Portrait of Frederic Harrison, by Bassano, 1901.
|Born||18 October 1831|
|Died||14 January 1923 (aged 91)|
|Spouse||Ethel Bertha Harrison|
Born at 17 Euston Square, London, he was the son of Frederick Harrison (1799-1881), a stockbroker and his wife Jane, daughter of Alexander Brice, a Belfast granite merchant. He was baptised at St. Pancras Church, Euston, and spent his early childhood at the northern London suburb of Muswell Hill, to which the family moved soon after his birth. His father later acquired a lease on the grand Tudor manor house Sutton Place near Guildford, Surrey, in 1874, which descended to his elder son Sidney, and about which Frederic jnr. wrote the definitive history Annals of an Old Manor House: Sutton Place, Guildford, first published in 1893. His paternal grandfather was a Leicestershire builder. In 1840 the family moved again to 22 Oxford Square, Hyde Park, London, a house designed by Harrison's father. Along with his siblings Sidney and Lawrence, Harrison received his initial education at home before attending a day school in St John's Wood. In 1843 he entered King's College School, graduating as second in the school in 1849.
He received a scholarship to Wadham College, Oxford in 1849. It was at Oxford that he was to embrace positive philosophy, under the influence of his tutor Richard Congreve and the works of John Stuart Mill and George Henry Lewes. Harrison found himself in conflict with Congreve as to details, and eventually led the Positivists who split off and founded Newton Hall in 1881, and he was president of the English Positivist Committee from 1880 to 1905; he was also editor and part author of the Positivist New Calendar of great Men (1892), and wrote much on Comte and Positivism. For more than three decades, he was a regular contributor to The Fortnightly Review, often in defense of Positivism, especially Comte's version of it.
Among his contemporaries at Wadham were Edward Spencer Beesly, John Henry Bridges, and George Earlam Thorley who were to become the leaders of the secular Religion of Humanity or "Comtism" in England. He received a second class in Moderations in 1852 and a first class in Literae Humaniores in 1853. In the following year he was elected a fellow of the college and became a tutor, taking over from Congreve. He became part of a liberal group of academics at Oxford that also included Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, Goldwin Smith, Mark Pattison and Benjamin Jowett.
As a religious teacher, literary critic, historian and jurist, Harrison took a prominent part in the life of his time, and his writings, though often violently controversial on political, religious and social subjects, and in their judgment and historical perspective characterized by a modern Radical point of view, are those of an accomplished scholar, and of one whose wide knowledge of literature was combined with independence of thought and admirable vigour of style. In 1907 he published The Creed of a Layman, which included his Apologia pro fide mea, in explanation of his Positivist religious position.
He was called to the bar in 1858, and, in addition to his practice in equity cases, soon began to distinguish himself as an effective contributor to the higher-class reviews. Two articles in the Westminster Review, one on the Italian question, which procured him the special thanks of Cavour, the other on Essays and Reviews, which had the probably undesigned effect of stimulating the attack on the book, attracted especial notice. A few years later Harrison worked at the codification of the law with Lord Westbury, of whom he contributed an interesting notice to Nash's biography of the chancellor. His special interest in legislation for the working classes led him to be placed upon the Trades Union Commission of 1867-1869; he was secretary to the commission for the digest of the law, 1869–1870; and was from 1877 to 1889 professor of jurisprudence and international law under the council of legal education. He was also professor of jurisprudence to the Inns of Court, and an Honorary fellow of Wadham College.
Of his separate publications, the most important are his lives of Cromwell (1888), William the Silent, (1897), Ruskin (1902), and Chatham (1905); his Meaning of History (1862; enlarged 1894) and Byzantine History in the Early Middle Ages (1900); and his essays on Early Victorian Literature (1896) and The Choice of Books (1886) are remarkable alike for generous admiration and good sense. In 1904 he published a "romantic monograph" of the 10th century Byzantine resurgence, Theophano, and in 1906 a verse tragedy, Nicephorus. His Annals of an Old Manor House: Sutton Place, Guildford, first published in London in 1893 as a quarto work, re-issued in a small abridged form in 1899, is a valuable and detailed study of the Weston family and the architecturally important manor house Sutton Place built by Sir Richard Weston c. 1525. Harrison's father had been the lessee since 1874 and the author had many years of access in which to perform his detailed investigations and researches.
