Franz Rademacher

Franz Rademacher (20 February 1906 – 17 March 1973) was an official in the Nazi government of the Third Reich during World War II, known for initiating action on the Madagascar Plan.

Nazi beginnings

Rademacher was born on 20 February 1906 in Neustrelitz, Mecklenburg-Strelitz. His father was a railway engineer. He studied law in Rostock[1] and Munich, and entered the profession as a jurist in April 1932. He held membership in the Sturmabteilung (Nazi stormtroopers) between 1932 and 1934. In 1933, he joined the Nazi Party. He was a vocal anti-semite.

From 1937, he was a diplomat with the German Foreign Office, serving at the German embassy in Montevideo, Uruguay until May 1940. In 1940, he was selected to lead Referat D III, or Judenreferat, of Ribbentrop's Foreign Affairs Ministry. His direct superior was Nazi diplomat Martin Luther. It was during his tenure in this office, throughout the spring and summer of 1940, that Rademacher initiated the Madagascar Plan, which sought to forcibly deport all of Europe's Jews to the island of Madagascar. He clashed briefly with Adolf Eichmann over organizational control of the plan, which would shortly be abandoned amidst Germany's changing fortunes in World War II.

In October 1941, he was responsible for mass deportations and executions of Serbian Jews. He also had a hand in the deportation of Jews from France, Belgium, and the Netherlands. After his visit to Belgrade, Rademacher filed an expense claim stating that the official purpose of the trip was to "liquidate the Jews."[2] In 2010, the German Foreign Ministry released an 880-page report on the diplomats of the Third Reich entitled The Ministry and the Past (Das Amt und die Vergangenheit), which mentioned that particular expense claim, bringing Rademacher a degree of latter-day notoriety.

In 1943, Rademacher became embroiled in Luther's attempted coup to oust Ribbentrop. He was dismissed from the Foreign Affairs Ministry, and sent to fight in the navy as an officer for the remainder of the war, ending up with Admiral Doenitz' cypher-breaking unit at Flensburg-Mürwik under the command of Captain Kupfer. Immediately following the war this unit was put at the disposal of Sefton Delmer's news agency in Hamburg. Rademacher was arrested by British military police in November 1945, who ultimately released him. He was eventually brought to trial in Germany in February 1952 for the murders he supervised in Serbia. However, with the aid of Nazi sympathizers, he fled to Syria in September of that year while released on bail. A German court convicted him in absentia for the murder of Serbian Jews, and sentenced him to 3 years and 5 months imprisonment.

Later years

In 1962, an Israeli spy, Eli Cohen delivered a letter bomb to Rademacher in a failed assassination attempt. In 1963, he was arrested in Syria on charges of spying, but was released in 1965 due to ill health. He returned voluntarily to Germany on November 30, 1966, where he was arrested at the Nuremberg airport. Reportedly ill at the time, he was taken to a prison hospital in Bayreuth, while awaiting prosecution in Bamberg.[3] He was again convicted of war crimes and sentenced to five and half years' imprisonment. However, his sentence was never carried out, the court having considered it already served. In 1971, a German high court in Karlsruhe overruled this judgment against Rademacher, and ordered a new trial for his crimes during World War II. He died on 17 March 1973, before proceedings began.

References

  1. ^ "Wintersemester 1924/1925, Nr. 12 Immatrikulation von Franz Rademacher". Rostocker Matrikelportal - Immatrikulation von Franz Rademacher (1924 WS). Rostock University. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  2. ^ "Germany's Nazi diplomats: The machine's accomplices". The Economist. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  3. ^ "Former top Nazi held on return from Syria," Jerusalem Post, 2 October 1966, pg. 2.

Further reading

  • Browning, Christopher R. (1978). The Final Solution and the German Foreign Office: A Study of Referat D III of Abteilung Deutschland, 1940–43. New York: Holmes & Meier.
  • Browning, Christopher R. (2004). The Origins of the Final Solution. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1327-1.
  • Wistrich, Robert S. (1995). Who's Who in Nazi Germany. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26038-8.

External links

1940

1940 (MCMXL)

was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1940th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 940th year of the 2nd millennium, the 40th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1940s decade.

1940 in Germany

Events in the year 1940 in Germany.

199th Infantry Brigade (United States)

The 199th Infantry Brigade (Light) is a unit of the United States Army which served in the Army Reserve from 1921–1940, in the active army from 1966 to 1970 (serving in the Vietnam War), briefly in 1991–1992 at Fort Lewis, and from 2007 as an active army training formation at Fort Benning.

Beethoven House

The Beethoven House (German: Beethoven-Haus) in Bonn, Germany, is a memorial site, museum and cultural institution serving various purposes. Founded in 1889 by the Beethoven-Haus association, it studies the life and work of composer Ludwig van Beethoven.

The centrepiece of the Beethoven-Haus is Beethoven's birthplace at Bonngasse 20. This building houses the museum. The neighbouring buildings (Bonngasse 18 and 24 to 26) accommodate a research centre (Beethoven archive) comprising a collection, a library and publishing house, and a chamber music hall. Here, music lovers and experts from all over the world can meet and share their ideas. The Beethoven-Haus is financed by the Beethoven-Haus association and by means of public funds.

Federal Foreign Office

The Federal Foreign Office (German: Auswärtiges Amt ), abbreviated AA, is the foreign ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany, a federal agency responsible for both the country's foreign policy and its relationship with the European Union. It is a cabinet-level ministry. Since March 2018, Heiko Maas has served as Foreign Minister, succeeding Sigmar Gabriel. The primary seat of the ministry is at the Werderscher Markt square in the Mitte district, the historic centre of Berlin.

