which had been conceived by Roberts as a form of control of the families whose farms he had destroyed, began to degenerate rapidly as the large influx of Boers outstripped the ability of the minuscule British force to cope. The camps lacked space, food, sanitation, medicine, and medical care, leading to rampant disease and a very high death rate for those Boers who entered. Eventually 26,370 women and children (81% were children) died in the concentration camps. The Boer forces disintegrated, and with the war apparently effectively over, Roberts handed over command on 12 December to Lord Kitchener. He returned to England to receive yet more honours: he was made a Knight of the Order of the Garter and also created Earl Roberts of Kandahar in Afghanistan and Pretoria in the Transvaal Colony and of the City of Waterford and Viscount St Pierre.
He became a Knight of Grace of the Order of St John on 11 March 1901 and then a Knight of Justice of that order on 3 July 1901. He was also awarded the German Order of the Black Eagle during the Kaiser´s visit to the United Kingdom in February 1901. He was among the original recipients of the Order of Merit in the 1902 Coronation Honours list published on 26 June 1902, and received the order from King Edward VII at Buckingham Palace on 8 August 1902.
Lord Roberts became the last Commander-in-Chief of the Forces on 3 January 1901. During his time in office he introduced the Short Magazine Lee Enfield Rifle and the 18-pounder Gun and provided improved education and training for soldiers. In September 1902, Lord Roberts and St John Brodrick, Secretary of State for War, visited Germany to attend the German army maneuvers as guest of the Emperor Wilhelm. He served as Commander-in-Chief for three years before the post was abolished as recommended by Lord Esher in the Esher Report in February 1904.
In retirement he was a keen advocate of introducing conscription in Britain (directing the National Service League) to prepare for a great European war. Following his return from the Boer War, he was instrumental in promoting the mass training of civilians in rifle shooting skills through membership of shooting clubs, and a facsimile of his signature appears to this day on all official targets of the National Smallbore Rifle Association.
In 1907 a selection of his speeches was published under the title A Nation in Arms. Roberts provided William Le Queux with information for his novel The Invasion of 1910 and checked the proofs. In 1910 Roberts' friend Ian Hamilton, in co-operation with the Secretary of State for War, Richard Haldane, published Compulsory Service in which he attacked Roberts' advocacy of conscription. This caused much hurt to Roberts. He replied, with the help of Leo Amery and J. A. Cramb, with Fallacies and Facts (1911).
In an important speech in Manchester's Free Trade Hall on 22 October 1912 Roberts pointed out that Cobden and Bright's prediction that peace and universal disarmament would follow the adoption of free trade had not happened. He further warned of the threat posed by Germany:
In the year 1912, just as in 1866 and just as in 1870, war will take place the instant the German forces by land and sea are, by their superiority at every point, as certain of victory as anything in human calculation can be made certain...We may stand still. Germany always advances and the direction of her advance, the line along which she is moving, is now most manifest. It is towards...complete supremacy by land and sea.
He claimed that Germany was making enormous efforts to prepare for war and ended his speech by saying:
Gentlemen, only the other day I completed my eightieth year...and the words I am speaking to-day are, therefore, old words—the result of years of earnest thought and practical experience. But, Gentlemen, my fellow-citizens and fellow-Britishers, citizens of this great and sacred trust, this Empire, if these were my last words, I still should say to you—“arm yourselves” and if I put to myself the question, How can I, even at this late and solemn hour, best help England,—England that to me has been so much, England that for me has done so much—again I say, “Arm and prepare to acquit yourselves like men, for the day of your ordeal is at hand.”
The historian A. J. A. Morris claimed that this speech caused a sensation due to Roberts' warnings about Germany. It was much criticised by the Liberal and Radical press. The Manchester Guardian was disgusted at the
insinuation that the German Government's views of international policy are less scrupulous and more cynical than those of other Governments...Prussia's character among nations is, in fact, not very different from the character which Lancashire men give to themselves as compared with other Englishmen. It is blunt, straightforward, and unsentimental.
