Fred Espenak

Fred Espenak (born 1953) is a retired[1] emeritus[2] American astrophysicist. He worked at the Goddard Space Flight Center. He is best known for his work on eclipse predictions.[3]

He became interested in astronomy when he was 7–8 years old, and had his first telescope when he was around 9–10 years old.[1] Espenak earned a bachelor's degree in physics from Wagner College, Staten Island, where he worked in the planetarium. His master's degree is from the University of Toledo, based on studies he did at Kitt Peak Observatory of eruptive and flare stars among red dwarfs.

Fred Espenak
Espenak with his solar telescope

He was employed at Goddard Space Flight Center, where he used infrared spectrometers to measure the atmosphere of planets in the Solar System.[3] He provided NASA's eclipse bulletins since 1978. He is the author of several canonical works on eclipse predictions, such as the Fifty Year Canon of Solar Eclipses: 1986–2035 and Fifty Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses: 1986–2035,[1] both of which are standard references on eclipses.[3] The first eclipse he saw was the solar eclipse of March 7, 1970, which sparked his interest in eclipses,[3] and he has since seen over 20 eclipses.[1] He is co-author with Jean Meeus of Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses, which covers all types of solar eclipses (partial, total, annular, or hybrid) from 2000 BCE to AD 3000.[4] He is also a co-author (with Mark Littmann and Ken Willcoxof) of Totality: Eclipses of the Sun.[3]

He was the co-investigator of an atmospheric experiment flown on Space Shuttle Discovery.[5]

He is also known as "Mr. Eclipse."[6] He gives public lectures on eclipses and astrophotophy. Astronomical photographs taken by Espenak have been published in National Geographic, Newsweek, Nature, New Scientist, and Ciel et Espace magazines.[3]

He retired in 2009.[1] Asteroid 14120 Espenak was named in his honor in 2003.[3]

Fred Espenak
Fred Espenak in 2017
Fred Espenak in 2017
Born1953
NationalityAmerican
OccupationAstrophysicist
Years active1978–2009[1]
Websitemreclipse.com

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "NASA's 'Mr. Eclipse' Retires but Still Chasing Shadows". NASA. 20 September 2009. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  2. ^ "Bio – Fred Espenak". Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "TWAN Bio for Fred Espenak". Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  4. ^ "Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000". Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  5. ^ "Fred Espenak". Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  6. ^ "Mr Eclipse". Retrieved 22 March 2015.

External links

April 2042 lunar eclipse

A penumbral lunar eclipse will take place on April 5, 2042.

Astronomical year numbering

Astronomical year numbering is based on AD/CE year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. Thus, it has a year 0; the years before that are designated with negative numbers and the years after that are designated with positive numbers. Astronomers use the Julian calendar for years before 1582, including the year 0, and the Gregorian calendar for years after 1582, as exemplified by Jacques Cassini (1740), Simon Newcomb (1898) and Fred Espenak (2007).The prefix AD and the suffixes CE, BC or BCE (Common Era, Before Christ or Before Common Era) are dropped. The year 1 BC/BCE is numbered 0, the year 2 BC is numbered −1, and in general the year n BC/BCE is numbered "−(n − 1)" (a negative number equal to 1 − n). The numbers of AD/CE years are not changed and are written with either no sign or a positive sign; thus in general n AD/CE is simply n or +n. For normal calculation a number zero is often needed, here most notably when calculating the number of years in a period that spans the epoch; the end years need only be subtracted from each other.

The system is so named due to its use in astronomy. Few other disciplines outside history deal with the time before year 1, some exceptions being dendrochronology, archaeology and geology, the latter two of which use 'years before the present'. Although the absolute numerical values of astronomical and historical years only differ by one before year 1, this difference is critical when calculating astronomical events like eclipses or planetary conjunctions to determine when historical events which mention them occurred.

August 2035 lunar eclipse

A partial lunar eclipse will take place on August 19, 2035.

December 1992 lunar eclipse

A total lunar eclipse took place on Wednesday, December 9, 1992, the second of two lunar eclipses in 1992, the first was a partial lunar eclipse on Monday, June 15.

February 2036 lunar eclipse

A total lunar eclipse will take place on February 11, 2036.It is supermoon

July 2046 lunar eclipse

A partial lunar eclipse will take place on July 18, 2046.

June 2039 lunar eclipse

A partial lunar eclipse will take place on June 6, 2039.

March 2043 lunar eclipse

A total lunar eclipse will take place on March 25, 2043.

This lunar eclipse is the first of a tetrad, four total lunar eclipses in series. The last series was in 2032 and 2033, starting with an April 2032 lunar eclipse. The next tetrad series is in 2050 and 2051, starting with the May 2050 lunar eclipse.

March 2044 lunar eclipse

A total lunar eclipse will take place on March 13, 2044.

March 2045 lunar eclipse

A penumbral lunar eclipse will take place on March 3, 2045.

November 2041 lunar eclipse

A partial lunar eclipse will take place on November 8, 2041.

October 2004 lunar eclipse

A total lunar eclipse took place on October 28, 2004, the second of two total lunar eclipses in 2004, the first being on May 4, 2004. It was the first lunar eclipse to take place during a World Series game, which when seen from Busch Memorial Stadium in St, Louis, Missouri, provided a surreal sight on the night the Boston Red Sox won their first World Series in 86 years to end the Curse of the Bambino.

September 1950 lunar eclipse

A total lunar eclipse took place on September 26, 1950.

September 2043 lunar eclipse

A total lunar eclipse will take place on September 19, 2043.

September 2044 lunar eclipse

A total lunar eclipse will take place on September 7, 2044.

Solar eclipse of April 30, 2060

A total solar eclipse will occur on April 30, 2060. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide.

Solar eclipse of February 26, 1979

A total solar eclipse occurred in North America on February 26, 1979.

A solar eclipse is an astronomical phenomenon that occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide.

The central shadow of the moon passed through the American states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana (where totality covered almost the entire state), and North Dakota, the Canadian provinces Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec, the Northwest Territories of Canada (the portion that is now Nunavut), and Greenland.

Solar eclipse of July 16, 2186

There will be a solar eclipse on July 16, 2186, which will be the longest total eclipse for thousands of years. The eclipse will pass over the southern Galápagos Islands (with a total eclipse of 4 minutes occurring over the southern tip of Española Island), the northern tip of Ecuador (with a total eclipse of 3 minutes and 26 seconds on Isla Santa Rosa), central Colombia (4 minutes and 50 seconds over Bogota), central Venezuela, and northern Guyana (7 minutes and 4 seconds just north of Anna Regina).

Solar eclipse of July 31, 2000

A partial solar eclipse occurred on July 31, 2000. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A partial solar eclipse occurs in the polar regions of the Earth when the center of the Moon's shadow misses the Earth.

It was visible from northern Russia, northeastern Scandinavia, northern Greenland, western Canada, northwestern United States.

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