The term Auswärtiges Amt was the name of the Foreign Office established in 1870 by the North German Confederation, which then became the German Empire's Foreign Office in 1871. It is still the name of the German foreign ministry today. From 1871 to 1919, the Foreign Office was led by a Foreign Secretary, and since 1919, it has been led by the Foreign Minister of Germany.

Index of World War II articles (F)

F-34 tank gun

F Kikan

F. Burke Jones

F. F. E. Yeo-Thomas

F. F. Worthington

F. H. Maynard

F. Lorée

F. Rogues

F. Ross Holland, Jr.

F. S. Bell

F. W. Winterbotham

Föhrenwald

Förbundet Arbetarfront

F1 grenade (Russia)

Fab Morvan

Fabian Bourzat

Fabian von Schlabrendorff

Fabien Barthez

Fabien Galthié

Fabrice Abriel

Fabrice Fiorèse

Fabrice Moreau

Fabrice Pancrate

Fabrice Poullain

Fabrikaktion

Faces of War

FAI armoured car

Faidherbe - Chaligny (Paris Métro)

Fairbairn-Sykes Fighting Knife

Fairchild K-20

Fairchild PT-19

Fairey Firefly

Fairey Fulmar

Fairfax Airport

Fairmont Army Airfield

Fairplex

Faisal of Saudi Arabia

Faithful Service Medal

Faja de Oro

Falaise pocket

Fall Grün (Czechoslovakia)

Fall of Berlin - 1945

Fall Weiss (1939)

Fallschirm-Panzer Division 1 Hermann Göring

Fallschirmjäger-Regiment Hübner

Fallschirmjäger

Falstad concentration camp

Faneva Imà Andriantsima

Fang Zhenwu

Fannrem concentration camp

Fantasy in the Sky

Fantasyland

Far East Air Force (United States)

Far East Prisoners of War

Far Eastern Commission

Far Eastern Front (Soviet Union)

Far Eastern Liaison Office

Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje

Farewell of Slavianka

Farewell to Manzanar

Farhud

Farley Mowat

Farouk of Egypt

Fascism and Big Business

Fascism as an international phenomenon

Fast Attack Craft War Badge

Fast Carrier Task Force

Fat Man and Little Boy

Fat Man

Fateless (film)

Fatema Mernissi

Father (film)

Father Goose (film)

Father Jean Bernard

Father Raskin

Fatherland (novel)

Fathom Five (novel)

Fats Everett

Faurisson affair

Faux Soir

Favorite (Q195)

Fay B. Begor

Fazal Din

FBI Silvermaster File

FC Grenoble

FC Nantes

FCM 36

FCM F1

Featherston prisoner of war camp

February strike

FECOMZ

Federal Expellee Law

Federal State of Croatia

Federation of Expellees

Fedor Dragojlov

Fedor Tokarev

Fedor von Bock

Feldafing displaced persons camp

Feldjägerkorps

Feldmann case

Feldzug in Polen

Felice Schragenheim

Felicity Peake

Feliks Konarski

Felix Alfarth

Felix Bloch

Felix Fechenbach

Felix Kersten

Felix L. Sparks

Felix Landau

Felix Nussbaum

Felix of Bourbon-Parma

Felix Pollaczek

Felix Steiner

Felix Stump

Felix Z. Longoria, Jr.

Fellowship of the Bellows

Felsennest

Female guards in Nazi concentration camps

Female roles in the world wars

Femaru 37M

Feng-Shan Ho

Feng Baiju

Feng Chian

Feng Qinzai

Feng Yuxiang

Feng Zhanhai

Feng Zhi'an

Fenris (comics)

Ferdinand Ďurčanský

Ferdinand André Fouqué

Ferdinand Brunetière

Ferdinand de Lesseps

Ferdinand Foch

Ferdinand Heim

Ferdinand J. Chesarek

Ferdinand James von Rothschild

Ferdinand Lot

Ferdinand Marcos

Ferdinand Maurice Felix West

Ferdinand Oliver Porsche

Ferdinand Schörner

Ferdinand von Bredow

Ferdinand von Lüninck

Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg

Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy

Ferdynand Antoni Ossendowski

Ferenc Hirzer

Ferenc Keserű

Ferenc Muller

Ferenc Szálasi

Fernand Bonnier de La Chapelle

Fernand Braudel

Fernand Canelle

Fernand Cormon

Fernand de Brinon

Fernand Delarge

Fernand Feyaerts

Fernand Gambiez

Fernand Holweck

Fernand Sanz

Fernande Bochatay

Fernando Henrique Cardoso

Fernando Mezzasoma

Ferruccio Parri

Festung Norwegen

Festung Warschau

FG 42

FH Phantom

Fiat-Revelli Modello 1935

Fiat BR.20

Fiat CR.32

Fiat CR.42

Fiat G.12

Fiat G.50

Fiat G.55

Fiat L6/40

Fiat M11/39

Fiat M13/40

Fiat M14/41

Fiction based on World War II

Fidel LaBarba

Fidél Pálffy

Field Army Bernolák

Field Artillery Tractor

Fieseler Fi 156

Fieseler Fi 167

Fieseler Fi 98

Fifinella

Fifteenth Air Force

Fifteenth Army (Japan)

Fifteenth United States Army

Fifth Air Force

Fifth Army (United Kingdom)

Fifth Encirclement Campaign

Fifth Encirclement Campaign

Fifth United States Army

Fiftieth Army (Japan)

