Franz Roubaud

Franz Roubaud (Russian: Франц Алексеевич Рубо, tr. Frants Alekseevich Rubo) was a Russian painter who created some of the largest and best known panoramic paintings. He created circular paintings, exposed on a cylindrical surface and viewed from the inside at a lookout point. The painting was believed to reproduce the original scene with high fidelity.

Franz Roubaud
Фотография Франц Рубо, 19 век
Franz Roubaud

15 June 1856
Odessa, Russian Empire
Died13 March 1928 (aged 71)
Munich, Germany
EducationMember of the Imperial Academy of Arts (1908)
Full Member of the Imperial Academy of Arts (1910)
Notable work
panoramic painting


Battle of Borodino panorama 06 by shakko
Viewing the panorama painting

Franz (François) Roubaud was born on 3/15 June 1856 in Odessa to Honoré Fortuné Alexis Roubaud and his wife Madelaine née Sénèque. Franz was the fourth of five children in a Catholic family; his father was a bookseller and stationer, originally from Marseille.[1] He studied at the Odessa Drawing School. In 1877 Roubaud went to Munich and studied at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts.[2]

He then settled in Saint Petersburg, working in the Imperial Academy of Arts and painting huge panoramas of historical battles. In 1904-12 Roubaud taught at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts as a professor. During this time he painted the Siege of Sevastopol, a panoramic painting. In the mid-19th century, the various panoramic paintings became a fashionable way to depict landscapes and historical events. The panorama was a 360-degree visual medium patented by the artist Robert Barker in 1787. This was a new thing for the time and for the audiences in Europe of this period these paintings were a sensation. The paintings created a new illusion, transporting the viewer into a virtual reality, creating the perception of being physically present in the middle of the events. When standing in the middle of the 360 degree panorama this created the impression of standing in a new environment.[3]

He became renowned thanks to the giant panoramic paintings he executed during his lifetime. Roubaud's works were so large that they required specially built pavilions to exhibit them. These paintings are one of the few panoramas still extant of a popular 19th century genre. The viewer stands in the centre of the circular panorama, and observes the various scenes whilst walking around and observing the panorama from different viewing angles.

In 1913 Roubaud left Russia for Germany, settling in Munich, where he lived for the rest of his life. He died on 13 March 1928.[4][5]


List of works

Franz Roubaud Tscherkessische Reiter an einem Fluss
Circassian Horsemen at a River

Sevastopol Panorama

The Sevastopol Panorama is a giant painting depicting the siege of Sevastopol of 1854-55. The painting was exhibited in a rotunda, a special building constructed in a circular shape. The size of the painting is enormous, but it was a necessity for the realistic depiction of military scenes because of the huge number of participants and the wide sweep of the scenery. Franz Roubaud worked on this painting for almost three years, starting in 1901. He researched the historical events by traveling to Sevastopol, reading about the battle itself as well as by reading historical documents that described the different scenes and incidents during the war. He also talked to surviving participants. Roubaud made his first sketches in Saint Petersburg. He kept working on the painting later at the Bavarian Academy of Fine Arts where he decided to use a canvas 14 m high by 115 m long. When he finished the painting it was displayed in Sevastopol in the summer of 1904, on the fiftieth anniversary of the defence of the city.[8]

Franz Roubaud Panorama «Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855)»
Franz Roubaud Panorama «Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855)»

Battle of Borodino Panorama

Franz Roubaud Panorama «Battle of Borodino»
Franz Roubaud Panorama «Battle of Borodino»

Other works

Франц Рубо - Киргизский всадников с флагом

Kirghyz horseman with a red flag

Franz Roubaud Tscherkasse

Rider with weapon

Франц Рубо - Игра Кокпар

Playing Kokpar

Франц Рубо - Кавказская сцена

Caucasian scene

Franz Roubaud Tscherkessischer Reiter

Circassian Horsemen

Rubo Kazaki

Cossacks near a mountain river

Франц Рубо - Базарный день

Market day

Франц Рубо - Лагерь на берегу реки

Riverside camp

Франц Рубо - Сено корзину

The hay cart

Franz Roubaud. Count Argutinsky crossing the Caucasian range. 1892

Count Argutinsky crossing the Caucasian range. 1892

Franz Roubaud Poststation im Kaukasus 1913

Post station in the Caucasus 1913


  1. ^ Sugrobova-Roth, Olga. "Biography of Franz Roubaud". Retrieved 11 October 2014.
  2. ^ "Franz Roubaud A. Biographical index (Russian)". Retrieved October 2014. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. ^ [Mieszkowski, Jan, Watching war, 2012, Stanford, California Stanford University Press,ISBN 978-0-8047-8240-1, p.91]
  4. ^ "Russian artists, Franz Roubaud (Russian)". Retrieved October 2014. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  5. ^ "Borodino panorama". Retrieved October 2014. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  6. ^ "Live Bridge - A Scene from the Russo-Persian War". Museum Syndicate. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
  7. ^ Information by Jamila A. Dagirova, curator at the Dagestan museum of fine arts, 09 March 2015
  8. ^ Sevastopol Panorama

External links

1904 in art

The year 1904 in art involved some significant events and new works.