The Nation claimed Roberts had an "unimaginative soldier's brain" and that Germany was "a friendly Power" who since 1870 "has remained the most peaceful and the most self-contained, though doubtless not the most sympathetic, member of the European family". The historian John Terraine, writing in 1993, said: "At this distance of time the verdict upon Lord Robert's Manchester speech must be that, in speaking out clearly on the probability of war, he was doing a patriotic service comparable to Churchill's during the Thirties".
Roberts became vice-president of the Public Schools Alpine Sports Club during 1903. Eight years later on 11 January 1911, the Roberts of Kandahar Challenge Cup (so named because Roberts donated the trophy cup) was organised at Crans-Montana (Crans-sur-Sierre) by winter sports pioneer Arnold Lunn. An important part of the history of skiing, the races was a forerunner of the downhill ski race. The Kandahar Ski Club, founded by Lunn, was named after the Cup and subsequently lent its name to the Arlberg-Kandahar ski race. The name Kandahar is still used for the premier races of the FIS Alpine Ski World Cup circuit.
Roberts was approached for advice about the Ulster Voluntary Force, formed in January 1913 by Ulstermen who had no wish to be part of a Home Rule Ireland. Too old himself to take active command, Roberts recommended Lieutenant General Sir George Richardson, formerly of the Indian Army, as commander.
On the morning of 20 March — the morning of Paget's speech which provoked the Curragh incident, in which Hubert Gough and other officers threatened to resign rather than coerce Ulster — Roberts, aided by Wilson, drafted a letter to the Prime Minister, urging him not to cause a split in the army.
Roberts had asked the CIGS John French to come and see him at Ascot on 19 March; French had been too busy but invited Roberts to visit him when next in London. On the morning of 21 March Roberts and French had an acrimonious telephone conversation in which Roberts told French that he would share the blame if he collaborated with the Cabinet's "dastardly" attempt to coerce Ulster, and then, after French told him that he would "do his duty as a soldier" and obey lawful orders, put the phone down on him. Soon after, Roberts received a telegram from Hubert Gough, purporting to ask for advice, although possibly designed to goad him into further action. Roberts requested an audience with King George V, who told him that Seely (Secretary of State for War), to whom the King had recently spoken, had complained that Roberts was "at the bottom" of the matter, had incited Gough, and had called the politicians "swine and robbers" in his phone conversation with French. Roberts indignantly denied this, claiming that he had not been in contact with Gough for "years" and that he had advised officers not to resign. Roberts's claim may not be the whole truth as Gough was on first name terms with Roberts's daughter and later gave her copies of key documents relating to the Incident.
Roberts also had an interview with Seely (he was unable to locate French, who was in fact himself having an audience with the King at the time) but came away thinking him "drunk with power", although he learned that Paget had been acting without authority (in talking of "commencing active operations" against Ulster and in offering officers a chance to discuss hypothetical orders and to threaten to resign) and left a note for Hubert Gough to this effect. This note influenced the Gough brothers in being willing to remain in the Army, albeit with a written guarantee that the Army would not have to act against Ulster. After Roberts's lobbying, the King insisted that Asquith make no further troop movements in Ulster without consulting him.
Roberts wrote to French (22 March) denying the "swine and robbers" comment, although French's reply stressed his hurt that Roberts had thought so ill of him.
Roberts died of pneumonia at St Omer, France, on 14 November 1914 while visiting Indian troops fighting in the First World War. His body was taken to Ascot by special train for a funeral service on 18 November before being taken to London. After lying in state in Westminster Hall (one of two individuals who were not members of the royal family to do so during the 20th century, the other being Sir Winston Churchill), he was given a state funeral and was then buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.
