František Tomášek (30 June 1899, Studénka, Moravia – 4 August 1992, Prague, Czechoslovakia) was a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church in Bohemia, the 34th Archbishop of Prague, and a Roman Catholic theologian. His "cautious but resolute opposition to the Czechoslovak communist regime helped to bring about its peaceful demise in the 1989 Velvet Revolution".
Archbishop of Prague
Cardinal František Tomášek – memorial plaque in Moravská Huzová
|Other posts||Cardinal-Priest of Santi Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio|
|Ordination||5 July 1922|
|Consecration||13 October 1949|
by Paul VI
|Birth name||František Tomášek|
|Born||30 June 1899|
(now Czech Republic)
|Died||4 August 1992 (aged 93)|
(now Czech Republic)
|Previous post||Auxiliary Bishop of Olomouc (1949-1965)|
Apostolic Administrator of Prague (1965-1977)
|Coat of arms|
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
Born in 1899 in what was then part of the Austrian Empire, Tomášek was one of the six children of a schoolteacher who died when he was still a boy. After completing his schooling and military service, he studied at Saints Cyril and Methodius Faculty of Theology of Olomouc and was ordained on 7 May 1922. He taught religion in schools. Later he also taught at the Cyril and Methodius theological faculty, where he obtained a doctorate in 1938. Soon after, the Nazi occupation led to the closure of the Czech universities and Tomášek returned to schoolteaching. After the war, Tomasek again taught in the faculty and also obtained a second doctorate.
In spite of the opposition of the communist government in power in Czechoslovakia since February 1948, which, as well as imposing censorship on sermons and pastoral letters and banning many religious organisations, demanded its own approval for Church appointments, Pope Pius XII appointed Tomášek Auxiliary Bishop of Olomouc on 12 October 1949. Tomášek was secretly consecrated the very next day.
In 1950 Tomášek, with all the other bishops loyal to Rome, and half the priests were arrested and sent to labour camps. Monasteries and all but two of the Catholic seminaries were closed, and the Eastern-rite Catholic Church in Slovakia was banned. In 1953 Tomášek was freed from the Želiv camp, but allowed to function only as parish priest in the village of Moravská Huzová.
To the surprise of many, the government permitted him to attend the Second Vatican Council, the only Czechoslovak bishop able to participate in all the sessions (1962–1965).
In 1965 Cardinal Josef Beran, the Archbishop of Prague, was allowed to leave Czechoslovakia in accordance with an agreement that, in return for concessions to the Church, he would remain in Rome, and Tomášek was appointed on 18 February 1965 to administer the archdiocese, thus finally being permitted to leave Moravská Huzová.
Tomášek speedily pledged support for the reforms of the Prague Spring under Alexander Dubček in 1968. With the greater freedom allowed, he set about applying also the reforms instituted by the Second Vatican Council. The Soviet-led invasion of August 1968 again removed almost all the freedoms won under Dubček, though the state permission for the Eastern-rite Church to exist was not revoked.
On 24 May 1976 Pope Paul VI anonymously (in pectore) appointed Tomášek to the College of Cardinals. In the following year, the Pope felt the danger of reprisals by the Czechoslovak government was sufficiently diminished for him to publish the appointment on 27 June 1977. He also appointed Tomášek Archbishop of Prague, the see over which it had been considered more prudent to let Tomášek continue to have only the powers of an apostolic administrator even after the death of Cardinal Beran on 17 May 1969.
Tomášek took part in the conclaves of 1978 that elected John Paul I and John Paul II. The latter, an old friend of Tomášek, infused new courage in the leaders of the Catholic Church in east-central Europe, including Tomášek, who proceeded to criticise government policies openly and to back initiatives by lay organisations demanding greater freedom, including Charter 77.
The Velvet Revolution of November 1989 was followed by Pope John Paul II's April 1990 visit to Czechoslovakia, his first visit to a country, other than his native Poland, under a similar regime. On 27 March 1991, when Tomášek was almost 92 years old (long past the age of 75 at which bishops are to offer their resignation), his resignation from the governance of the Archdiocese of Prague was made effective. He died on 4 August 1992.
|Catholic Church titles|
| Archbishop of Prague
Association of Catholic Clergy Pacem in Terris (Czech: Sdružení katolických duchovních Pacem in terris, Slovak: Združenie katolíckych duchovných Pacem in terris), abbreviated SKD PiT or simply PiT, was a regime-sponsored organisation of Catholic clergy in the communist Czechoslovakia between 1971 and 1989. Its name was taken from the well-known encyclical Pacem in terris of the reform Pope John XXIII.
SKD PiT was registered on August 1, 1971 and its stated purposes were 'peace in the world' and 'friendship between nations'. But in fact its raison d'etre was rather to control and spy the clergy and influence the life of the whole church. Its founding assembly was held in Prague on August 31, 1971.
In the 1970s, its role in the Czech and Slovak Catholic church was not endangered by the official leadership of the church, who did not approve of the Association but could do almost nothing to prevent its actions. The situation changed slowly after the new Pope John Paul II from a communist country was elected in 1978 and adopted a more principled course against communists. The most important papal document here is Quidam episcopi from 1982, prohibiting membership in political organisations to priests.
