Frankokratia

The Frankokratia (Greek: Φραγκοκρατία, sometimes anglicized as Francocracy, lit. "rule of the Franks"), also known as Latinokratia (Greek: Λατινοκρατία, "rule of the Latins") and, for the Venetian domains, Venetokratia or Enetokratia (Greek: Βενετοκρατία or Ενετοκρατία, "rule of the Venetians"), was the period in Greek history after the Fourth Crusade (1204), when a number of primarily French and Italian Crusader states were established on the territory of the dissolved Byzantine Empire (see Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae).

The term derives from the name given by the Orthodox Greeks to the Western European Latin Church Catholics: "Latins". Most Latins had French (Frankish), Norman, or Venetian origins. The span of the Frankokratia period differs by region: the political situation proved highly volatile, as the Frankish states fragmented and changed hands, and the Greek successor states re-conquered many areas.

With the exception of the Ionian Islands and some isolated forts which remained in Venetian hands until the turn of the 19th century, the final end of the Frankokratia in the Greek lands came with the Ottoman conquest, chiefly in the 14th to 16th centuries, which ushered in the period known as "Tourkokratia" ("rule of the Turks"; see Ottoman Greece).

LatinEmpire2
The beginning of Frankokratia: the division of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade
Greece in 1210
Greek and Latin states in southern Greece, c. 1210
Eastern Mediterranean 1450
The Eastern Mediterranean c. 1450 AD, showing the Ottoman Empire, the surviving Byzantine empire (purple) and the various Latin possessions in Greece