His long list of honorary military posts included: honorary colonel of the 2nd London Corps from 24 September 1887, honorary colonel of the 5th Battalion, the Sherwood Foresters (Derbyshire Regiment) from 29 December 1888, honorary colonel of the 1st Newcastle upon Tyne (Western Division), Royal Artillery from 18 April 1894, honorary colonel of the Waterford Artillery (Southern Division) from 4 March 1896, colonel-commandant of the Royal Artillery from 7 October 1896, honorary colonel of the 3rd Battalion, the Loyal North Lancashire Regiment from 1 January 1898, honorary colonel of the City of London Imperial Volunteers from 10 March 1900, honorary colonel of the 3rd Volunteer Battalion, the Gloucestershire Regiment from 5 September 1900, colonel of the Irish Guards from 17 October 1900, honorary colonel of the 2nd Hampshire (Southern Division), Royal Garrison Artillery from 15 August 1901, honorary colonel of the 3rd (Dundee Highland) Volunteer Battalion, the Black Watch (Royal Highlanders) from 19 September 1903, honorary colonel of the North Somerset Yeomanry from 1 April 1908, honorary colonel of the 6th Battalion, the City of London (Rifles') Regiment from 1 April 1908, honorary colonel of the 1st Wessex Brigade from 1 April 1908, honorary colonel of 6th Battalion, The Gloucestershire Regiment from 1 April 1908, honorary colonel of The Waterford Royal Field Reserve Artillery from 2 August 1908 and honorary colonel of 1st (Hull) Battalion, The East Yorkshire Regiment from 11 November 1914 (three days before his death). Additionally he was Colonel of the National Reserve from 5 August 1911.
Lord Roberts received civic honours from a number of universities, cities and livery companies, including:
Roberts married Nora Henrietta Bews on 17 May 1859; they had six children of whom three, a son and two daughters, survived infancy. His son Frederick Hugh Sherston Roberts VC was killed in action on 17 December 1899 at the Battle of Colenso during the Boer War. Roberts and his son were one of only three pairs of fathers and sons to be awarded the VC. Today, their Victoria Crosses are in the National Army Museum. His barony became extinct, but by the special remainder granted with them he was succeeded in the earldom and viscountcy by his elder surviving daughter, Aileen. She was succeeded by her younger sister Edwina, who died in 1955.
Lord Roberts French Immersion Public School in London, Ontario, Lord Roberts Junior Public School in Scarborough, Ontario, and Lord Roberts Elementary Schools in Vancouver, British Columbia, and Winnipeg, Manitoba are named after him. Roberts is also a Senior Boys house at the Duke of York's Royal Military School.
The Lord Roberts Centre – a facility at the National Shooting Centre built for the 2002 Commonwealth Games, and HQ of the National Smallbore Rifle Association (which Roberts was fundamental in founding) is named in his honour.
On 29 May 1900 Pretoria surrendered to the British commander-in-chief, Lord Roberts. Due to the prevalence of malaria and because the area had become too small, he relocated his headquarters from the vicinity of the Normal College to a high-lying site 10 km south-west of the city – hence the name Roberts Heights. Roberts Heights, a busy military town, the largest in South Africa and resembling Aldershot, soon developed. On 15 December 1938 the name was changed to Voortrekkerhoogte and again to Thaba Tshwane on 19 May 1998.
