Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart

Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (26 July 1791 – 29 July 1844), also known as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Jr., was the youngest child of six born to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and his wife Constanze. He was the younger of his parents' two surviving children.[1] He was a composer, pianist, conductor, and teacher from the late classical period whose musical style was of an early Romanticism, heavily influenced by his father's mature style.

Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart
Franz Xaver Mozart (Wolfgang Jr) 1825
Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (1825); by Karl Gottlieb Schweikart (1772–1855)
Born
Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Jr.)

July 26, 1791
DiedJuly 29, 1844 (aged 53)
Spouse(s)None
ChildrenNone
Parent(s)Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Constanze Mozart
RelativesKarl Thomas Mozart (brother)

Biography

Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart was born in Vienna, five months before his father's death. Although he was baptized Franz Xaver Mozart, from birth on he was always called Wolfgang by his family.[2] He received excellent musical instruction from Antonio Salieri and Johann Nepomuk Hummel, and Beethoven and studied composition with Johann Georg Albrechtsberger and Sigismund von Neukomm.[3] He learned to play both the piano and violin. Like his father, he started to compose at an early age. "In April 1805, the thirteen-year-old Wolfgang Mozart made his debut in Vienna in a concert in the Theater an der Wien."[4]

Carl and Franz Xaver Mozart
The two surviving sons of Wolfgang Amadeus and Constanze Mozart: Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (left) and Karl Thomas (right); painting by Hans Hansen, Vienna, 1800

Wolfgang became a professional musician and enjoyed moderate success both as a teacher and a performer. Unlike his father, he was introverted and given to self-deprecation. He constantly underrated his talent and feared that whatever he produced would be compared with what his father had done.

Needing money, in 1808 he traveled to Lemberg (now Lviv), where he gave music lessons to the daughters of the Polish count Wiktor Baworowski. Although the pay was good, Franz felt lonely in the town of Pidkamin, near Rohatyn, so in 1809 he accepted an offer from the imperial chamberlain, Count von Janiszewski, to teach his daughters music in the town of Burshtyn. Besides teaching, he gave local concerts, playing his own and his father's pieces. These concerts introduced him to the important people in Galicia.

After two years in Burshtyn he moved to Lemberg where he spent more than 20 years teaching (with students including Julie von Webenau, née Baroni-Cavalcabò) and giving concerts. Between 1826 and 1829 he conducted the choir of Saint Cecilia which consisted of 400 amateur singers. In 1826 he conducted his father's Requiem during a concert at the Greek Catholic cathedral of St. George. From this choir he created the musical brotherhood of Saint Cecilia and thus the first school of music in Lemberg. He did not give up performing and in the years 1819 to 1821 traveled throughout Europe. In 1819 he gave concerts in Warsaw, Elbing and Danzig (Gdańsk).

In the 1820s Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart was one of 50 composers to write a variation on a theme of Anton Diabelli for part II of the Vaterländischer Künstlerverein. Part I was devoted to the 33 variations supplied by Beethoven which have gained an independent identity as his Diabelli Variations Op. 120.

In 1838 Mozart left for Vienna, and then for Salzburg, where he was appointed as the Kapellmeister of the Mozarteum. From 1841 he taught the pianist Ernst Pauer. Mozart died from stomach cancer on 29 July 1844 in the town of Karlsbad (now Karlovy Vary) where he was buried.

He never married nor did he have any children. His will was executed by Josephine de Baroni-Cavalcabò, a longtime patron who he dedicated his cello sonata to.[3] The shadow of his father loomed large over him even in death. The following epitaph was etched on his tombstone: "May the name of his father be his epitaph, as his veneration for him was the essence of his life."

Works by genre

Franz Xaver Wolfgang had a relatively small output (his opus numbers only go up to 30) and after 1820 he seems to have given up composing almost entirely; in particular, there is an 11-year gap (1828 to 1839) when he seems to have not written anything. Nevertheless, recordings of his music can be found today. He wrote mainly chamber music and piano music, with his largest compositions being the two piano concertos.

Orchestral Works

  • Sinfonia
  • Overture in D Major

Concertante

  • Piano Concerto No. 1 in C major, Op. 14 (1808, published in 1811)
  • Piano Concerto No. 2 in E-flat major, Op. 25 (1818)

The two piano concertos differ somewhat. The first concerto could pass for one of his father's late (K. 550 and above) works, except for a youthful exuberance and the piano's tessitura which had been expanded in 1795, just after Mozart senior died. The second concerto is more contemporary to the 1810s with a more virtuosic piano part showing hints that the younger Mozart was developing his own style.