An advanced and vehement Radical in politics and Progressive in municipal affairs, Harrison in 1886 stood unsuccessfully for Parliament against Sir John Lubbock for the University of London. In 1889 he was elected an alderman of the London County Council, but resigned in 1893.
Harrison was a regular contributor to George Potter's trade unionist journal The Beehive, and to W. H. Riley's Commonwealth, which promoted the International Working Men's Association. He was a supporter of Polish and Italian independence, the federals in the American civil war, the reformers in the Jamaica Committee of 1866, the Paris Commune and was a vice president of the Reform League. In an article defending the Paris Commune which appeared in the Fortnightly Review Harrison proclaimed: 'The status quo is impossible. The alternative is Communism or Positivism.'
Later works include Autobiographic Memoirs (1911); The Positive Evolution of Religion (1912); The German Peril (1915); On Society (1918); Jurisprudence and Conflict of Nations (1919); Obiter Scripta (1919); Novissima Verba (1920).
In 1870 he married Ethel Berta, daughter of William Harrison, by whom he had four sons, including the journalist and literary critic Austin Harrison. George Gissing, the novelist, was at one time their tutor; and in 1905 Harrison wrote a preface to Gissing's Veranilda. One of his sons, Christopher René Harrison, was killed in World War I.
Events from the year 1923 in the United Kingdom.Austin Harrison
Austin Frederic Harrison (1873–1928) was a British journalist and editor, best known for his editorship of The English Review from 1909 until 1923.Edward Spencer Beesly
Edward Spencer Beesly (; 1831–1915) was an English positivist and historian.Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady
"Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady" is a poem in heroic couplets by Alexander Pope, first published in his Works of 1717. Though only 82 lines long, it has become one of Pope's most celebrated pieces.
The work begins with the poet asking what ghost beckons him onward with its "bleeding bosom gor'd"; it is the spirit of an unnamed woman (the "lady" of the title) who acted "a Roman's part" (i.e., committed suicide) due to loving "too well." The speaker eulogizes her sacrifice and then for several lines berates and curses her uncle (who is also her guardian) for being a "mean deserter of [his] brother's blood" and having no compassion on the lady. There follows a description of her foreign burial in a "humble grave" unattended by friends and relatives, which Pope sums up in the striking couplet:
"A heap of dust alone remains of thee;
'Tis all thou art, and all the proud shall be!"
(lines 73-4)The concluding lines contain the speaker's application of this lesson of mortality to himself: someday he too will die and the last thought of the lady will be torn from him as he passes away.
Frederic Harrison believed the subject of the work to be Elizabeth Gage(d.1724), wife of John Weston(d.1730) of Sutton Place, Surrey. She was the sister of Thomas Gage, 1st Viscount Gage(d.1754). Harrison derives his opinion from a note of Pope's appended to a letter of his to Mrs Weston, and states the story of the poem to be pure imagination: "Mrs Weston was separated from her husband, but she returned and lived in peace. She did not die abroad, friendless and by suicide, but in the bosom of her family, by natural causes, and in her own home. She was in fact buried in the (Weston) family vault in Guildford in 1724, eleven years after Pope's outburst".Readers' reactions to this work have been varied, and some have offered severe criticisms. John Wesley in "Thoughts on the Character and Writings of Mr. Prior" (1782) compared the poet Matthew Prior with Pope, mostly to the detriment of the latter; in this essay, Wesley says of Pope:
"As elegant a piece as he ever wrote was, 'Verses to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady.' But was ever anything more exquisitely injudicious? First, what a subject! An eulogium on a self-murderer! And the execution is as bad as the design: It is a commendation not only of the person, but the act!"Most of Wesley's grounds for criticism are moral: since—as he would consider self-evident—suicide is an evil act that affronts God and causes the doer to go to hell, the glorification of the lady's act in this poem is seriously objectionable. (This did not, however, prevent him from quoting the couplet given above in his Journal on more than one occasion [see December 5, 1750 and July 4, 1786].) Samuel Johnson in his Lives of the Poets also faulted the "Elegy" on similar grounds, referring to "the illaudable singularity of treating suicide with respect."