1912 in art

The year 1912 in art involved some significant events and new works.

Academy of Fine Arts, Munich

The Academy of Fine Arts, Munich (German: Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, also known as Munich Academy) is one of the oldest and most significant art academies in Germany. It is located in the Maxvorstadt district of Munich, in Bavaria, Germany.

Bagration flèches

The Bagration flèches (Russian: багратионовы флеши) are certain historic military earthworks named after Pyotr Bagration who ordered their construction. They were the pivotal Russian strongholds on the left flank during the Battle of Borodino in 1812. Located south-west of the village of Semyonovskoye, the flèches consisted of two lunettes and one redan, which were stormed eight times in the course of the battle.The flèches were constructed by infantry divisions of the 2nd Army and militiamen to give an opportunity to the artillery of firing not only to the French front, but also the flank. Five hundred men were detailed to their construction from each division, except the 27th, which sent six hundred. The left work was erected by the 26th Infantry Division, the right by the 2nd Grenadier Division and the middle one by the 2nd Combined Grenadier. The construction was finished on August 25, 1812 (O.S., used by the Russians) (September 6, N.S., used by the French).


Buzkashi (بزکشی, literally "goat pulling" in Persian) is a Central Asian sport in which horse-mounted players attempt to place a goat or calf carcass in a goal. Similar games are known as kokpar, kupkari and ulak tartysh, in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan and as kökbörü and gökbörü in Turkey, where it is played mainly by communities originally from Central Asia.

Erivan Fortress

Erivan Fortress (Armenian: Երևանի բերդը; Yerevani berdë; Persian: قلعه ایروان‎, Ghaleh-ye Iravân; Azerbaijani: İrəvan qalası – ايروان قالاسى; Russian: Эриванская крепость E'rivanskaya krepost' ) was a 16th-century fortress in Yerevan.


Gimry (Russian: Гимры) is a rural locality (a selo) in Untsukulsky District of the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located in the mountain where Imam Shamil, the third Imam of Dagestan, was born. Population: 4,654 (2010 Census); 3,362 (2002 Census).

Grekov Odessa Art school

The Grekov Odessa Art school (Ukrainian: Одеське художнє училище імені М. Б. Грекова, Russian: Оде́сское худо́жественное учи́лище имени М. Б. Гре́кова; abbreviated ОХУ) is an institution of secondary education in Odessa, Ukraine. It is the oldest and one of the more renowned school of arts in the country.

Harriet Sundström

Harriet Sundström, ( 23 December 1872 – 28 April 1961 in Stockholm) was a Swedish artist. Sundström studied at Tekniska Skolan in Stockholm, Paris, France, and for artists Franz Roubaud, Heinrich von Zügel and Charles Tooby in Munich, Germany, and she was also a student for artist Anders Zorn. She was part of the art-group "De Frie" and also created the organisation Originalträsnitt in 1911. She was vice president of the Grafiska Sällskapet in 1928 to 1937.Harriet was the daughter of Carl Rudolf Sundström and Carolina Sofia Häggström. Her art is on display at Nationalmuseum, Moderna Museet, Zornmuseet, at museums in Malmö and Norrköping and also at Konstakademien. Harriet Sundström died in Stockholm on the 28 April 1961. Harriet's work was always signed with "HS" or "H.Sundström".

Kuban Cossacks

Kuban Cossacks (Russian: кубанские казаки, kubanskiye kаzaki; Ukrainian: кубанські козаки, kubans'ki kozaky) or Kubanians (Russian: кубанцы, kubantsy; Ukrainian: кубанці, kubantsi), are Cossacks who live in the Kuban region of Russia. Most of the Kuban Cossacks are descendants of different major groups of Cossacks who were re-settled to the western Northern Caucasus in the late 18th century. The western part of the host (Taman Peninsula and adjoining region to the northeast) was settled by the Black Sea Cossack Host who were originally the Zaporozhian Cossacks of Ukraine, from 1792. The eastern and southeastern part of the host was previously administered by the Khopyour and Kuban regiments of the Caucasus Line Cossack Host and Don Cossacks, who were re-settled from the Don from 1777.The Kuban Cossack Host (Кубанское казачье войско), the administrative and military unit composed of Kuban Cossacks, formed in 1860 and existed until 1918. During the Russian Civil War, the Kuban Cossacks proclaimed a Kuban People's Republic, and played a key role in the southern theatre of the conflict. The Kuban Cossacks suffered heavy losses during the Holodomor and the subsequent Soviet extermination of Russians and Ukrainians and their culture in the Kuban region. Hence, during the Second World War, Cossacks fought both for both the Red Army and against them with the German Wehrmacht. The modern Kuban Cossack Host was re-established in 1990 at the fall of the Soviet Union.

Mikhail Avilov

Mikhail Ivanovich Avilov (Russian: Михаил Иванович Авилов) (September 6, 1882, Saint Petersburg – April 14, 1954, Leningrad) was a Russian and Soviet painter and art educator, who lived and worked in Leningrad, a member of the Leningrad Union of Soviet Artists, professor of the Repin Institute of Arts, Stalin Prize winner, People's Artist of the Russian Federation, regarded as one of the brightest representatives of Soviet Art, who played an important role in the formation of the Leningrad School of Painting. He is mostly known for his battle paintings.