The Prague archbishop František Tomášek followed the pope and prohibited membership in SKD PiT to his priests. SKD PiT started to weaken in the 1980s and collapsed immediately after the Velvet revolution in November 1989. The official dismantling of the organisation was dated December 7 and it was announced at December 11, 1989 to Tomášek.Bohumír Šmeral
Bohumír Šmeral (25 October 1880 in Třebíč, Margraviate of Moravia – 8 May 1941 in Moscow) was a Czech politician, leader of the Czech Social Democratic Party, and one of founders of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.Czechoslovak Bishops' Conference
The Czechoslovak Bishops' Conference, known after 1990 as the Bishops' Conference of Czechoslovakia, was an episcopal conference made up of the Catholic bishops in former Czechoslovakia before 1950 and from 1990 until the division of that country in 1993.Diocese of Buto
The Diocese of Buto (Latin Butus, Greek Butos) is a former Christian diocese and titular see of both the Roman Catholic and Coptic Orthodox Churches, with see in the Ancient City of Buto in the Nile Delta of Egypt.Josef Beran
Josef Beran (29 December 1888 – 17 May 1969) was a Czech Roman Catholic prelate who served as the Archbishop of Prague from 1946 until his death and was elevated into the cardinalate in 1965.Beran was imprisoned in the Dachau concentration camp during World War II after the Nazis had targeted him for "subversive and dangerous" behavior where he almost died in 1943 due to disease. He was freed in 1945 upon Allied liberation and Pope Pius XII nominated him to head the Prague archdiocese. But the introduction of the communist regime saw him imprisoned and placed under house arrest. His release in 1963 came with the condition that he could not perform his episcopal duties and he was later exiled to Rome in 1965 as part of a coordinated deal between the Church and the national government.His cause for canonization opened in 1998 and he became titled as a Servant of God. He was granted the rare honor of being buried in Saint Peter's Basilica upon his death and remained the sole Czech national to be buried there until 2018 when his remains were transferred back to his native homeland for internment in the Saint Vitus Cathedral.Julius Gábriš
Július Gábriš (December 5, 1913 in Tesárske Mlyňany – November 13, 1987 in Trnava) was a Slovak Bishop, Apostolic Administrator of Archdiocese of Trnava during communist-controlled Czechoslovakia.List of Catholic philosophers and theologians
This is a list of Catholic philosophers and theologians whose Catholicism is important to their works. The names are ordered by date of birth in order to give a rough sense of influence between thinkers.List of bishops and archbishops of Prague
The following is a list of bishops and archbishops of Prague. The bishopric of Prague was established in 973, and elevated to an archbishopric on 30 April 1344. The current Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Prague is the continual successor of the bishopric established in 973 (with a 140-year sede vacante in the Hussite era). In addition, the city also has an Orthodox archeparchy (archbishopric), Greek Catholic exarchate and the Prague diocese and patriarchate of the Czechoslovak Hussite Church seat in Prague.Miloslav Vlk
Miloslav Vlk (Czech: [ˈmɪloslaf ˈvl̩k]; 17 May 1932 – 18 March 2017) was a Czech prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Prague from 1991 to 2010. He was made a cardinal in 1994. He was also the President of the Council of European Bishops' Conferences (1993–2001).Největší Čech
Největší Čech (The Greatest Czech) is the Czech spin-off of the BBC Greatest Britons show; a television poll of the populace to name the greatest Czech in history. The series was broadcast by the national public-service broadcaster, Česká televize. The presenter of the programme was Marek Eben, who was also nominated to be in the Top 100; however, since he was presenting the show he was not eligible to be included in the final list.
The counting and ranking of the nomination votes took place during January 2005; the top 100 were announced on 5 May; and the final rankings were announced on 10 June 2005. The first round was won by the fictional genius Jára Cimrman, but he was disqualified.Oto Mádr
Mons. ThDr. Oto Mádr, dr. h. c. (15 February 1917 – 27 February 2011) was a Czech Roman Catholic priest, theologian, university professor, long-time political prisoner and the chief editor of Theological Texts (Czech: Teologické texty).Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Olomouc
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Olomouc (Czech: Arcidiecéze olomoucká, Latin: Archidioecesis Olomucensis) is the Metropolitan archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Moravia, part of the Czech Republic.Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Prague
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Prague (Praha) (Czech: Arcidiecéze pražská, Latin: Archidioecesis Pragensis) is a Metropolitan Catholic archdiocese of the Latin Rite in Bohemia, in the Czech Republic.
The cathedral archiepiscopal see is St. Vitus Cathedral, in the Bohemian and Czech capital Prague, entirely situated inside the Prague Castle complex. Msgr Dominik Duka, O.P. is the current archbishop.Studénka
Studénka (Czech pronunciation: [ˈstudɛːŋka]; German: Stauding) is a town of approximately 9,500 residents in Nový Jičín District of the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. It is on the mainline railway between Kraków and Prague, and was the scene of the Studénka train disaster 2008 and Studénka train disaster 2015. The town is situated on both sides of the historical border between Moravia and Silesia. It became best known as the birthplace of František Tomášek.Systematic theology
Systematic theology is a discipline of Christian theology that formulates an orderly, rational, and coherent account of the doctrines of the Christian faith. It addresses issues such as what the Bible teaches about certain topics or what is true about God and his universe. It also builds on biblical disciplines, church history, as well as biblical and historical theology. Systematic theology shares its systematic tasks with other disciplines such as constructive theology, dogmatics, ethics, apologetics, and philosophy of religion.Tomášek
Tomášek (feminine Tomášková) is a common Czech surname, meaning "little Thomas". Notable people include:
Bohumil Tomášek, Czech basketball player
František Tomášek (1899–1992), archbishop of Prague, cardinal
Rudolf Tomášek (born 1937), Czech athlete
Václav Tomášek (1774–1850), Czech composerNotable people with the Germanized version of the surname Tomaschek include:
Róbert Tomaschek (born 1972), Slovak footballer
Rudolf Tomaschek (1895–1966), a German experimental physicist
Wilhelm Tomaschek (1841–1901), a Czech-Austrian geographer and orientalist