Fifty-Eighth Army (Japan)

Fifty-Fifth Army (Japan)

Fifty-First Army (Japan)

Fifty-Fourth Army (Japan)

Fifty-Ninth Army (Japan)

Fifty-Second Army (Japan)

Fifty-Seventh Army (Japan)

Fifty-Sixth Army (Japan)

Fifty-Third Army (Japan)

Fighter Ace

Fighter Pilots Conspiracy

Fighter Squadron: The Screamin' Demons Over Europe

Fighter Squadron

Fighter: The True Story of the Battle of Britain

Fighting for Freedom

Fighting Norway

Fighting Steel

Filimon Sârbu

Filip Müller

Filipe Teixeira

Filipp Oktyabrskiy

Filles du Calvaire (Paris Métro)

Filthy Thirteen

Final Impact

Final Round - WWII miniatures wargame

Final Solution

Finisterre Range campaign

Finito Benito

Finnish 3rd Division (Continuation War)

Finnish 4th Division (Winter War)

Finnish 6th Division (Continuation War)

Finnish 6th Division (Winter War)

Finnish Armoured Division

Finnish Army (1939)

Finnish coastal defence ship Ilmarinen

Finnish coastal defence ship Väinämöinen

Finnish conquest of East Karelia (1941)

Finnish Democratic Republic

Finnish frigate Hämeenmaa

Finnish frigate Matti Kurki

Finnish frigate Uusimaa

Finnish gunboat Hämeenmaa

Finnish gunboat Karjala

Finnish gunboat Klas Horn

Finnish gunboat Matti Kurki

Finnish gunboat Turunmaa

Finnish gunboat Uusimaa

Finnish I Corps (Winter War)

Finnish II Corps (Winter War)

Finnish III Corps (Continuation War)

Finnish III Corps (Winter War)

Finnish Infantry Regiment 200

Finnish IV Corps (Winter War)

Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union

Finnish reconquest of Ladoga Karelia (1941)

Finnish reconquest of the Karelian Isthmus (1941)

Finnish Volunteer Battalion of the Waffen-SS

Finnish war children

Fire and Ice: The Winter War of Finland and Russia

Fire balloon

Fire Control Towers

Fire on the Mountain (1996 film)

Firepower (video game)

Fires on the Plain (film)

Fires on the Plain

Fires Were Started

Firmin Didot

First Air Force

First air raid on Singapore

First Allied Airborne Army

First American shots fired in World War II

First anti-Partisan offensive

First Army (Australia)

First Army (Bulgaria)

First Army (Hungary)

First Army (Italy)

First Army (United Kingdom)

First Army (Yugoslavia)

First Battalion

First Battle of El Alamein

First Battle of Sirte

First Canadian Army

First Encirclement Campaign against Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet

First Encirclement Campaign against Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Soviet

First Encirclement Campaign against Honghu Soviet

First Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet

First Encirclement Campaign against Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet

First Indian National Army

First period of World War II

First Sisak Partisan Detachment

First Taiwan Strait Crisis

First they came...

First United Front

First United States Army Group

First United States Army

First Vienna Award

Fischia il vento

Fission Product Pilot Plant

Fitzroy Maclean

Five for Hell

Five Graves to Cairo

Flag Group

Flag of Manchukuo

Flags of Our Fathers (film)

Flags of Our Fathers

Flak Bait

Flak tower

Flakpanzer 38(t)

Flame of Liberty

Flamethrower, Portable, No 2

Flammenwerfer 35

Fleet Faction

Flemming Muus

Flensburg government

Flensburg radar detector

Fletcher Thompson

Flettner Fl 184

Flettner Fl 282

Flettner

Flick Trial

Fliegerfaust/Luftfaust

Fliegerführer Afrika

Flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland during and after World War II

Flight and expulsion of Germans from Romania during and after World War II

Flight from Ashiya

Flight Lieutenant (film)

Flight of the Norwegian National Treasury

Florence American Cemetery and Memorial

Florence Delay

Florence Jaffray Harriman

Florence Kirsch Du Brul

Florence Picaut

Florent Carton Dancourt

Florentine Rost van Tonningen

Florentius Volusenus

Florian Marciniak

Florian Maurice

Florida Holocaust Museum

Florida World War II Army Airfields

Florin Bratu

Flossenbürg concentration camp

Flower-class corvette

Floyd Hicks

Floyd K. Lindstrom

Floyd Matthews

Fluctuat nec mergitur

Flugmotorenwerke Ostmark

Flugzeugträger B

Flyboys: A True Story of Courage

Flying Leathernecks

Flying Regiment 19, Finnish Air Force

Flying Regiment 4, Finnish Air Force

Flying submarine

Flying Tigers (film)

Flying Tigers

FM 24/29 light machine gun

FN BAR

Führer Begleit Brigade

Führer Grenadier Brigade

Führer Headquarters

Führer

Führerbunker

Führerprinzip

Fürstengrube subcamp

Fürth

Focke-Wulf Fw 187

Focke-Wulf Fw 189

Focke-Wulf Fw 190

Focke-Wulf Fw 191

Focke-Wulf Fw 200

Focke-Wulf Fw 300

Focke-Wulf Fw 42

Focke-Wulf Fw 44

Focke-Wulf Fw 56

Focke-Wulf Fw 57

Focke-Wulf Fw 58

Focke-Wulf Fw 61

Focke-Wulf Project I

Focke-Wulf Project II

Focke-Wulf Project III

Focke-Wulf Project VII

Focke-Wulf Project VIII

Focke-Wulf Ta 152

Focke-Wulf Ta 153

Focke-Wulf Ta 154

Focke-Wulf Ta 183

Focke-Wulf Ta 283

Focke-Wulf Ta 400

Focke-Wulfe Fw 57

Focke Achgelis Fa 223

Focke Achgelis Fa 330

Fodil Hadjadj

Fog Investigation and Dispersal Operation (FIDO)