A different kind of criticism, one on artistic grounds, is made by Maynard Mack in his important biography Alexander Pope: A Life. Mack acknowledges that there are beautiful passages in the poem, but also finds that it is marked by a certain incoherence between elements and attitudes which are not fully reconciled, such as the idea of Roman suicide vs. that of Christian burial, or the strange curse on the uncle and all his posterity for his unspecified crimes. Johnson also anticipates some of this artistic censure in judging that "the tale [in the poem] is not skilfully told."
In spite of such objections, most critics would not deny the emotional impact of Pope's "Elegy," and even Johnson acknowledges that the poem "must be allowed to be written in some parts with vigorous animation, and in others with gentle tenderness." It is frequently included in anthologies that include Pope's best-known poems or those of his era, and the "Elegy's" effective phrasing is often remembered and quoted.Essays and Reviews
Essays and Reviews, edited by John William Parker, published in March 1860, is a broad-church volume of seven essays on Christianity. The topics covered the biblical research of the German critics, the evidence for Christianity, religious thought in England, and the cosmology of Genesis.
Essays and Reviews was a popular book title in the 19th century: there are many similar books available, but none made the same impact.Ethel Bertha Harrison
Ethel Bertha Harrison (27 October 1851 – 1916) was a British anti-suffrage essayist.Fred Harrison
Fred Harrison may refer to:
Fred Harrison (footballer, born 1880) (1880–1969), English footballer who played for Southampton, Fulham and West Ham United
Fred Harrison (author) (born 1944), British author and economic commentator
Fred Harrison (rugby league), English professional rugby league footballer of the 1910s
Fred Harrison (businessman), Australian businessman, CEO of Ritchies Stores
Frederic Harrison (1831–1923), British historian
Frederick Harrison (1844–1914), British officer and manager
Frederick E. Harrison (1876–1962), Canadian politician
Frederick Harrison (priest) (1909–?), dean of Belize
Frederic H. Smith, Jr. (1908–1980), US officer
Fred Harrison (Australian footballer) (1893–1979), Australian rules footballerFrederic H. Smith Jr.
Frederic Harrison Smith Jr. (June 30, 1908 – May 28, 1980) was a United States Air Force four-star general who served as Commander in Chief, U.S. Air Forces in Europe (CINCUSAFE) from 1959 to 1961; and Vice Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Force (VCSAF) from 1961 to 1962.
Smith was born at Fort Monroe, Virginia, in 1908. He attended the United States Military Academy at West Point and graduated a second lieutenant of Field Artillery, June 13, 1929.
Smith's first assignment was that of student officer at the Air Corps Primary and Advanced Flying Schools at Brooks and Kelly Fields, Texas. After receiving his wings, he was transferred to the Army Air Corps in December 1930.
His first Air Corps assignment was at France Field, Panama Canal Zone, where he served with the 63rd Service Squadron and the 24th Pursuit Squadron until December 1932. Smith then returned to the U.S. for assignment to the 41st School Squadron at Kelly Field, Texas, in January 1933.
From 1936 to 1939, following three years as flying instructor at Kelly Field, Captain Smith served as senior aeronautical inspector for the Panama Canal, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone. He also acted as advisor on aviation matters to the Governor of the Panama Canal.