Chamber Works

  • Piano Quartet in G minor, Op. 1 (published 1802)[3]
  • Sonata for Violin and Piano in B-flat major, Op. 7
  • 6 pieces for Flute and 2 Horns, Op. 11
  • Sonata for Violin and Piano in F major, Op. 15
  • Sonata for violoncello or violin and piano in E major, Op. 19 (published in 1820)[3]
  • Rondo in E minor for flute and piano

Piano Works

  • Variations on Minuet from Don Giovanni, Op. 2
  • Piano Sonata in G major, Op. 10
  • Six Polonaises mélancoliques for piano, Op. 17
  • Quatre Polonaises mélancoliques for piano, Op. 22
  • Five Variations on a romance from Méhul's Joseph, Op. 23 (pub. 1820) (until 1994 mistakenly attributed to the young Liszt, S147a)
  • Two Polonaises for piano, Op. 24
  • Diabelli's Waltz - V28 (In the 1820s Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart was one of 50 composers to write a variation on a theme of Anton Diabelli for part II of the Vaterländischer Künstlerverein)

Choral & Vocal Works

  • Cantata for the Birthday of Joseph Haydn, lost (1805)
  • Der erste Frühlingstag (The First Spring Day), cantata for solo, choir and orchestra, Op. 28
  • "Festchor" for the unveiling of the Mozart monument in Salzburg, Op. 30 (1840)
  • Songs with piano accompaniment
    • 8 German songs, Op. 5
    • 6 songs, Op. 9
    • 6 Songs, Op. 21
    • 3 German Songs, Op. 27
    • Entzückung
    • In der Väter Hallen ruhte
    • Ständchen
    • Erinnerung
    • An Emma (Weit in nebelgraue Ferne)

Works by Opus Number

  • Opus 1: Piano Quartet in G minor (1802 ad.)
  • Opus 2: Variations in F major on a minuet of Final Don Giovanni by W.A. Mozart (1805)
  • Opus 3: Variations in A major
  • Opus 5: 8 German songs
    • No. 1 - Die Einsamkeit
    • No. 2 - Das Klavier
    • No. 3 - Der Vergnügsame
    • No. 4 - Aus den Griechischen
    • No. 5 - Todtengräberlied
    • No. 6 - Mein Mädchen
    • No. 7 - Maylied
    • No. 8 - Das Geheimniss
  • Opus 6: Variations in F major
  • Opus 7: Sonata for Violin and Piano in B-flat major
  • Opus 8: Variations in G minor
  • Opus 9: 6 songs
    • No. 1 - Das liebende Mädchen
    • No. 2 - An spröde Schönen
    • No. 3 - Nein!
    • No. 4 - Der Schmetterling auf einem Vergissmeinnicht
    • No. 5 - Klage an den Mond
    • No. 6 - Erntelied
  • Opus 10: Piano Sonata in G major, FXWM VII: 8 (July 1807)
  • Opus 11: 6 pieces for flute and two horns
  • Opus 12: Romance: Song, In der Väter Hallen ruht (The father rested halls )
  • Opus 13: Aria buffa from opera 'Der Schauspieldirektor' by W.A. Mozart
  • Opus 14: Piano Concerto No. 1 in C major (1808 ad 1811).
  • Opus 15: Sonata for violin and piano in F major
  • Opus 16: 7 Variations in D major after Coriolano Giuseppe Niccolini (1813)
  • Opus 17: 6 Polish melancholic (1816)
  • Opus 18: 7 Variations in D minor on a Russian melody (1809 ad 1820).
  • Opus 19: Sonata for cello (or violin) and piano in E major (pub 1820 in Leipzig Peters.)
  • Opus 21: 6 songs
    • No. 1 - Aus dem Französischen des J.J.Rousseau
    • No. 2 - Seufzer
    • No. 3 - Die Entzückung
    • No. 4 - An Sie
    • No. 5 - An die Bäche
    • No. 6 - Le Baiser
  • Opus 22: 4 Polish melancholic (1820)
  • Opus 23: 5 Variations in C major on romance of Joseph of Mehul (28 octobre 1816Pub. 1820/24) Dedicated to Josephine Baroni-Cavalcabò. (Until 1994 the work was attributed to the young Liszt - five or nine when publishing - and bore the catalog number S147a)
  • Opus 24: An Emma (Weit in nebelgraue Ferne)
  • Opus 25: Piano Concerto No. 2 in E-flat major (1818) Creation in the Lemberg17 December 1818
  • Opus 26: 2 Polish melancholic (after 1821)
  • Opus 27: 3 German songs
    • No. 1 - An den Abendstern
    • No. 2 - Das Finden
    • No. 3 - Bertha's Lied in der Nacht
  • Opus 28: Der erste Frühlingstag, cantata for choir soloists and orchestra, Angels of God proclaim Christmas song (arr. Extrait d'un duo de la cantate op. 28)
  • Opus 29: Spring greeting song
  • Opus 30: Festchor for the inauguration of the Salzburg Mozart monument (1840)