Frankish and Latin Crusader states

  • The Latin Empire (1204–1261), centered in Constantinople and encompassing Thrace and Bithynia, while also exercising nominal suzerainty over the other Crusader states. Its territories were gradually reduced to little more than the capital, which was eventually captured by the Empire of Nicaea in 1261.
    • Duchy of Philippopolis (1204 – after 1230), fief of the Latin Empire in northern Thrace, until its capture by the Bulgarians.
    • Lemnos formed a fief of the Latin Empire under the Venetian Navigajoso family from 1207 until conquered by the Byzantines in 1278. Its rulers bore the title of megadux ("grand duke") of the Latin Empire.
    • The Kingdom of Thessalonica (1205–1224), encompassing Macedonia and Thessaly. The brief existence of the Kingdom was almost continuously troubled by warfare with the Second Bulgarian Empire; eventually, it was conquered by the Despotate of Epirus.
    • The County of Salona (1205–1410), centred at Salona (modern Amfissa), like Bodonitsa, was formed as a vassal state of the Kingdom of Thessalonica, and later came under the influence of Achaea. It came under Catalan and later Navarrese rule in the 14th century, before being sold to the Knights Hospitaller in 1403. It was finally conquered by the Ottomans in 1410.
    • The Marquisate of Bodonitsa (1204–1414), like Salona, was originally created as a vassal state of the Kingdom of Thessalonica, but later came under the influence of Achaea. In 1335, the Venetian Giorgi family took control, and ruled until the Ottoman conquest in 1414.
    • The Principality of Achaea (1205–1432), encompassing the Morea or Peloponnese peninsula. It quickly emerged as the strongest Crusader state, and prospered even after the demise of the Latin Empire. Its main rival was the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea, which eventually succeeded in conquering the Principality. It also exercised suzerainty over the Lordship of Argos and Nauplia (1205–1388).
    • The Duchy of Athens (1205–1458), with its two capitals Thebes and Athens, and encompassing Attica, Boeotia, and parts of southern Thessaly. In 1311, the Duchy was conquered by the Catalan Company, and in 1388, it passed into the hands of the Florentine Acciaiuoli family, which kept it until the Ottoman conquest in 1456.
    • The Duchy of Naxos or of the Archipelago (1207–1579), founded by the Sanudo family, it encompassed most of the Cyclades. In 1383, it passed under the control of the Crispo family. The Duchy became an Ottoman vassal in 1537, and was finally annexed to the Ottoman Empire in 1579.
    • The Triarchy of Negroponte (1205–1470), encompassing the island of Negroponte (Euboea), originally a vassal of Thessalonica, then of Achaea. It was fragmented into three baronies (terzi or "triarchies") run each by two barons (the sestieri). This fragmentation enabled Venice to gain influence acting as mediators. By 1390 Venice had established direct control of the entire island, which remained in Venetian hands until 1470, when it was captured by the Ottomans.
  • The County palatine of Cephalonia and Zakynthos (1185–1479). It encompassed the Ionian Islands of Cephalonia, Zakynthos, Ithaca, and, from ca. 1300, also Lefkas (Santa Maura). Created as a vassal to the Kingdom of Sicily, it was ruled by the Orsini family from 1195 to 1335, and after a short interlude of Anjou rule the county passed to the Tocco family in 1357. The county was split between Venice and the Ottomans in 1479.
  • Rhodes became the headquarters of the military monastic order of the Knights Hospitaller of Saint John in 1310, and the Knights retained control of the island (and neighbouring islands of the Dodecanese island group) until ousted by the Ottomans in 1522.
  • Various Genoese domains in the northeastern Aegean:
  • The Republic of Venice accumulated several possessions in Greece, which formed part of its Stato da Màr. Some of them survived until the end of the Republic itself in 1797:
    • Crete, also known as Candia, (1211–1669),[1] one of the Republic's most important overseas possessions, despite frequent revolts by the Greek population, it was retained until captured by the Ottomans in the Cretan War.[2]
    • Corfu (1207–1214 and 1386–1797), was captured by Venice from its Genoese ruler shortly after the Fourth Crusade. The island was soon retaken by the Despotate of Epirus, but captured in 1258 by the Kingdom of Sicily. The island remained under Angevin rule until 1386, when Venice reimposed its control, which would last until the end of the Republic itself.
    • Lefkas (1684–1797), originally part of the Palatine county and the Orsini-ruled Despotate of Epirus, it came under Ottoman rule in 1479, and was conquered by the Venetians in 1684, during the Morean War.
    • Zakynthos (1479–1797), originally part of the Palatine county and the Orsini-ruled Despotate of Epirus, it fell to Venice in 1479
    • Cephalonia and Ithaca (1500–1797), originally part of the Palatine county and the Orsini-ruled Despotate of Epirus, they came under Ottoman rule in 1479, and were conquered by the Venetians in December 1500.[3]
    • Tinos and Mykonos, bequeathed to Venice in 1390.[4]
    • various coastal fortresses in the Peloponnese and mainland Greece:
      • Modon (Methoni) and Coron (Koroni), occupied in 1207, confirmed by the Treaty of Sapienza,[5] and held until taken by the Ottomans in August 1500.[6]
      • Nauplia (Italian Napoli di Romania), acquired through the purchase of the lordship of Argos and Nauplia in 1388,[7] held until captured by the Ottomans in 1540.[8]
      • Argos, acquired through the purchase of the lordship of Argos and Nauplia but seized by the Despotate of the Morea and not handed over to Venice until June 1394,[7] held until captured by the Ottomans in 1462.[9]
      • Athens, acquired in 1394 from the heirs of Nerio I Acciaioli, but lost to the latter's bastard son Antonio in 1402–03, a fact recognized by the Republic in a treaty in 1405.[10]
      • Parga, port town on the coast of Epirus, acquired in 1401. It was governed as a dependency of Corfu, and remained so even after the end of the Venetian Republic in 1797, finally being ceded by the British to Ali Pasha in 1819.[4]
      • Lepanto (Naupaktos), port in Aetolia, briefly seized by a Venetian captain in 1390, in 1394 its inhabitants offered to hand it over to Venice, but were rebuffed. Finally sold to Venice in 1407 by its Albanian ruler, Paul Spata,[11][12] lost to the Ottomans in 1540.[8]
      • Patras, held in 1408–13 and 1417–19 in lease, for 1,000 ducats per year, from the Latin Archbishop of Patras, who thus hoped to thwart a Turkish or Byzantine takeover of the city.[13][14]
      • The Northern Sporades (Skiathos, Skopelos, and Alonissos), were Byzantine possessions that came under Venetian rule after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. They were captured by the Ottomans under Hayreddin Barbarossa in 1538.
      • Monemvasia (Malvasia), a Byzantine outpost left unconquered by the Ottomans in 1460, it accepted Venetian rule, until captured by the Ottomans in 1540.[15]
      • Vonitsa on the coast of Epirus, captured in 1684 and held as a mainland exclave of the Ionian Islands until the end of the Republic.
      • Preveza on the coast of Epirus, occupied during the Morean War (1684–99), recaptured in 1717 and held as a mainland exclave of the Ionian Islands until the end of the Republic.
    • The whole of the Peloponnese or Morea peninsula was conquered during the Morean War in the 1680s and became a colony as the "Kingdom of the Morea", but it was lost again to the Ottomans in 1715.