Poklonnaya Hill

Poklonnaya Gora (Russian: Покло́нная гора́, literally "bow-down hill"; metaphorically "Worshipful Submission Hill"') was, at 171.5 meters, one of the highest spots in Moscow. Its two summits used to be separated by the Setun River, until one of the summits was razed in 1987. Since 1936, the area has been part of Moscow and now contains the Victory Park with many tanks and other vehicles used in the Second World War on display.

Historically, the hill had great strategic importance, as it commanded the best view of the Russian capital. Its name is derived from the Russian for "to bow down", as everyone approaching the capital from the west was expected to do homage here. During the French invasion of Russia in 1812, it was the spot where Napoleon in vain expected the keys to the Kremlin to be brought to him by Russians.

Robert Barker (painter)

Robert Barker (1739 – 8 April 1806) was an English painter (with Irish ancestry) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne.


Roubaud may refer to:

Émile Roubaud (1882–1962), a French biologist, pathologist and entomologist

Franz Roubaud (1856-1928), a Russian painter who created some of the largest panoramic paintings

Jacques Roubaud (born 1932), a French poet and mathematician

Jean-Marc Roubaud (born 1951), a member of the National Assembly of France

Siege of Sevastopol

Siege of Sevastopol may refer to:

Siege of Sevastopol (1854–55), during the Crimean War

Siege of Sevastopol (1941–42), during the Second World War

"The Siege of Sevastopol", a traditional song

Siege of Sevastopol (panorama), a 1904 painted panorama by Franz Roubaud

Siege of Sevastopol (1854–55)

The Siege of Sevastopol (at the time called in English the Siege of Sebastopol) lasted from October 1854 until September 1855, during the Crimean War. The allies (French, Ottoman, and British) landed at Eupatoria on 14 September 1854, intending to make a triumphal march to Sevastopol, the capital of the Crimea, with 50,000 men. The 56-kilometre (35 mi) traverse took a year of fighting against the Russians. Major battles along the way were Alma (September 1854), Balaklava (October 1854), Inkerman (November 1854), Tchernaya (August 1855), Redan (September 1855), and, finally, Sevastopol (September 1855). During the siege, the allied navy undertook six bombardments of the capital, on 17 October 1854; and on 9 April, 6 June, 17 June, 17 August, and 5 September 1855.

Sevastopol is one of the classic sieges of all time. The city of Sevastopol was the home of the Tsar's Black Sea Fleet, which threatened the Mediterranean. The Russian field army withdrew before the allies could encircle it. The siege was the culminating struggle for the strategic Russian port in 1854–55 and was the final episode in the Crimean War.

During the Victorian Era, these battles were repeatedly memorialized. The Siege of Sevastopol was the subject of Crimean soldier Leo Tolstoy's Sebastopol Sketches and the subject of the first Russian feature film, Defence of Sevastopol. The Battle of Balaklava was made famous by Alfred, Lord Tennyson's poem "The Charge of the Light Brigade" and Robert Gibb's painting The Thin Red Line. A panorama of the siege itself was painted by Franz Roubaud.

The Jamaican and English nurses who treated the wounded during these battles were much celebrated, most famously Mary Seacole and Florence Nightingale.

Siege of Sevastopol (panorama)

The Siege of Sevastopol is a painted panorama by the Russian artist Franz Roubaud. It shows the Allied assault on the Malakhov Battery on 6 June 1855 during the Siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War, in which 173,000 British and French troops were repulsed by 75,000 Russians. It features portraits of Pavel Nakhimov, the Russian nurse Dasha and Nikolay Pirogov. He painted it between 1902 and 1904. It was unveiled in a specially designed building in 1905, the fiftieth anniversary of the siege. It was damaged during the German-Romanian siege of Sevastopol in 1942 and restored in the 1950s.

Vadym Meller

Vadym Meller or Vadim Meller, (Russian: Вадим Георгиевич Меллер;Ukrainian: Вадим Георгійович Меллер, 1884–1962) was a Ukrainian-Russian Soviet painter, avant-garde Cubist, Constructivist and Expressionist artist, theatrical designer, book illustrator, and architect. In 1925, he was the first artist to be awarded a gold medal in the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (Art Deco) in Paris.

Western Azerbaijan (political concept)

Western Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Qərbi Azərbaycan) is an irredentist political concept that is used in the Republic of Azerbaijan mostly to refer to the territory of the Republic of Armenia. Azerbaijani statements claim that the territory of the modern Armenian republic were lands that once belonged to Azerbaijanis. Its claims are primarily hinged over the contention that the current Armenian territory was under the rule of various Turkic tribes, empires and khanates from the late medieval period until the Treaty of Turkmenchay signed after the Russo-Persian War of 1826–1828. The concept has received official sanction by the government of Azerbaijan, and has been used by its current president, Ilham Aliyev, who has repeatedly stated that the territory of Armenia is a part of "ancient Turk and Azerbaijani land."

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