Foibe massacres

Fokker A.I

Fokker B.I (1915)

Fokker B.II (1916)

Fokker C.I

Fokker D.I

Fokker D.II

Fokker D.III

Fokker D.IV

Fokker D.V

Fokker D.VI

Fokker D.VII

Fokker D.VIII

Fokker Dr.I

Fokker E.I

Fokker E.II

Fokker E.III

Fokker E.IV

Fokker F.I (1917)

Fokker K.I

Fokker M.16

Fokker M.5

Fokker M.7

Fokker V.1

Fokker V.17

Fokker V.2

Fokker V.27

Fokker V.4

Fokker V.6

Fokker V.7

Fokker V.9

Folies Bergère

Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques

Fondation pour la Mémoire de la Shoah

Fontaine-Michalon (Paris RER)

Foo fighter

Food for Fighters

Forbes Howie

Forbidden (1984 film)

Forbidden Games

Force 10 from Navarone (film)

Force 10 From Navarone (novel)

Force 136

Force Acts

Force K

Forced labor in Germany during World War II

Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union

Forced labor of Hungarians in the Soviet Union

Forced Landing

Forced prostitution in German armed forces

Ford Fordor

Ford GPA

Ford Island

Foreign Economic Administration

Foreign forced labor in the Soviet Union

Foreign relations of Vichy France

Foreign U-Boats

Forest Brothers

Forest of the Gods

Forest of the Martyrs

Forest swastika

Forgiving Dr. Mengele

Forgotten Voices of the Second World War

Formations of the United States Army during World War II

Former Indian National Army Monument

Forrest B. Royal

Forrest E. Everhart

Forrest E. Peden

Forrest L. Vosler

Forrest Pogue

Forrest S. Petersen

Fort Banks

Fort Bell Army Airfield

Fort Breendonk

Fort d'Aubervilliers (Paris Métro)

Fort Devens, Massachusetts

Fort Hommet 10.5 cm Coastal Defence Gun Casement Bunker

Fort Lincoln Internment Camp

Fort Missoula Internment Camp

Fort Stockton-Pecos County Airport

Fortieth Army (Japan)

Fortunes of War (tv series)

Forty-First Army (Japan)

Forty-Fourth Army (Japan)

Forty-Third Army (Japan)

Foster Furcolo

Fotis Kafatos

Fouad Bouguerra

Four-Power Authorities

Four Chaplains

Four Freedoms (Norman Rockwell)

Four Freedoms Monument

Four Freedoms

Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (film)

Four Policemen

Four Year Plan

Fourteenth Air Force

Fourteenth Army (United Kingdom)

Fourteenth United States Army

Fourth Air Force

Fourth Army (National Revolutionary Army)

Fourth Army (United Kingdom)

Fourth Encirclement Campaign against Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet

Fourth Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet

Fourth strategic offensive

Fourth United States Army

Fousseni Diawara

Fox Armoured Car

Fox on the Rhine

Foxer

Foxhall P. Keene

Foy Draper

Foyle's War

FP-45 Liberator

FR Suffren

Frøslev Prison Camp

Fragmentation grenade wz.1933

Fran Albreht

Franc Frakelj

Franc Rozman

France Antelme

France Bloch-Serazin

France Falls

France Gall

France in the twentieth century

Frane Katalinić

Francesco De Martini

Francesco Domenico Chiarello

Francesco Mimbelli

Francine Neago

Francis (1950 film)

Francis Anthony Blair Fasson

Francis Arthur Jefferson

Francis B. Wai

Francis Balle

Francis Biddle

Francis Burchell

Francis C. Flaherty

Francis Cammaerts

Francis Cherry

Francis Clark Howell

Francis Crick

Francis Curzon, 5th Earl Howe

Francis E. Walter

Francis Festing

Francis G. Slack

Francis George Miles

Francis Grevemberg

Francis H. McAdams

Francis Hassett

Francis Hunter

Francis J. Clark

Francis Junior Pierce

Francis Llacer

Francis P. Matthews

Francis Piasecki

Francis Poulenc

Francis Pym

Francis Pélissier

Francis Rodd, 2nd Baron Rennell

Francis S. Currey

Francis Simon

Francis Smerecki

Francis Steinmetz

Francis Stuart

Francis Suttill

Francis Tuker

Francis W. Nye

Francis Wilson (rugby union footballer)

Francis X. McGraw

Francisc Panet

Francisco Boix

Francisco Franco

Francisco Mercado, Jr.

Franciszek Błażej

Franciszek Gajowniczek

Franciszek Gruszka

Franciszek Kleeberg

Franciszek Pokorny

Franciszek Szymczyk

Franck Dja Djedje

Franck Gava

Franck Report

Franck Signorino

Franco-Polish Military Alliance

Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance

Franco Bordoni

Franco Nones

Francs-tireurs

Franja Partisan Hospital

Franjo Džal

Franjo Šimić

Franjo Kluz

Franjo Tuđman

Frank A. Armstrong

Frank Barlow (Coronation Street)

Frank Beaurepaire

Frank Bell (educator)

Frank Bleichman

Frank Bonilla

Frank Buckles

Frank Burke (Medal of Honor recipient)

Frank Byers

Frank Capra

Frank Church

Frank Crowther Roberts

Frank D. Peregory

Frank Durbin

Frank E. Rodgers

Frank F. Everest

Frank Foley

Frank G. Clement

Frank Gerald Blaker

Frank Goettge

Frank H. Ono

Frank Herbert

Frank Horton Berryman

Frank Hughes (sport shooter)

Frank Hussey

Frank J. Jirka, Jr.

