Frederick I, Duke of Upper Lorraine

Frederick I (c. 912 – 18 May 978) was the count of Bar and duke of Upper Lorraine. He was a son of Wigeric, count of Bidgau, also count palatine of Lorraine, and Cunigunda,[1] and thus a sixth generation descendant of Charlemagne.

In 954, he married Beatrice, daughter of Hugh the Great, count of Paris, and Hedwige of Saxony.[2] He received in dowry the revenues of the abbey of Saint-Denis in Lorraine. To stop incursions from the duchy of Champagne, Frederick constructed a castle over the Ornain river in 960, and later occupied confiscated lands of Saint-Mihiel.[3] He exchanged fiefs with the bishop of Toul. Thus, he created his own feudal domain, the county of Bar. So he became the founder of the House of Bar or the House of Ardennes-Bar, a cadet branch of the House of Ardennes.

The duchy of Lorraine was at that time governed by the archbishop of Cologne, Bruno, who was called the archduke on account of his dual title. In 959, Bruno, in concert with his brother, the Emperor Otto I, divided the duchy, appointing as margraves (or vice-dukes) one Godfrey in Lower Lorraine and Frederick in Upper Lorraine. After Bruno's death, in 977, Frederick and Godfrey were styling themselves dukes.

As duke, Frederick oversaw the reform of Saint-Dié and Moyenmoutier.[4]

Family

His children were:

Notes

  1. ^ Nash 2017, p. xxvi.
  2. ^ Wickham 2009, p. 450.
  3. ^ Evergates 1995, p. 96.
  4. ^ Reuter 1992, p. 49.
  5. ^ Leyser 1994, p. 166.

Sources

  • Evergates, Theodore (1995). "Bar-le-Duc". In Kibler, William W.; Zinn, Grover A. (eds.). Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing, Inc.
  • Leyser, Karl (1994). Reuter, Timothy (ed.). Communications and Power in Medieval Europe. The Hambledon Press.
  • Nash, Penelope (2017). Empress Adelheid and Countess Matilda: Medieval Female Rulership and the Foundations of European Society. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Reuter, Timothy, ed. (1992). Warriors and Churchmen in the High Middle Ages: Essays Presented to Karl Leyser. The Hambledon Press.
  • Wickham, Chris (2009). The Inheritance of Rome. Viking Penguin.
Preceded by
none
Blason Lorraine.svg
Duke of Upper Lorraine

942–978
Succeeded by
Thierry I
910s

The 910s decade ran from January 1, 910, to December 31, 919.

912

Year 912 (CMXII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

978

Year 978 (CMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Adalbero II of Metz

Adalbero II of Metz (c. 958 - 14 December 1005) was a Roman Catholic bishop of the 10th and 11th centuries. From 984 he was bishop of Verdun and from 984 until his death bishop of Metz. He was the son of Frederick I, Duke of Upper Lorraine and Beatrice of France, daughter of Hugh the Great.

Beatrice of France

Beatrice of France or Beatrice of Paris (c. 938 - 23 September 987) was duchess consort of Upper Lorraine by marriage to Frederick I, Duke of Upper Lorraine, and regent of Upper Lorraine in 978-980 during the minority of her son Thierry I.

Bishopric of Verdun

The Bishopric of Verdun was a state of the Holy Roman Empire. It was located at the western edge of the Empire and was bordered by France, the Duchy of Luxembourg, and the Duchy of Bar.

Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon

The Cadaver Tomb of René of Chalon (French: Transi de René de Chalon, also known as the Memorial to the Heart of René de Chalon or The Skeleton) is a late Gothic period funerary monument, known as a transi, in the church of Saint-Étienne at Bar-le-Duc, in northeastern France. It consists of an altarpiece and a limestone statue of a putrefied and skinless corpse which stands upright and extends his left hand outwards. Completed sometime between 1544 and 1557, the majority of its construction is attributed to the French sculptor Ligier Richier. Other elements, including the coat of arms and funeral drapery, were added in the 16th and 18th centuries respectively.

The tomb dates from a period of societal anxiety over death, as plague, war and religious conflicts ravaged Europe. It was commissioned as the resting place of René of Chalon, Prince of Orange, son-in-law of Duke Antoine of Lorraine. René was killed aged 25 at the siege of St. Dizier on 15 July 1544, from a wound sustained the previous day. Richier presents him as an écorché, with his skin and muscles decayed, leaving him reduced to a skeleton. This apparently fulfilled his deathbed wish that his tomb depict his body as it would be three years after his death. His left arm is raised as if gesturing towards heaven. Supposedly, at one time his heart was held in a reliquary placed in the hand of the figure's raised arm. Unusually for contemporaneous objects of this type, his skeleton is standing, making it a "living corpse", an innovation that was to become highly influential. The tomb effigy is positioned above the carved marble and limestone altarpiece.

Designated a Monument historique on 18 June 1898, the tomb was moved for safekeeping to the Panthéon in Paris during the First World War, before being returned to Bar-le-Duc in 1920. Both the statue and altarpiece underwent extensive restoration between 1998 and 2003. Replicas of the statue are in the Musée Barrois in Bar-le-Duc and the Palais de Chaillot, Paris.

Frederick I

Frederick I may refer to:

Frederick of Utrecht or Frederick I (815/16–834/38), Bishop of Utrecht.