Without opus

  • Rondo F major (1802)
  • Cantata for the 73rd anniversary of Joseph Haydn (1805, lost )
  • March in G major for piano, FXWM VII: 9 (February 1809)
  • Ländler in G major for piano, FXWM VII: 19 (September 1810)
  • German dance in D minor for piano, FXWM VII: 23 (1812)
  • German dance in G minor for piano, FXWM VII: 24 (1812)
  • Fantasy in the major, for piano on a Russian and Polish theme Tschem tebja ja ogortschila and Krokowiak, FXWM VII: 30 (1815)
  • Andantino in A major for piano, FXWM VII: 41 (August 1841)
  • Movement sonata for flute and piano in E minor ( "Rondo")
  • Symphony
  • Erinnerung
  • Ständchen

Liszt misattribution

Franz Xaver Mozart's Five Variations on a romance from Méhul's Joseph, Op. 23, was published in 1820. But the work was until 1994 mistakenly attributed to the young Liszt: a copyist's manuscript of the work wrongly noted that it was "par le jeune Liszt" ("by the young Liszt"). The work was published in good faith by the Neue Liszt-Ausgabe in 1990 and catalogued as Liszt's S147a. Liszt scholar Leslie Howard recorded the work in similar good faith in 1992 for his series of recordings of the complete music for solo piano by Liszt (for the disc entitled The Young Liszt). But shortly afterwards Howard noted in his sleeve notes for the disc's release:

"It has since been established that the attribution is false and that the work is from the pen of Mozart’s son Franz Xaver and was published as his opus 23 in 1820. But since the work remains unknown and unrecorded, like the vast majority of F X Mozart's output, and since the writing is not vastly different from some of the other pieces in this collection, it was thought best not to discard it."

References

  1. ^ The elder was Karl Thomas Mozart (21 September 1784 – 31 October 1858), who was an excellent pianist and long considered becoming a professional musician. Instead, he entered Austrian government service and died, unmarried, in Milan.
  2. ^ Michael Lorenz: "Mozart Documents 'transcribed'", Vienna 2012
  3. ^ a b c d "Divox Biography". Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2008.
  4. ^ Eisen, Cliff; Keefe, Simon P. (2006). "Haydn, (Franz) Joseph". The Cambridge Mozart Encyclopedia. Cambridge University Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-521-85659-1.

External links

1791

1791 (MDCCXCI)

was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1791st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 791st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 18th century, and the 2nd year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1791, the Gregorian calendar was

11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1791 in music

The year 1791 in music involved some significant events.

Anton Diabelli

Anton (or Antonio) Diabelli (6 September 1781 – 7 April 1858) was an Austrian music publisher, editor and composer. Best known in his time as a publisher, he is most familiar today as the composer of the waltz on which Ludwig van Beethoven wrote his set of thirty-three Diabelli Variations.

Burshtyn

Burštýn (Ukrainian: Буршти́н, Polish: Bursztyn, Hebrew: בורשטין‎) is a city located in the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, in western Ukraine, to the north of Halych. It was in the Halych Raion until 11 March 2014, when it received the status of city of oblast significance. It is accessible by rail.

It developed rapidly and significantly grew in population during the Soviet period. Administratively, Burshtyn is incorporated as a city of regional significance. Population: 15,640 (2016 est.).

The town, which was one of the Jewish shtetls, and whose name in Ukrainian and Polish literally means Amber, was only granted city status in 1993 and has a special administrative status in Halych Raion. As an urbanized settlement from 1944 to 1962 it was the main town of the raion. There is an old Roman Catholic Church in the center of the city, which was restored in the beginning of the 21st century.