Frank J. Petrarca

Frank Jack Fletcher

Frank Jarvis

Frank John Partridge

Frank Kelly Freas

Frank Kendall Everest, Jr.

Frank Knox

Frank Kowalski

Frank Kriz

Frank Kurtz

Frank Lautenberg

Frank Lilley

Frank M. Clark

Frank M. Coffin

Frank MacKey

Frank Mancuso

Frank Margerin

Frank Maxwell Andrews

Frank Merrill

Frank Messer

Frank Messervy

Frank Minis Johnson

Frank Murphy

Frank N. Ikard

Frank N. Mitchell

Frank Newhook

Frank O'Hara

Frank O. Slater

Frank Oppenheimer

Frank P. Witek

Frank Pace

Frank Pantridge

Frank Pickersgill

Frank Press

Frank Pullen

Frank R. Walker

Frank Reginald Carey

Frank Renouf

Frank Rosenfelt

Frank Ryan (Irish republican)

Frank S. Besson, Jr.

Frank Sheeran

Frank Spedding

Frank Steer

Frank Sutton

Frank Tripucka

Frank W. Mayborn

Frank W. Milburn

Frank Walus

Frank William Foster

Frank Wisner

Frank Woodrow O’Flaherty

Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials

Frankie Albert

Frankie Yankovic

Franklin A. Hart

Franklin Charles Gimson

Franklin D. Roosevelt (Paris Métro)

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr.

Franklin E. Sigler

Franklin Littell

Franklin Sousley

Franklin Van Valkenburgh

Frankolovo crime

Franky Vercauteren

František Fajtl

František Janda-Suk

František Moravec

František Peřina

Frantz Reichel

Franz-Josef Beerenbrock

Franz Aigner (weightlifter)

Franz Alt (mathematician)

Franz Altheim

Franz Anton Basch

Franz Augsberger

Franz Böckli

Franz Böhme

Franz Bürkl

Franz Buchner

Franz Burri

Franz Bäke

Franz Dörr

Franz Duhne

Franz Eisenach

Franz Gürtner

Franz Griesbach

Franz Halder

Franz Hayler

Franz Hofer

Franz Joseph II, Prince of Liechtenstein

Franz Jägerstätter

Franz Kaufmann

Franz Kemper

Franz Künstler

Franz Kröwerath

Franz Kraus

Franz Krienbühl

Franz Krumm

Franz Kutschera

Franz Leopold Neumann

Franz Liebkind

Franz Machon

Franz Mesmer

Franz Pfeffer von Salomon

Franz Rademacher

Franz Reizenstein

Franz Ritter von Epp

Franz Ruff

Franz Schall

Franz Schiess

Franz Schlegelberger

Franz Schwede

Franz Seldte

Franz Six

Franz Stangl

Franz Stock

Franz von Papen

Franz von Werra

Franz Walter Stahlecker

Franz Xaver Schwarz

Franz Ziereis

Franz, Duke of Bavaria

François-Auguste Parseval-Grandmaison

François-Eudes de Mézeray

François-Henri de Montmorency, duc de Luxembourg

François-Joachim de Pierre de Bernis

François-Joseph-Philippe de Riquet

François-Joseph Talma

François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois

François-René de Chateaubriand

François-Timoléon de Choisy

François-Urbain Domergue

François-Xavier-Joseph Droz

François Andrieux

François Arago

François Barois

François Boucher

François Brandt

François Brisson

François Charpentier

François Cheng

François Christophe de Kellermann

François Connan

François Coppée

François Coty

François Couperin

François Darlan

François Dauverné

François de Beauvilliers, 1st duc de Saint-Aignan

François de Callières

François de Clermont-Tonnerre

François de Harlay de Champvallon

François de La Mothe Le Vayer

François de La Rocque

François de Neufchâteau

François Debeauvais

François Ducaud-Bourget

François Duprat

François Furet

François Félix

François Fénelon

François Gangloff

François Guizot

François Jacob

François Joseph Lefebvre

François Juste Marie Raynouard

François Le Leve

François le Métel de Boisrobert

François Lemasson

François M'Pelé

François Magendie

François Maspero

François Mauriac

François Maynard

François Mignet

François Mitterrand

François Nourissier

François Ponsard

François Pétis de la Croix

François Simiand

François Spirito

François Tristan l'Hermite

François Truffaut

François Villon

Françoise-Marguerite de Sévigné

Françoise d'Eaubonne

Françoise Dior

Françoise Dorléac

Françoise Hardy

Françoise Héritier

Françoise Rosay

Frascati bombing raid September 8, 1943

Frau Solf Tea Party

Frauenschaft

Fred A. Leuchter

Fred Anton Maier

Fred B. Rooney

Fred Baker

Fred Bardshar

Fred Blassie

Fred Chaney, senior

Fred Cogswell

Fred Dutton

Fred Faulkner Lester

Fred Fisher (lawyer)

Fred Hargesheimer

Fred J. Christensen

Fred Jones (comics)

Fred Kenneth Moore

Fred Kite

Fred Korematsu

Fred Lauer

Fred Marsh

Fred O'Conner

Fred Tootell

Fred Tuttle

Fred Wander

Fred Wick

Freddie Anderson

Freddie Cox

Freddie de Guingand

Freddie Spencer Chapman

Freddy Schmidt

Frederic Bennett

Frederic H. Smith, Jr.