Sir Neville Chamberlain
| Commander-in-Chief, Madras Army
Sir Herbert MacPherson
Sir Donald Stewart, Bt
| Commander-in-Chief, India
Sir George White
The Viscount Wolseley
| Commander-in-Chief, Ireland
Prince Arthur, Duke of
Connaught and Strathearn
Sir Redvers Buller
| Commander-in-Chief of
British Forces in South Africa
The Lord Kitchener of Khartoum
The Viscount Wolseley
| Commander-in-Chief of the Forces
Sir Neville Lyttelton
as Chief of the General Staff
Sir Collingwood Dickson
| Master Gunner, St James's Park
Sir Robert Biddulph
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation|| Earl Roberts
Aileen Mary Roberts
| Baron Roberts of Kandahar
The following lists events that happened during 1832 in South Africa.1832 in the United Kingdom
Events from the year 1832 in the United Kingdom.Abercrombie-class monitor
The Abercrombie class of monitors served in the Royal Navy during the First World War.Baron Roberts
The title Baron Roberts has been held by three people:
Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts (1832–1914), British general, created Baron Roberts of Kandahar in 1892
Wyn Roberts, Baron Roberts of Conwy (b. 1930), Welsh Conservative politician
Roger Roberts, Baron Roberts of Llandudno (b. 1935), Welsh Liberal Democrat politicianEquestrian statue of the Earl Roberts, London
The equestrian statue of the Earl Roberts is an outdoor sculpture of Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts by Harry Bates, installed at Horse Guards Parade in London, United Kingdom.Frederick Hugh Sherston Roberts
Frederick Hugh Sherston Roberts, VC (8 January 1872 – 17 December 1899) was a British Army officer and recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Roberts was the son of the famous Victorian commander Field Marshal Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts.Frederick Roberts
Frederick or Fred Roberts may refer to:
Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts (1832–1914), Anglo-Irish soldier
Frederick Hugh Sherston Roberts (1872–1899), his son, Anglo-Irish soldier and Victoria Cross recipient
Frederick Madison Roberts (1879–1952), first African-American elected to the California State Assembly
Frederick Roberts (politician) (1876–1941), British Labour Party Member of Parliament 1918–1931 and 1935–1941
Fred Roberts (born 1960), American basketball player
Fred Roberts (American football), coach of the Oklahoma Sooners in 1901
Fred Roberts (Royal Air Force officer) (1913–1996), Welsh RAF officer and cricketer
Fred Roberts (footballer, born 1905) (1905–1988), Irish footballer
Fred Roberts (footballer) (1909–1979), English football forward, played for Birmingham and Luton Town in the 1930s
Fred Roberts (rugby union) (1881–1956), New Zealand rugby union footballer who played for The Original All Blacks
Frederick G. Roberts (1862–1936), English cricketer for Gloucestershire
Frederick Roberts (Somerset cricketer) (1881–?), English cricketer for Somerset
Frederick Roberts (cricketer, born 1848) (1848–1903), English cricketer for Surrey
Fred S. Roberts (born 1943), professor of mathematics at Rutgers University
Fred Roberts, soldier and editor of the First World War trench newspaper The Wipers TimesHMS Roberts (F40)
HMS Roberts was a Royal Navy Roberts-class monitor of the Second World War. She was the second monitor to be named after Field Marshal Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts.
Built by John Brown & Company, of Clydebank, she was laid down 30 April 1940, launched 1 April 1941 and completed on 27 October 1941. She reused the twin 15-inch gun turret of the First World War monitor Marshal Soult.Index of Sri Lanka-related articles (F)
This page lists Sri Lanka-related articles with titles beginning with an alphabet letter F.
F. B. Norris
F. B. Walgampahe
F. G. Morley
F. G. Natesa Iyer
F. H. B. Koch
F. H. Grinlinton
F. H. Gunasekara
F. I. R. (film)
F. L. Woodward
F. M. G. Rowley
F. M. Rajarathnam
F. R. Ellis
FINA Independent Athletes at the 2015 World Aquatics Championships
FM99 Sri Lanka
Fa Hien Cave
Faculties and institutions of University of Colombo
Faculties and institutions of University of Peradeniya
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya
Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka
Faculty of Arts, University of Colombo
Faculty of Arts, University of Peradeniya
Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Peradeniya
Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya
Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Colombo
Faculty of Law, University of Colombo
Faculty of Management and Finance, University of Colombo
Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo
Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya
Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya
Faculty of Royal College Colombo
Faculty of Science, University of Colombo
Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya
Faf du Plessis
Fair & Lovely
Fakir Aftabuddin Khan
Family Party (film)
Family Tracing Unit (Sri Lanka)
Far East Combined Bureau
Farah Mahbub (judge)
Fashion (2015 film)
Fast Attack Flotilla
Fatehpur Union (Hathazari)
Father's Day (2012 film)
Fatickchari Coronation Model High School
Faujdarhat Cadet College
Faujdarhat Collegiate School
Faujdarhat Junction railway station
Faujdarhat K. M. High School
Fazlul Qadir Chaudhry
Federal Party (Sri Lanka)
Federalism in Sri Lanka
Federation of Tamil Sangams of North America
Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Convention (Revised), 1949
Felis chaus kelaarti
Felix Dias Bandaranaike
Felix R. de Zoysa
Felix Reginald Dias Bandaranaike I
Felix Reginald Dias Bandaranaike II
Feni Government College
Feni Sadar Upazila
Fenugreek production in India
Fernando de Albuquerque
Fernando de Monroy
Fernão Gomes de Lemos
Festivals in Sri Lanka
Field Ornithology Group of Sri Lanka
Field marshal (Sri Lanka)
Fifth Assembly of Tamil Nadu
Film Magazine (magazine)
Final Articles Revision Convention, 1946
Final Articles Revision Convention, 1961
Financial Crimes Investigation Division
Fire (1996 film)
Fire and Spice
Fire services in Sri Lanka
First Battle of Elephant Pass
First Board of Ministers of Ceylon
First Dudley Senanayake cabinet
First Geneva Convention
First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
First Sirimavo Bandaranaike cabinet
Fish head curry
Five Fingers (2005 film)
Flag of Central Province, Sri Lanka
Flag of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka
Flag of Mon State
Flag of North Central Province, Sri Lanka
Flag of North Eastern Province, Sri Lanka
Flag of North Western Province, Sri Lanka
Flag of Northern Province, Sri Lanka
Flag of Sabaragamuwa Province
Flag of Southern Province, Sri Lanka
Flag of Sri Lanka
Flag of Uva Province
Flag of Western Province, Sri Lanka
Flag of the Jaffna Kingdom
Flash (2007 film)
Flat Island Wildlife Sanctuary
Flood Plains National Park
Flowers of the Sky
Flying Fish (film)
Folk Museum (Anuradhapura)
Food Food Maha Challenge
Football Federation of Sri Lanka
Football at the 2006 South Asian Games
Football at the 2014 Lusophony Games
Football for Hope
Football in Sri Lanka
For Sale (2013 film)
Forced Labour Convention
Ford Hospital and Research Centre
Foreign relations of Sri Lanka
Forester Augustus Obeysekera
Fort Road Food Street
Fort railway station
Forts in Sri Lanka
Forward (Sri Lanka)
Four Four Bravo
Four Friends (2010 film)
Four Seasons Wines
Fourth Geneva Convention
Frances E. Willis
Francis Alfred Cooper
Francis Bacon (cricketer)
Francis Conninsby Hannan Clarke
Francis George Stevens
Francis Graeme Tyrrell
Francis Itty Cora
Francis Rowe (Cambridge cricketer)
Francis Whyte Ellis
Francis de Zoysa
Francisco de Mello e Castro
Francisco de Meneses
Frank Marcus Fernando
Frederic de Winton
Frederick Charles Loos
Frederick G. Donnan
Frederick Gordon Pearce
Frederick North, 5th Earl of Guilford
Frederick Price (civil servant)
Frederick Richard Saunders
Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts
Fredrick Richard Senanayake
Fredrick de Saram
Fredrick de Silva
Free Media Movement
Free Press (magazine)
Free Software Foundation Tamil Nadu
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention
Freedom of religion in Sri Lanka
Freedom of the press in Sri Lanka
French Ambassador to Sri Lanka
Friday (2012 film)
Friedrich Wilhelm von Driberg
Friends (1999 film)
Friends (2002 film)
Frontline Socialist Party
Fulvus roundleaf bat
Funtasia Water Park
Future MindsList of Anglo-Indians
The following is a list of both definitions of Anglo-Indians.List of Second Anglo-Afghan War Victoria Cross recipients
The Victoria Cross (VC) was awarded to 16 members of the British Armed Forces for action during the Second Afghan War of 1878–1880. The Victoria Cross is a military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. The VC was introduced in Great Britain on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War, and takes precedence over all other orders, decorations and medals. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and to civilians under military command. The first ceremony was held on 26 June 1857, when Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in Hyde Park.The original Royal Warrant did not contain a specific clause regarding posthumous awards, although official policy was to not award the VC posthumously. Between 1897 and 1901, several notices were issued in the London Gazette regarding soldiers who would have been awarded the VC had they survived. In a partial reversal of policy in 1902, six of the soldiers mentioned were granted the VC, but not "officially" awarded the medal. In 1907, the posthumous policy was completely reversed and medals were sent to the next of kin of the six officers and men. The Victoria Cross warrant was not officially amended to explicitly allow posthumous awards