In late 1939, Captain Smith returned to the States as operations officer of the 36th Pursuit Squadron. A few months later he became its commander at Langley Field, Virginia.
Within a year after Captain Smith assumed his first command, he was appointed commanding officer of the Eighth Pursuit Group, Seventh Pursuit Wing, at Mitchel Field, New York.
In January 1942, Lieutenant Colonel Smith took his Eighth Pursuit Group to the Southwest Pacific. Later in the year he left the pursuit group to become chief of staff of the advanced echelon of the newly activated Fifth Air Force.
Following two years of combat service in the Pacific, Brigadier General Smith was transferred to the European Theater of Operations, where he served as deputy senior Air Staff officer and chief of operations of the Allied Expeditionary Air Forces, based in England.
During the fall of 1944, Brigadier General Smith returned to the U.S to become deputy chief of Air Staff at Headquarters, Army Air Force, Washington, D.C. He returned to the Southwest Pacific in February 1945 to direct the Fifth Fighter Command.
At the end of the war Smith was ordered to Washington for duty in the Office of the Assistant Chief of Air Staff, Plans, at Army Air Force Headquarters. He served there in the Special Organizational Planning Group until March 1946.
In April 1946, he was appointed chief of staff of the Strategic Air Command at Andrews Field, Maryland, and in February 1947 became national commander of the Civil Air Patrol.
On October 10, 1947, following establishment of United States Air Force Headquarters, General Smith was appointed chief of the Requirements Division under the director of Training and Requirements Division in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations.
Major General Smith was appointed assistant for programming in that office in February 1948, a position he held until August 14, 1950. He was then named commanding general of the Eastern Air Defense Force, Stewart Air Force Base, New York.
Smith became vice commander of the Air Defense Command, Ent Air Force Base, Colorado Springs, Colorado on March 1, 1952. He served there until June 20, 1956, when he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general and again joined the Fifth Air Force, this time as its commander.
On July 1, 1957, concurrently with a reorganization of the United States Forces in the Pacific Area, General Smith, as commander of the Fifth Air Force, was also appointed commander of the United States Forces, Japan.
In September 1958, General Smith returned to the U.S. to assume command of the Air Training Command, with headquarters at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas. He arrived in Germany in August 1959 to take command of the 4th Allied Tactical Air Force and the United States Air Forces in Europe.
On July 1, 1961 Smith assumed duties as vice chief of staff, United States Air Force, Washington, D.C. He retired from the Air Force on September 1, 1962 and died on May 28, 1980.
His awards and decorations included the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal with oak leaf cluster, Navy Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Air Medal with oak leaf cluster, Army Commendation Ribbon, Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, American Defense Service Medal, Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal, European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, Philippine Liberation Ribbon, National Defense Service Medal, Air Force Longevity Service Award with six oak leaf clusters, American Campaign Medal.
Air Force Distinguished Service Medal
Navy Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Merit
Air Medal with oak leaf cluster
Army Commendation Medal
National Defense Service Medal
Air Force Longevity Service Award with six oak leaf clusters
American Defense Service Medal
American Campaign Medal
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
European-African-Middle Eastern Theater Medal
World War II Victory Medal
Philippine Liberation RibbonGeneral Smith's father-in-law was Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King.Godfrey Lushington
Sir Godfrey Lushington (8 March 1832 – 5 February 1907), British civil servant and promoter of prison reform, was Permanent Under-Secretary of State of the Home Office of the United Kingdom from 1886 to 1895.
Lushington was born in Westminster, London, in 1832 to Stephen and Sarah Grace (née Carr) Lushington; his twin brother was Vernon Lushington, Q.C., a county court judge. Educated at Rugby School and Balliol College, Oxford, he later became a fellow of All Souls and the President of the Oxford Union. He married Beatrice Anne Shore Smith (b. 3 June 1865), daughter of barrister Samuel Smith.