Frederic John Walker

Frederic Seebohm, Baron Seebohm

Frederic Tuten

Frederic Wake-Walker

Frederick Agnew Gill

Frederick Albert Tilston

Frederick Ashworth

Frederick Augustus Irving

Frederick B. Dent

Frederick Bayer

Frederick Bowhill

Frederick Boylstein

Frederick Browning

Frederick C. Bock

Frederick C. Murphy

Frederick Charles Adler

Frederick Christian (cricketer)

Frederick Corfield

Frederick Cuming

Frederick Curtice Davis

Frederick Cushing Cross, Jr.

Frederick Dalrymple-Hamilton

Frederick E. Morgan

Frederick Etchen

Frederick Freake

Frederick Funston-class attack transport

Frederick George Topham

Frederick Gordon-Lennox, 9th Duke of Richmond

Frederick J. Clarke

Frederick J. Karch

Frederick Kisch

Frederick Kroesen

Frederick Lane

Frederick Leathers, 1st Viscount Leathers

Frederick Lois Riefkohl

Frederick Luke

Frederick Moloney

Frederick Moosbrugger

Frederick Mulley

Frederick Nolting

Frederick Ponsonby, 10th Earl of Bessborough

Frederick Randall

Frederick Rosier

Frederick Sanger

Frederick Sheffield

Frederick Styles Agate

Frederick Thornton Peters

Frederick W. Mote

Frederick Walker Castle

Frederick Warner (diplomat)

Frederick Warren Purdy

Frederick William Kaltenbach

Frederick William Palmer

Fredric Landelius

Fredric Warburg

Fredrik Jensen

Free Belgian Forces

Free China (Second Sino-Japanese War)

Free French Air Force

Free French Forces

Free French Naval Air Service

Free French Naval Forces

Free Republic of Schwarzenberg

Free Society of Teutonia

Free Thai Movement

Free World (World War II)

Freedom Comes High

Freedom from Fear (painting)

Freedom from Want (painting)

Freedom of Speech (painting)

Freedom to Worship (painting)

Freeman Barnardo

Freeman Dyson

Freeman Field Mutiny

Freeman V. Horner

Freiberg subcamp

French-Canadian Brigade

French-Thai War

French 9th Armoured Company (World War II)

French Academy of Sciences

French aircraft carrier Béarn

French and European Nationalist Party

French armoured fighting vehicle production during World War II

French battleship Bretagne

French battleship Courbet (1911)

French battleship Dunkerque

French battleship Jean Bart (1940)

French battleship Lorraine

French battleship Paris

French battleship Provence

French battleship Richelieu

French battleship Strasbourg

French Committee of National Liberation

French corvette Aconit

French Crown Jewels

French cruiser Émile Bertin

French cruiser Algérie

French cruiser Colbert (1928)

French cruiser Duguay-Trouin

French cruiser Dupleix

French cruiser Duquesne

French cruiser Foch

French cruiser Georges Leygues

French cruiser Gloire (1935)

French cruiser Jean de Vienne

French cruiser Jeanne d'Arc (1930)

French cruiser La Galissonnière

French cruiser Lamotte-Piquet

French cruiser Marseillaise (1935)

French cruiser Montcalm

French cruiser Pluton

French cruiser Primauguet (1924)

French cruiser Suffren

French cruiser Tourville

French destroyer La Combattante

French destroyer Le Fantasque

French destroyer Le Terrible

French destroyer Le Triomphant

French destroyer Maillé Brézé (1933)

French destroyer Ouragan

French films of 1944

French Forces of the Interior

French frigate Oise

French Open (tennis)

French Resistance

French submarine Curie (P67)

Fresno Yosemite International Airport

Freundeskreis der Wirtschaft

Freya radar

Freya Stark

Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin

Frieda Belinfante

Frieda Jahnke

Friedhelm Busse

Friedl Dicker-Brandeis

Friedrich-Karl "Nasen" Müller

Friedrich-Karl "Tutti" Müller

Friedrich-Paul von Groszheim

Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock

Friedrich-Wilhelm Müller

Friedrich (novel)

Friedrich Adler (artist)

