Fred Pearce (born 30 December 1951) is an English author and journalist based in London. He is a science writer, reporting on the environment, popular science and development issues from 64 countries over the past 20 years. He specialises in global environmental issues, including water and climate change.
Pearce is currently the environment consultant of New Scientist magazine and a regular contributor to the British newspapers Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The Independent, and Times Higher Education. He has also written for several US publications including Audubon, Foreign Policy, Popular Science, Seed, and Time.
Pearce has written a wide range of books on environment and development issues published in both the UK and US. His books have been translated into at least ten languages including French, German, Japanese, Portuguese, Italian, and Spanish.
He is a regular broadcaster and international speaker on environmental issues, and has given public presentations on all six continents in the past few years. Among his engagements have been the Edinburgh, Hay and Salisbury Book Festivals, the Ottawa and Melbourne International Writers Festivals, the Brisbane River Symposium in 2006, Yale and Cambridge Universities, a speaking tour for the British Council in India, and presentations to business and financial groups, such as Anglo American PLC in South Africa, Cathay Pacific in Hong Kong and UBS in London.
He has also written reports and extended journalism for WWF, the UN Environment Programme, the Red Cross, UNESCO, the World Bank, the European Environment Agency, and the UK Environment Agency. He is a trustee of the Integrated Water Resources International.
Arcology, a portmanteau of "architecture" and "ecology", is a field of creating architectural design principles for very densely populated, ecologically low-impact human habitats.
The term was coined in 1969 by architect Paolo Soleri, who believed that a completed arcology would provide space for a variety of residential, commercial, and agricultural facilities while minimizing individual human environmental impact. These structures have been largely hypothetical, as no arcology, even one envisioned by Soleri himself, has yet been built.
The concept has been popularized by various science fiction writers. Authors such as Peter Hamilton in Neutronium Alchemist and Paolo Bacigalupi in The Water Knife explicitly used arcologies as part of their scenarios. They are often portrayed as self-contained or economically self-sufficient.Black Earth Farming
Black Earth Farming is a public, investment-run agriculture business based in Russia, operating as LLC Managing Company AGRO-Invest. It controls more than 3,000 square kilometres (1,200 sq mi) of land in the Black Earth Region. Their business goal has been described as the acquisition of "cheap, neglected, but fertile land in the fertile Black Earth regions of Russia" by CEO Richard Warburton. It is sometimes described as a land grab company.They have a contract with PepsiCo, growing sugar beets and potatoes for them. Other crops include winter wheat, oilseeds, and a variety of other grains.The company raised its initial funding from the family backed Swedish investment companies Vostok Nafta and Kinnevik who remain major shareholders.Carbon
Carbon (from Latin: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity.Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds, and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life. It is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen.The atoms of carbon can bond together in different ways, termed allotropes of carbon. The best known are graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon. The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form. For example, graphite is opaque and black while diamond is highly transparent. Graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper (hence its name, from the Greek verb "γράφειν" which means "to write"), while diamond is the hardest naturally occurring material known. Graphite is a good electrical conductor while diamond has a low electrical conductivity. Under normal conditions, diamond, carbon nanotubes, and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials. All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form at standard temperature and pressure. They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen.
The most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and transition metal carbonyl complexes. The largest sources of inorganic carbon are limestones, dolomites and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, peat, oil, and methane clathrates. Carbon forms a vast number of compounds, more than any other element, with almost ten million compounds described to date, and yet that number is but a fraction of the number of theoretically possible compounds under standard conditions. For this reason, carbon has often been referred to as the "king of the elements".Climate change in Russia
Global warming in Russia describes the global warming related issues in Russia. This includes climate politics, contribution to global warming and the influence of global warming in Russia. In 2009 Russia was ready to reduce emissions 20–25% from its 1990 emission levels by the year 2020.Climatic Research Unit email controversy
The Climatic Research Unit email controversy (also known as "Climategate") began in November 2009 with the hacking of a server at the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) at the University of East Anglia (UEA) by an external attacker, copying thousands of emails and computer files, the Climatic Research Unit documents, to various internet locations several weeks before the Copenhagen Summit on climate change.