Gallery

Bonfils, Félix (1831-1885) - Athens - Propylaia 1868-1875

The Frankish tower on the Acropolis of Athens, demolished in 1874

Castello Chlemoutsi

Chlemoutsi castle

Konrad von Grünenberg - Beschreibung der Reise von Konstanz nach Jerusalem - Blatt 20v-21r

Rhodes (city), around 1490

Church of the Virgin of the Burgh 2010

Church of Virgin, Rhodes (city)

Venetian possessions (till 1797):

Venetiancrete

Map of the Kingdom of Candia

Negroponte by Giacomo Franco

Venetian map of Negroponte (Chalkis)

Lepanto naupactus venecian fortress

Fortress of Nafpaktos

File by Alexander Baranov - . (7366673008)

The Morosini fountain, Lions Square, Heraklion

See also

References

  1. ^ Maltezou, Crete during the Period of Venetian Rule, p. 105
  2. ^ Maltezou, Crete during the Period of Venetian Rule, p. 157
  3. ^ Setton 1978, pp. 98, 290, 522–523.
  4. ^ a b Miller 1908, p. 365.
  5. ^ Bon 1969, p. 66.
  6. ^ Setton 1978, pp. 515–522.
  7. ^ a b Topping 1975, pp. 153–155.
  8. ^ a b Fine 1994, p. 568.
  9. ^ Fine 1994, p. 567.
  10. ^ Miller 1908, pp. 354–362.
  11. ^ Fine 1994, pp. 356, 544.
  12. ^ Miller 1908, p. 363.
  13. ^ Topping 1975, pp. 161–163.
  14. ^ Miller 1908, pp. 353–364.
  15. ^ Fine 1994, pp. 567–568.

Sources

External links

Ano Syros

Ano Syros (Greek: Άνω Σύρος, “Upper Syros”) is a town and a former municipality on the island of Syros, in the Cyclades, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Syros-Ermoupoli, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit includes the uninhabited islands Gyaros (lying to the northwest of Syros) and Varvaroúsa. Population 3,877 (2011 census); land area 67.014 square kilometres (25.874 square miles). The municipal unit shares the island of Sýros with the municipal units of Ermoupoli and Poseidonia.

Dalle Carceri

The dalle Carceri (Greek: Ντάλε Κάρτσερι) were a noble family of Verona and Frankish Negroponte (modern Euboea) from the 12th to the 14th century.

The came to Greece with the Fourth Crusade (1202). After being found guilty of the murder of Mastino della Scala in 1277, the dalle Carceri were banished from Verona.