Friedrich Aue

Friedrich August Freiherr von der Heydte

Friedrich Beckh

Friedrich Bernhard

Friedrich Bertram Sixt von Armin

Friedrich Bonte

Friedrich Born

Friedrich Christiansen

Friedrich Dollmann

Friedrich Franz, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

Friedrich Fromm

Friedrich Geisshardt

Friedrich Graf von Wrangel

Friedrich Gustav Jaeger

Friedrich Hildebrandt

Friedrich Hirzebruch

Friedrich Hoßbach

Friedrich Hollaender

Friedrich Jeckeln

Friedrich Körner

Friedrich Karl Florian

Friedrich Kellner

Friedrich Kirchner

Friedrich Klausing

Friedrich Krüger

Friedrich Lang

Friedrich Lüthi

Friedrich Lorenz

Friedrich Materna

Friedrich Mauz

Friedrich Meinecke

Friedrich Münzer

Friedrich Obleser

Friedrich Olbricht

Friedrich Panse

Friedrich Paulus

Friedrich Pein

Friedrich Peter

Friedrich Rainer

Friedrich Ruge

Friedrich Schulz

Friedrich Syrup

Friedrich T. Noltenius

Friedrich Thielen

Friedrich von Mellenthin

Friedrich Weber

Friedrich Wegener

Friedrich Werner von der Schulenburg

Friedrich Wilhelm Kritzinger

Friedrichshafen FF.29

Friedrichshafen FF.31

Friedrichshafen FF.33

Friedrichshafen FF.34

Friedrichshafen FF.35

Friedrichshafen FF.40

Friedrichshafen FF.41

Friedrichshafen FF.43

Friedrichshafen FF.48

Friedrichshafen FF.49

Friedrichshafen FF.53

Friedrichshafen FF.64

Friedrichshafen G.I

Friedrichshafen G.II

Friedrichshafen G.III

Friedrichshafen G.IV

Friends' Ambulance Unit

Friends of New Germany

Friesack Camp

Frihedsfonden

Frikorps Danmark

Fritjof Hillén

Frits Clausen

Frits Philips

Fritz-Dietlof von der Schulenburg

Fritz-Hubert Gräser

Fritz-Rudolf Schultz

Fritz Bayerlein

Fritz Bracht

Fritz Busch

Fritz Christen

Fritz Fischer (medical doctor)

Fritz Fischer

Fritz Frauenheim

Fritz Fullriede

Fritz G. A. Kraemer

Fritz Gerlich

Fritz Grünbaum

Fritz Hagmann

Fritz Hartjenstein

Fritz Hippler

Fritz Hünenberger

Fritz Houtermans

Fritz John

Fritz Joubert Duquesne

Fritz Julius Kuhn

Fritz Katzmann

Fritz Klein (Nazi)

Fritz Klingenberg

Fritz Knoechlein

Fritz Kolbe

Fritz Krämer

Fritz Lenz

Fritz Lüddecke

Fritz Losigkeit

Fritz Manteuffel

Fritz Morzik

Fritz Nachmann

Fritz Pfeffer

Fritz Pröll

Fritz Reinhardt

Fritz Rumey

Fritz Sauckel

Fritz Stern

Fritz Stiedry

Fritz Strassmann

Fritz ter Meer

Fritz Thiele

Fritz Thyssen

Fritz Todt

Fritz von Scholz

Fritz Walter

Fritz Wendel

Fritz Witt

Fritz X

Frode Jakobsen

Frode Kirkebjerg

From Here to Eternity (novel)

From Here to Eternity

From Swastika to Jim Crow

Fromental Halévy

Frommer Stop

Front (Soviet Army)

Front de Seine

Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe

Front Lot (Walt Disney Studios Park)

Frontbann

Frontierland Shootin' Arcade

Frontierland

FRUMEL

Frédéric Alfred Pierre, comte de Falloux

Frédéric Chopin

Frédéric Da Rocha

Frédéric de Courcy

Frédéric Déhu

Frédéric Joliot-Curie

Frédéric Masson

Frédéric Vitoux

Fräulein (1958 film)

Fu Zuoyi

Fubuki-class destroyer

Fuchi (Qiandaohu) class

Fugu Plan

Fuhlsbüttel

Fuji-class battleship

Fukuromachi Elementary School Peace Museum

Fukuryu

Fukushima Yasumasa

Fulgence Bienvenüe

Fulgencio Batista

Full House (aircraft)

Fuller Warren

Fulton Mackay

Fumimaro Konoe

Functionalism versus intentionalism

Fundusz Obrony Narodowej

Furietti Centaurs

Furman L. Smith

Furutaka-class cruiser

Fury in the Pacific

Fusanosuke Kuhara

Fusō-class battleship

Fusu (Nancang) class

Fuzzy wuzzy angels

Fylfot

Fyodor Isodorovich Kuznetsov

Fyodor Tolbukhin

Fântâna Albă massacre

Félicien-César David

Félicien Marceau

Félix Éboué

Félix Bédouret

Félix Dupanloup

Félix Faure

Félix Ziem

Féodor Atkine

Färit Yarullin

June 3

June 3 is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 211 days remaining until the end of the year.

Law enforcement in Syria

Law enforcement in Syria is carried out by police forces for general policing duties; internal security duties are carried out by several intelligence agencies. The Political Security Directorate is one of these agencies and is under the guidance of the Ministry of Interior. The Directorate operates independently and generally outside the control of the legal system to repress internal dissent and monitor individual citizens. Syria is INTERPOL member since 1953.

The Ministry of Interior also controls the Internal Security Forces. There are also other specialized organizations, such as the special metropolitan police in Damascus (overseen by the Director General of the Public Security and Police), the Gendarmerie for control in rural areas and the Desert Guard for border control (especially the Syrian-Iraqi border). As of 2011, the head of police was General Mahmoud Sa’oudi.The Internal Security Forces Day is on 29 May, declared after 29 May 1945, when French forces shelled the Parliament building in Damascus. Following the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War, several police forces have been established also by insurgent factions, as well as by Rojava Kurdish-held region and by Turkey.

List of Nazis (L–R)

A list of notable people who were at some point a member of the defunct Nazi Party (NSDAP). This is not meant to be a list of every person who was ever a member of the Nazi Party. This is a list of notable figures who were active within the party and did something significant within it that is of historical note or who were members of the Nazi Party according to multiple reliable publications. For a list of the main leaders and most important party figures see: List of Nazi Party leaders and officials.

Overview A–E F–K L–R S–Z

Madagascar Plan

The Madagascar Plan was a proposal by the Nazi German government to relocate the Jewish population of Europe to the island of Madagascar. Franz Rademacher, head of the Jewish Department of the German Foreign Office, proposed the idea in June 1940, shortly before the Fall of France. The proposal called for the handing over of control of Madagascar, then a French colony, to Germany as part of the French surrender terms.