With his brother Vernon, he advocated positivist philosophy, motivated by the ideas of Auguste Comte. A supporter of labour movements, he, and fellow positivist intellectuals A.J. Mundella, Edward Spencer Beesly, Henry Crompton, and Frederic Harrison, played a leading role in the acceptance of trades’ union legitimacy.Influenced by Frederick Denison Maurice, Lushington joined his brother, and Frederic Harrison, as a teacher at the Working Men's College, and became a benefactor and member of the College governing corporation.He rose to Permanent Under-Secretary at the Home Office in 1885, and was knighted in 1892. During his Home Office tenure the Whitechapel Murders gripped attention and imagination; a Jewish and Anarchist connection was seriously considered. The chalked Goulston Street message was seen by Commissioner Charles Warren to have potential for increased religious tension; Warren explained to Lushington that reason for the immediate removal of the message.He retired from the civil service in 1895 and became an alderman of London County Council, a position held until 1898 when he became one of the British Government delegates to the Rome Anti-Anarchist Congress, (24 November to 21 December 1898) with Sir Philip Currie and Sir C. Howard Vincent.
After retirement, Lushington gave evidence to the Gladstone Committee on prison reform: “I regard as unfavourable to reformation the status of a prisoner throughout his whole career; the crushing of self-respect, the starving of all moral instinct he may possess, the absence of all opportunity to do or receive a kindness, the continual association of none but criminals, the forced labour, and the denial of all liberty. I believe the true method of reforming a man, of restoring him to society, is exactly in the opposite direction to all these.”Jamaica Committee
The Jamaica Committee was a group set up in Great Britain in 1865, which called for Edward Eyre, Governor of Jamaica, to be tried for his excesses in suppressing the Morant Bay rebellion of 1865. More radical members of the Committee wanted him tried for the murder of British subjects (Jamaica was at that time a Crown Colony), under the rule of law. The Committee included English liberals, such as John Bright, John Stuart Mill, Charles Darwin, Thomas Henry Huxley, Thomas Hughes, Herbert Spencer and A. V. Dicey, the last of whom would eventually become known for his scholarship on the Conflict of Laws.Other prominent members of the committee included Charles Buxton, Frederic Harrison, Edmond Beales, Frederick Chesson, Leslie Stephen, Thomas Hill Green, Henry Fawcett, Goldwin Smith, Charles Lyell and Edward Frankland.
The counsel to the Jamaica Committee was James Fitzjames Stephen, who held that the defendants were guilty of legal murder, but extended considerable sympathy to them and intimated that they were probably morally justified. From then on, Mill was cool to him.Thomas Carlyle set up Governor Eyre Defense and Aid Committee in support of Eyre. His supporters included John Ruskin, Charles Kingsley, Charles Dickens, Alfred Tennyson and John Tyndall.