The story was first broken by climate change denialists, with columnist James Delingpole popularising the term "Climategate" to describe the controversy. Several climate-change "skeptics" argued that the emails showed that global warming was a scientific conspiracy and that scientists manipulated climate data and attempted to suppress critics. The CRU rejected this, saying that the emails had been taken out of context and merely reflected an honest exchange of ideas.The mainstream media picked up the story, as negotiations over climate change mitigation began in Copenhagen on 7 December 2009. Because of the timing, scientists, policy makers and public-relations experts said that the release of emails was a smear campaign intended to undermine the climate conference. In response to the controversy, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) released statements supporting the scientific consensus that the Earth's mean surface temperature had been rising for decades, with the AAAS concluding: "based on multiple lines of scientific evidence that global climate change caused by human activities is now underway... it is a growing threat to society".Eight committees investigated the allegations and published reports, finding no evidence of fraud or scientific misconduct. The scientific consensus that global warming is occurring as a result of human activity remained unchanged throughout the investigations.Criticism of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) is a report on climate change created with the help of a large number of contributors, both scientists and governmental representatives. There has been considerable political controversy over a small number of errors found in the report, and there have been calls for review of the process used to formulate the report. The overwhelming majority view of scientists with expertise in climate change is that errors, when found, are corrected, and the issues as identified do not undermine the conclusions of the report that the climate system is warming in response to increased levels of greenhouse gases, largely due to human activities.Fred Pearce (footballer)
Fred Pearce (4 September 1916 – 8 May 1964) was a former Australian rules footballer who played with Collingwood in the Victorian Football League (VFL).Kuala Cenaku
Kuala Cenaku is a town in Indragiri Hulu Regency, Riau, Indonesia. It has a population of about 7,000. Located on the Indragiri River in the Sumatran rain forest, Fred Pearce described it as "a struggling bankside community." There is a mill nearby run by Asia Pulp and Paper. Logging is an important economic activity.List of mangrove ecoregions
This is a list of mangrove ecoregions ordered according to whether they lie in the Afrotropic, Australasian, Indomalayan or Neotropic areas of the world. Mangrove estuaries such as those found in the Sundarbans of southwestern Bangladesh are rich productive ecosystems which serve as spawning grounds and nurseries for shrimp, crabs, and many fish species, a richness which is lost if the area is cleared and converted to ponds for shrimp farming or rice paddies.Moat
A moat is a deep, broad ditch, either dry or filled with water, that is dug and surrounds a castle, fortification, building or town, historically to provide it with a preliminary line of defence. In some places moats evolved into more extensive water defences, including natural or artificial lakes, dams and sluices. In older fortifications, such as hillforts, they are usually referred to simply as ditches, although the function is similar. In later periods, moats or water defences may be largely ornamental. They could also act as a sewer.Orange Herald
Orange Herald was a British nuclear weapon, tested on 31 May 1957. At the time it was reported as a H-bomb, although in fact it was a large boosted fission weapon.Peak Literary Festival
The Peak Literary Festival is held in the Peak District National Park in England annually in the Spring and Autumn.Rainmaking (ritual)
Rainmaking is a weather modification ritual that attempts to invoke rain.
Among the best known examples of weather modification rituals are North American rain dances, historically performed by many Native American tribes, particularly in the Southwestern United States. Some of these weather modification rituals are still implemented today.Reverse osmosis plant
A reverse osmosis plant is a manufacturing plant where the process of reverse osmosis takes place. An average modern reverse osmosis plant needs six kilowatt-hours of electricity to desalinate one cubic metre of water. The process also results in an amount of salty briny waste. The challenge for these plants is to find ways to reduce energy consumption, use sustainable energy sources, improve the process of desalination and to innovate in the area of waste management to deal with the waste. Self-contained water treatment plants using reverse osmosis, called reverse osmosis water purification units, are normally used in a military context.Richmond Group
The Richmond Group also known as the Richmond School, is a group of American Impressionist painters who worked in the Richmond, Indiana, area from the late 19th Century through the mid-20th Century. While the Richmond Group had no formal organization, many of the artists were affiliated with, and exhibited at, the Art Association of Richmond, Indiana, now known as the Richmond Art Museum.
Though not definitive, the following is a list of artists considered a part of the Richmond Group:
George Herbert Baker
John Elwood Bundy
Francis Focer Brown
Charles H. Clawson
Albert Clinton Conner
Maude Kaufman Eggemeyer
W. A. Eyden, Sr.
William A. Eyden, Jr.
Frank J. Girardin
Albert W. Gregg
William A. Holly
Anna M. Newman
Micajah Thomas Nordyke
Fred Pearce, Jr.
Fred Pearce, Sr.
John Albert SeafordThe Christadelphian
The Christadelphian is a Bible magazine published monthly by The Christadelphian Magazine and Publishing Association (CMPA). It states that it is 'A magazine dedicated wholly to the hope of Israel' and, according to the magazine website, it 'reflects the teachings, beliefs and activities of the Christadelphians'. The magazine's office is located in Hall Green, Birmingham, England.The Doomsday Machine (book)
The Doomsday Machine: The High Price of Nuclear Energy, the World's Most Dangerous Fuel is a 2012 book by Martin Cohen and Andrew McKillop which addresses a broad range of concerns regarding the nuclear industry, the economics and environmental aspects of nuclear energy, nuclear power plants, and nuclear accidents. The book has been described by The New York Times as "a polemic on the evils of splitting the atom".The Ecologist
The Ecologist is a British environmental journal, then magazine, that was published from 1970 to 2009. Founded by Edward Goldsmith, it addressed a wide range of environmental subjects and promoted an ecological systems thinking approach through its news stories, investigations and opinion articles. The Ecologist encouraged its readers to tackle global issues on a local scale. After cessation of its print edition in July 2009, The Ecologist continued as an online magazine. In mid-2012, it merged with Resurgence magazine, edited by Satish Kumar, with the first issue of the new Resurgence & Ecologist appearing in print in September 2012. The Ecologist was based in London.Walls of Benin
The Walls of Benin were a series of earthworks made up of banks and ditches, called Iya in the local language in the area around present-day Benin City, the capital of present-day Edo, Nigeria. The combined length of the walls, many of which were outside the city, was over 160 kilometres (99 miles). It was estimated that earliest construction began in 800 and continued into the mid-15th century.