until 1920, but one quarter of all awards for the First World War were posthumous.In the 19th century, Afghanistan was seen as an important buffer state to the north-west of British-ruled India. In 1866 Sher Ali Khan came to power and was initially well disposed towards Britain. During the next 10 years, relations between the two countries deteriorated, primarily over the issue of Russian encroachment on Afghanistan. In 1878, Sher Ali reluctantly allowed a Russian mission to Kabul, and refused entry to the Viceroy Lord Lytton. After this refusal, Britain sent him an ultimatum that demanded a British envoy be accepted into Afghanistan; when this was ignored, Britain sent in three columns of British troops. The three British columns proceeded over the Bolan Pass to Kandahar, the Khyber Pass to Ali Masjid and through the Kurram Valley to Kabul. After several large victories for the British in 1878, fighting continued in the harsh mountainous terrain through the early months of 1879. As the British marched on Kabul, Sher Ali fled, leaving Yakub Khan to sign the Treaty of Gandamak on 26 May 1879 which required a British envoy in Kabul and the relinquishing of foreign affairs to the British. When the Afghan army mutinied in late 1879, Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts launched punitive actions and he occupied Kabul on 6 October 1879. After a popular uprising in December, Roberts withdrew to Sherpur where they were besieged for three weeks before launching a major attack on 22–23 December where they returned to Kabul and occupied it once again. Abdur Rahman Khan was instated as Emir in July 1880 but Ayub Khan led a rebel force which defeated the British at the Battle of Maiwand and besieged Kandahar. Roberts led a force from Kabul to Kandahar that defeated the rebels at the Battle of Kandahar on 1 September 1880. British forces withdrew in 1887 after Abdur Khan confirmed the initial Treaty of Gandamak and Britain's control over foreign policy.List of Second Boer War Victoria Cross recipients
The Victoria Cross (VC) was awarded to 78 members of the British Armed Forces for action during the Second Boer War. The Victoria Cross is a military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. The VC was introduced in Great Britain on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War, and takes precedence over all other orders, decorations and medals. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and to civilians under military command. The first ceremony was held on 26 June 1857, when Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in Hyde Park.The Second Boer War was fought from 11 October 1899 to 31 May 1902, between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics of the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic). After a set of failed negotiations over foreigner land rights in the territories, led by Joseph Chamberlain, both sides issued ultimatums. When the ultimatums were rejected, war was declared. The war had three distinct phases. First, the Boers mounted pre-emptive strikes into British-held territory in Natal and the Cape Colony, besieging the British garrisons of Ladysmith, Mafeking and Kimberley. The Boers then won a series of tactical victories against a failed British counteroffensive to relieve the three sieges. The second phase began after British forces under Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts launched counteroffensives with increased troop numbers. After Natal and the Cape Colony were secure, the British were able to invade the Transvaal and the republic's capital, Pretoria, was captured in June 1900. The third phase began in March 1900, when the Boers engaged a protracted hard-fought guerrilla warfare against the British forces. In an effort to cut off supplies to the raiders, the British, now under the leadership of Lord Kitchener, responded with a scorched earth policy of destroying Boer farms and moving civilians into concentration camps.The British Government had expected the campaign to be over within months, and the protracted war became increasingly unpopular especially after revelations about the conditions in the concentration camps. Emily Hobhouse, a campaigner, had forced the British Government to set up the Fawcett Commission, led by suffragist Millicent Fawcett, into the conditions at the camps. Hobhouse published reports from the camps which told of thousands of deaths from disease and malnutrition. These reports helped to sway public opinion against the war. The demand for peace led to a settlement of hostilities, and in 1902, the Treaty of Vereeniging was signed. The two republics were absorbed into the British Empire, although the British were forced to make a number of concessions and reparations to the Boers. The granting of limited autonomy for the area ultimately led to the establishment of the Union of South Africa.