One of its landmarks is the Burshtyn TES coal-fired power station, which is situated on a reservoir approximately 8 km long and 2 km wide. A fish farm lies on the lake near the district of Bilshivtsi. The town is known for its soccer club Enerhetyk.

Constanze Mozart

Maria Constanze Cäcilia Josepha Johanna Aloysia Mozart (née Weber) (5 January 1762 – 6 March 1842) was an Austrian woman who trained as a singer. She married twice, her first husband being Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and was later, jointly with her second husband Georg Nikolaus von Nissen, Mozart's biographer. She and Mozart had six children: Karl Thomas Mozart, Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart, and four who died in infancy.

Edle von Webenau

The Edlen von Webenau are a family from Austria.

Franz Mozart

Franz Mozart (3 October 1649 – 1693 or 1694) was a German mason and the grandfather of Leopold Mozart and great-grandfather of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

He was the son of a bricklayer, David Mozart (1621–1685). Franz worked as a master mason and lived in the Fuggerei since 1681. He was born in Augsburg and died there. A commemorative plaque at his house there, Mittlere Gasse Nr. 14, commemorates him today. The bookbinder Johann Georg Mozart was his son.

Franz Mozart is not to be confused with Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart, the youngest son of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

Jean-Lucien Hollenfeltz Fund

The Jean-Lucien Hollenfeltz collection consists of the private collection of physician, humanist, and scholarly musician Jean-Lucien Hollenfeltz, which is held by the Royal Conservatory of Brussels. The collection contains books and musical documents from Constanze Mozart (1762-1842) and her youngest son, Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (1791-1844).

Julie von Webenau

Julie von Webenau née Baroni-Cavalcabò, (16 October 1813, Lemberg – 2 July 1887, Graz), was a German-Austrian composer. She was a student of Mozart's son Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart. In 1839 Robert Schumann dedicated his piece Humoreske Op. 20 to her. Her granddaughter Vilma von Webenau also became a composer.

Karl Thomas Mozart

Karl Thomas Mozart (21 September 1784 – 31 October 1858) was the second son, and the elder of the two surviving sons, of Wolfgang and Constanze Mozart. The other was Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart.

List of Austrian composers

This is an alphabetical list of Austrian composers.

The portraits at right are seven of the most-prominent Austrian composers, as agreed by three published reviews.

Mozart Monument, Vienna

The Mozart Monument (German: Mozart-Denkmal) is a monument located in the Burggarten in the Innere Stadt district of Vienna, Austria since 1953. It is dedicated to componist Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791).

This 7.5-meter-high statue was made by architect Karl König (1841–1915) and sculptor Viktor Tilgner (1844–1896) and was unveiled at Albrechtsplatz (today Albertinaplatz) on April 21, 1896, five days before Tilgner died. Tilgner's sginature was completed with his death date.

Mozart family

The Mozart family are the ancestors, relatives, and descendants of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The earliest documents mentioning the name "Mozart", then spelled "Motzhart" or "Motzhardt", are from the Bavarian part of Swabia (today the Regierungsbezirk of Bavarian Swabia).

Sophie Weber

Maria Sophie Weber (1763–1846) was a singer of the 18th and 19th centuries. She was the younger sister of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's wife Constanze, and is remembered primarily for the testimony she left concerning the life and death of her brother-in-law.

Vaterländischer Künstlerverein

Vaterländischer Künstlerverein was a collaborative musical publication or anthology, incorporating 83 variations for piano on a theme by Anton Diabelli, written by 51 composers living in or associated with Austria. It was published in two parts in 1823 and 1824, by firms headed by Diabelli. It includes Ludwig van Beethoven's Diabelli Variations, Op. 120 (a set of 33 variations), as well as single variations from 50 other composers including Carl Czerny, Franz Schubert, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Ignaz Moscheles, Friedrich Kalkbrenner, Franz Liszt (aged only 12 at the time of publication), and a host of lesser-known names including a son of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and others now largely forgotten.

Vaterländischer Künstlerverein has various translations, including "Patriotic Artists' Association", "Art Association of the Fatherland", "Patriotic Culture Club", "Fatherland's Society of Artists", "National Artists' Association", "Native Artist's Association" and "Native Society of Artists".

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