The Jamaica Committee was ultimately unsuccessful in its goal of having Eyre prosecuted.James Anthony Bailey
James Anthony Bailey (July 4, 1847 – April 11, 1906), born James Anthony McGinnis, was an American circus ringmaster and impresario.Lady Agatha Russell
Lady Mary Agatha Russell (1853 – 23 April 1933) was the daughter of the 1st Earl Russell and Frances, the Countess of Russell, and the aunt of Bertrand Russell. She was the co-editor of her mother's posthumously published memoirs, Lady John Russell: A Memoir with Selections from Her Diaries and Correspondence.In 1912, Russell published a compilation of quotations and selections from authors, philosophers, poets, etc. entitled Golden Grain: Thoughts of Many Minds. The entries in Golden Grain are organized by date through a single year. It was prefaced by Frederic Harrison and published by James Nisbet and Company of London in 1912.London University (UK Parliament constituency)
London University was a university constituency electing one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, from 1868 to 1950.Richard Congreve
Richard Congreve (4 September 1818 – 5 July 1899) was an English philosopher, one of the leading figures in the specifically religious interpretation of Auguste Comte's form of positivism. In that capacity he founded the London Positivist Society in 1867 and the Comtist Church of Humanity in 1878. He also wrote political tracts.Sutton Place, Surrey
Sutton Place, 3 miles north-east of Guildford in Surrey, is a Grade I listed Tudor manor house built c. 1525 by Sir Richard Weston (d. 1541), courtier of Henry VIII. It is of great importance to art history in showing some of the earliest traces of Italianate renaissance design elements in English architecture. In modern times, the estate has had a series of wealthy owners, a trend started by J. Paul Getty, then the world's richest private citizen, who spent the last 17 years of his life there. Its current owner is the Russian billionaire Alisher Usmanov. A definitive history of the house and manor, first published in 1893, was written by Frederic Harrison (d. 1923), jurist and historian, whose father had acquired the lease in 1874.The Fortnightly Review
The Fortnightly Review was one of the most prominent and influential magazines in nineteenth-century England. It was founded in 1865 by Anthony Trollope, Frederic Harrison, Edward Spencer Beesly, and six others with an investment of £9,000; the first edition appeared on 15 May 1865. George Henry Lewes, the partner of George Eliot, was its first editor, followed by John Morley.
The print magazine ceased publication in 1954 and was incorporated into the Contemporary Review.
An online "new series" started to appear in 2009.Thomas Harrison (ship-owner)
Thomas Frederic Harrison (1815-1888) was a Liverpool ship-owner who founded the Harrison Shipping Line in the city in the late 1800s.Trade Union Act 1871
Trade Union Act 1871 (34 & 35 Vict c 31) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which legalised trade unions for the first time in the United Kingdom. This was one of the founding pieces of legislation in UK labour law, though it has today been superseded by the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992.Vernon Lushington
Vernon Lushington KC, (8 March 1832 – 24 January 1912), was a Positivist, Deputy Judge Advocate General, Second Secretary to the Admiralty, and was associated with the Pre-Raphaelites. He was a Cambridge Apostle.
Lushington was born in Westminster, London, to Stephen and Sarah Grace (née Carr) Lushington; his twin brother was Godfrey Lushington, KCB GCMG, Permanent Under-Secretary of State of the Home Office. He was educated at East India College, Haileybury, Hertfordshire, and Trinity College, Oxford. He became a QC, a county court judge, Secretary to the Admiralty in 1871, and Deputy Judge Advocate General from 1878 to 1912. He married Jane Mowatt, daughter of Francis Mowatt, on 28 February 1865. From 1877 to 1903 the Lushington family's country residence was Pyports, Cobham, Surrey.With his brother Godfrey, he advocated positivist philosophy, motivated by the ideas of Auguste Comte, and was a follower of Frederic Harrison. Influenced by Frederick Denison Maurice, he joined the Working Men's College as a singing teacher, and promoter of art and music appreciation; he became part of the group that formed the first College governing Corporation in 1854. At the death of Maurice in 1872, he, with his brother, and Frederick James Furnivall, Thomas Hughes, and Richard Buckley Litchfield, became a unifying force at the College.He was a friend to artists, authors and activists, particularly those of The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the Arts and Crafts Movement who gravitated to the Working Men's College. In 1856, it was he who first introduced Edward Burne-Jones to Dante Gabriel Rossetti in his college rooms. Rossetti used Lushington’s wife, Jane, as a model in 1865.Lushington, friend of William Morris, was a frequent visitor to Kelmscott Manor. He was a close friend of Leslie Stephen and his family; Stephen’s daughter Virginia (later Woolf) based her character Mrs. Dalloway on Lushington’s daughter Kitty. He was also a close friend of Working Men’s College founder Richard Buckley Litchfield and his wife Etty, daughter of Charles Darwin; the Lushingtons were regular visitors to Darwin’s Down House. As Thomas Carlyle’s friend, he edited Carlyle’s first Collected Works, (Chapman and Hall, 1858).