The original Royal Warrant, was silent on whether the VC could be awarded posthumously. From 1857 until 1897, 18 recipients were gazetted after their deaths but only 12 of the next of kin received the actual medal. In the other six cases there was a memorandum stating that they would have been recommended for the VC had they survived. By 1899, the precedent had been established that the VC could be awarded posthumously if the recommendation for the award was submitted prior to the recipient’s death from wounds. Two such awards were granted during the Second Boer War, the well known award to Frederick Roberts, the son of Lord Roberts VC and to Francis Parsons. In 1900 and 1901, three memoranda were issued for Herman Albrecht, Robert Digby-Jones and David Younger stating they would have been recommended for the VC had they survived. In a partial reversal of policy restricted to the Second Boer War, it was announced in the London Gazette on 8 August 1902, that the next of kin of the three soldiers mentioned in memoranda would be sent medals. In the same gazette, the first three posthumous awards were gazetted to Alfred Atkinson, John Barry and Gustavus Coulson. In 1907, the posthumous policy was reversed and medals were sent to the next of kin of the remaining six officers and men. Although the Victoria Cross warrant was not amended to specifically include posthumous awards until 1920, one quarter of all awards for the First World War were posthumous.List of people from Kanpur
Kanpur has been regarded as the second largest city after Lucknow of the largest state in India. This is a list of notable people from Kanpur, this includes, people born in or associated with the city.Lord Roberts
Lord Roberts may refer to:
John Roberts, 2nd Baron Roberts (1606–1685), English politician and soldier during the English Civil War and English Restoration. In 1679 he was created Viscount Bodmin and Earl of Radnor
Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts (1832–1914), Anglo-Irish soldier of the British Army in the Victorian Era
Wyn Roberts, Baron Roberts of Conwy (1930–2013), Welsh Conservative peer
Roger Roberts, Baron Roberts of Llandudno (born 1935), Welsh Liberal Democrat peer
Lord Roberts (electoral district), a provincial electoral division in the Canadian province of ManitobaMajor General Roberts
Major General Roberts may refer to:
Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts (1832–1914), one of the most successful British commanders of the Victorian era
George Philip Bradley Roberts (1906–1997), British commander of an armoured division during World War II
Sebastian Roberts (b. 1954), British Army generalMaurice Abraham Cohen
Maurice (Moses) Abraham Cohen (1851-1923) was a linguist and pioneer of Jewish education in Sydney, Australia.Cohen was born in the Polish/Ukrainian town of Rava-Ruska to a Polish-Jewish family of Sephardic origin, being a direct descendant of Abraham De Mosso Cohen, the Rabbi who established the Spanish-Jewish community of Zamosc. Maurice Abraham moved to the UK at an early age to be educated at Jews College London.Robertsganj
Robertsganj (Hindi: रॉबर्ट्सगंज, Urdu: رابرٹس گنج) is a city and a municipal board in Sonbhadra district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Robertsganj is located in the southeastern corner of the state. Robertsganj is the administrative headquarters of Sonbhadra District.The district Sonbhadra and Robertsganj as its district headquarter was created by carving off the southern part of the earlier Mirzapur district on 4 March 1989. Son, Karmnasha, Chandra Prabha, Rihand, Kanhar, Renu, Ghagar and Belan Rivers drain this area. The city is named after Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts.
Located between Vindhyan Range and Kaimur Range, this area had been the centre of activities of pre-historic man which is evident from the rock paintings (pre-historic cave art) found in abundance in this region.