The idea of re-settling Polish Jews in Madagascar was investigated by the Polish government in 1937, but the task force sent to evaluate the island's potential determined that only 5,000 to 7,000 families could be accommodated, or even as few as 500 families by some estimates. Because efforts by the Nazis to encourage the emigration of the Jewish population of Germany before World War II were only partially successful, the idea of deporting Jews to Madagascar was revived by the Nazi government in 1940.

Rademacher recommended on 3 June 1940 that Madagascar should be made available as a destination for the Jews of Europe. With Adolf Hitler's approval, Adolf Eichmann released a memorandum on 15 August 1940 calling for the resettlement of a million Jews per year for four years, with the island being governed as a police state under the SS. They assumed that many Jews would succumb to its harsh conditions should the plan be implemented. The plan was not viable due to the British naval blockade. It was postponed after the Nazis lost the Battle of Britain in September 1940, and it was permanently shelved in 1942 with the commencement of the Final Solution, towards which it had functioned as an important psychological step.

Madagascar in World War II

Madagascar, then officially known as French Madagascar, was still a French colony at the outbreak of the Second World War, having been under French administration since 1885. It played an important role in the war due to the presence of critically important harbors, the contribution of Malagasy troops, and was also the scene of fighting between Allied and Vichy French forces in 1942. After the fall of France in 1940, Madagascar became a crucial flashpoint in contention between the Free French movement and Vichy France. The island was also consequential in the Pacific theater of the war as Imperial Japanese naval forces operated unopposed off the island for some time.

In 1942, the British and several other Allied forces launched an invasion of Madagascar, seeking to protect its position as an important juncture in Allied shipping and deny its use to the Axis. In addition to its role as a key link in the Allied supply lines and major provider of troops, Madagascar was also briefly considered as the solution to the Jewish Question by the government of Nazi Germany who openly floated deporting Europe's Jewish population to the island in 1940. This scheme known as the Madagascar Plan never came to fruition for a variety of reasons. The island was officially handed over from the British to Free France in 1943 under whose control it remained for the remainder of the war.

Martin Luther (diplomat)

For other people named Martin Luther, see Martin Luther (disambiguation).Martin Franz Julius Luther (German: [ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈlʊtɐ] (listen); 16 December 1895 – 13 May 1945) was an early member of the Nazi Party. He served as an advisor to Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, first in the Dienststelle Ribbentrop ("Ribbentrop Bureau"), and later in the Auswärtiges Amt ("Foreign Office") as a diplomat when von Ribbentrop replaced Konstantin von Neurath. He participated in the Wannsee Conference, at which the Final Solution was planned; it was the 1947 discovery of his copy of the minutes that first made the Allied powers aware that the conference had taken place and what its purpose was.

Neustrelitz

Neustrelitz (German pronunciation: [nɔʏˈʃtʁeːlɪts]) is a town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is situated on the shore of the Zierker See in the Mecklenburg Lake District. From 1738 until 1918 it was the capital of the duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. From 1994 until 2011 it was the capital of the district of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

The name Strelitz is derived from the Polabian word Strelci, meaning "shooters".

Pingsdorf ware

Pingsdorf ware is a high fired earthenware, or proto-stoneware, that was produced between the late 9th and 13th century in different pottery centres on the Eastern margin of the Rhineland as well as the Lower Rhine region. Characteristic features of vessels in Pingsdorf ware are a yellow-coloured fine sand tempered sherd and a red painting. It is archaeologically evident within various Medieval settlements of North Western Europe and thus represents an important chronological marker for the Medieval archaeology.

It was a forerunner of the first European stoneware, produced in the same region and exported to much of Europe for the rest of the Middle Ages and Renaissance.

Radu Lecca

Radu D. Lecca (February 15, 1890–1980) was a Romanian spy, journalist, civil servant and convicted war criminal. A World War I veteran who served a prison term for espionage in France during the early 1930s, he was a noted supporter of antisemitic concepts and, after 1933, an agent of influence for Nazi Germany. While becoming a double agent for Romania's Special Intelligence Service (SSI), Lecca was involved in fascist politics, gained in importance during World War II and the successive dictatorships, and eventually grew close to Conducător Ion Antonescu.

After 1941, Lecca was Commissioner, later Commissioner General, tasked with solving the "Jewish Question" in Romania, sharing Romania's responsibility for the Holocaust. Advised by the special German envoys Manfred Freiherr von Killinger and Gustav Richter and acting with Antonescu's consent, he established the Central Jewish Office (Centrala Evreiască, CE) through which he persecuted, exploited and extorted the Romanian Jewish community, whose existence was threatened by deportations into Transnistria. The system he supervised was notoriously corrupt, with many of the funds extorted being used for the personal benefit of Lecca or his political associates. Commissioner Lecca was also instrumental in negotiating the Final Solution's application in Romania, a plan which was eventually abandoned, while considering mass emigration to Palestine in exchange for payments.

After the August 1944 Coup removed Antonescu and aligned Romania with the Allies, Lecca was among the high-ranking Romanian politicians arrested and transported to the Soviet Union. Upon his 1946 return, Lecca was Antonescu's co-defendant in a People's Tribunal case, and was condemned to death. His sentence was commuted into life imprisonment and later reduced by the communist regime. After his release, Lecca wrote memoirs which make various controversial claims, and which minimize his and Antonescu's participation in Holocaust-related crimes.

Thadden family

Von Thadden is a German Uradel family with its roots in Eastern Pomerania (Pomerelia).

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.