Frederick I, Duke of Upper Lorraine (942–978)

Frederick I, Duke of Swabia (1050–1105)

Frederick I, Count of Zollern (died 1125)

Frederick I (archbishop of Cologne) (1075–1171)

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor (1122–1190), "Frederick Barbarossa"

Frederick I, Burgrave of Nuremberg (1139–1200)

Frederick I, Duke of Lorraine (1143–1206)

Frederick I, Count of Berg-Altena (1173–1198)

Frederick I, Duke of Austria (Babenberg) (1175–1198), "Frederick the Catholic"

Frederick I, Margrave of Baden (1249–1268)

Frederick I, Margrave of Meissen (1257–1323), "the Brave"

Frederick I of Austria (Habsburg) (1286–1330), "Frederick the Fair"

Frederick I, Marquess of Saluzzo (1287–1336)

Frederick I, Duke of Athens (died 1355)

Frederick I, Elector of Saxony (1370–1428), "the Belligerent" or "the Warlike"

Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg (1371–1440), also Burgrave of Nuremberg (as Frederick VI)

Frederick I, Count of Vaudémont (1371–1415)

Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (died 1400)

Frederick I, Count Palatine of Simmern (1417–1480), "the Hunsrücker"

Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Osterode (died 1421)

Frederick I, Elector Palatine (1425–1476), "the Victorious"

Frederick I of Mantua (1441–1484), Marquess of Mantua

Frederick I of Naples (1452–1504), King of Naples

Frederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1460–1536)

Frederick I of Denmark (1471–1533), King of Denmark and Norway

Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg (1557–1608)

Frederick I, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg (1585–1638)

Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1646–1691)

Frederick I of Prussia (1657–1713), king in Prussia

Frederick I of Sweden (1676–1751), King of Sweden

Frederick I of Württemberg (1754–1816), King of Württemberg

Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg (1763–1834)

Frederick I, Grand Duke of Baden (1826–1907)

Frederick I, Duke of Anhalt (1831–1904)

Hedwig of Saxony

Hedwige of Saxony (also Hedwig, German: Hadwig von Sachsen; c. 910 – after 958), a member of the Ottonian dynasty, was Duchess consort of the Franks by her marriage to the Robertian duke Hugh the Great. Upon her husband's death in 956, she acted as a regent during the minority of their son Hugh Capet, the founder of the Elder House of Capet.

Hugh the Great

Hugh the Great (c. 898 – 16 June 956) was the Duke of the Franks and Count of Paris.

List of bishops of Metz

This is a list of bishops of Metz; the Roman Catholic diocese of Metz now lies in eastern France.

Lothair of France

Lothair (French: Lothaire; Latin: Lothārius; 941 – 2 March 986), sometimes called Lothair III or Lothair IV, was the penultimate Carolingian king of West Francia, reigning from 10 September 954 until his death in 986.

Matilda of Tuscany

Matilda of Tuscany (Italian: Matilde di Canossa [maˈtilde di kaˈnɔssa], Latin: Matilda, Mathilda; 1046 – 24 July 1115) was a powerful feudal Margravine of Tuscany, ruler in northern Italy and the chief Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy; in addition, she was one of the few medieval women to be remembered for her military accomplishments, thanks to which she was able to dominate all the territories north of the Papal States.

In 1076 she came into possession of a substantial territory that included present-day Lombardy, Emilia, the Romagna and Tuscany, and made the castle of Canossa, in the Apennines south of Reggio, the centre of her domains. Between 6 and 11 May 1111 she was crowned Imperial Vicar and Vice-Queen of Italy by Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor at the Castle of Bianello (Quattro Castella, Reggio Emilia).Sometimes called la Gran Contessa ("the Great Countess") or Matilda of Canossa after her ancestral castle of Canossa, Matilda was one of the most important figures of the Italian Middle Ages. She lived in a period of constant battles, intrigues and excommunications, and was able to demonstrate an extraordinary force, even enduring great pain and humiliation, showing an innate leadership ability.

May 18

May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 227 days remain until the end of the year.

Sigfried, Count of the Ardennes

Sigfried (or Siegfried) (c. 922 – 28 October 998) was count of the Ardennes and the first person to rule Luxembourg. He was an advocate of the abbeys of St. Maximin in Trier and Saint Willibrord in Echternach. He may have been the son of Count Palatine Wigeric of Lotharingia and Cunigunda. He was the founder of the House of Luxembourg, a branch of the House of Ardennes.

Theodoric I, Duke of Upper Lorraine

Theodoric I (c. 965 – between 11 April 1026 and 12 January 1027) was the count of Bar and duke of Upper Lorraine from 978 to his death. He was the son and successor of Frederick I and Beatrice, daughter of Hugh the Great, count of Paris, and sister to the French king Hugh Capet.

His mother was the regent until 987. In 985, he joined the other Lorrainer lords, including his cousin Godfrey the Prisoner, in trying to repel King Lothair of France's invasion: but at Verdun, he was captured.

Like almost all the dukes of Lorraine until the Gallicisation of the region in the thirteenth century, Theodoric was loyal to the Holy Roman Emperors. In 1011, he aided Henry II in his war with Luxembourg. He was captured a second time in 1018 in combat with Burgundy, but overcame Odo II of Blois, also count of Meaux, Chartres, and Troyes (later Champagne). In 1019, he associated his son, Frederick, in the government with him. He briefly opposed the Emperor Conrad II, Henry's successor, but soon joined his supporters.

Werner I, Count of Habsburg

Werner I, Count of Habsburg was a nobleman and an early member of the House of Habsburg. He was ancestor of King Rudolph I of Germany.

Werner was sometimes called Werner the Pious. His father was Radbot, Count of Habsburg, and his mother was Ida de Lorraine (also known as Ita von Lothringen), who was the daughter of Frederick I, Duke of Upper Lorraine.

In 1057, Werner married Reginlinde of Nellenbourg (1027–1090). He had two sons: Otto II, and Albert II (also known as Albrecht II or Adalbert II).

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