Giberto dalle Carceri, Triarch of Negroponte 1205-1209

Ravano dalle Carceri (-1216), Triarch 1209-1216

Isabel dalle Carceri, widow of Ravano, Triarch 1216-1220

Rizzardo dalle Carceri (or Ricardo), son of Ravano, Triarch 1216-1220

Merino I dalle Carceri (or Marino), ruled 1216-1255, son of Ravano

Bertha dalle Carceri, daughter of Ravano

Guglielmo I dalle Carceri, Triarch 1255-1263

Carintana dalle Carceri, Triarch, wife of William II of Villehardouin

Narzotto dalle Carceri, Triarch

Grapella dalle Carceri, Triarch 1262-1264

Guglielmo II dalle Carceri, Triarch 1263-1275

Marino II dalle Carceri, Triarch 1264-1278

Giberto II dalle Carceri, Triarch 1275-1279

Alice dalle Carceri (Alix) (-1313), wife of George I Ghisi, granddaughter of Ravano

Maria dalle Carceri (-1323), Marchioness of Bodonitsa

Peter dalle Carceri (Pietro) (-1340), Triarch of Negroponte and Baron of Arcadia

Giovanni dalle Carceri (-1358), son of Pietro, Lord of Negroponte 1340-1359

Nicholas III dalle Carceri (Niccolò) (-1383), Duke of the Archipelago and Lord of Negroponte 1359-1383

Demitre

Demitre was an Albanian count in the Catalan dominions in late-14th-century Thessaly, during the Frankokratia.

Mentioned as de Mitre and lo comte Mitra (a corruption of Dimitri/Demetrius) in contemporary sources, he was an Albanian chieftain based in southeastern Thessaly (Albanians had migrated to Thessaly from about 1320). He could rally 1,500 cavalrymen and was entitled to bear the royal banner of Aragon as a born vassal of Peter IV. Among the eighteen Catalan vassals of the area in 1380-1 he ranks second below the Count of Salona and above the Margrave of Bodonitsa. In a document of April 1381, he is listed among those greeted by Peter IV for their services against the Navarrese Company in 1379.

Duchy of Neopatras

The Duchy of Neopatras (Catalan: Ducat de Neopàtria; Greek: Δουκάτο Νέων Πατρών; Latin: Ducatus Neopatriae) was a Catalan-dominated principality in southern Thessaly, established in 1318. Officially part of the Crown of Aragon, the duchy was governed in conjunction with the neighbouring Duchy of Athens by the local Catalan aristocracy, who enjoyed a large degree of self-government. From the mid-14th century, the duchies entered a period of decline: most of the Thessalian possessions were lost to the Serbian Empire, internal dissensions arose, along with the menace of Turkish piracy in the Aegean and the onset of Ottoman expansion in the Balkans. Enfeebled, the Catalan possessions were taken over by the Florentine adventurer Nerio I Acciaioli in 1385–1390.

Frankish towers of Greece

The Frankish towers of Greece (Greek: Φράγκικοι πύργοι) are the towers built during the period of Frankish rule in Greece (ca. 1204 – 1500), either for defence or for habitation, by the Frankish Crusaders, of which many survive to this day.

Frankish Tower (Acropolis of Athens) on the Acropolis of Athens, demolished in 1874

Frankish Tower at Agia Marina, Boeotia, vanished since the 19th century

Frankish Tower (Aliartos) in Aliartos, Boeotia

Frankish Tower (Amfikleia) in Amfikleia, Phthiotis

Frankish Tower (Ano Tithorea) in Ano Tithorea, Phthiotis

Frankish Tower at Antikyra, Boeotia, demolished in the 1960s

Frankish Tower (Askri) in Askri, Boeotia

Frankish Tower (Avlonari) in Avlonari, Euboea

Frankish Tower (Chalandritsa) in Chalandritsa, Achaea

Frankish Tower (Davleia) in Davleia, Boeotia

Frankish Tower at Gla, Boeotia, vanished since the 19th century

Frankish Tower (Harma) in Harma, Boeotia

Frankish Tower (Kirra) in Kirra, Phocis

Frankish Tower (Koroneia) in Koroneia, Boeotia

Frankish Tower (Liada) in Markopoulo, Attica

Frankish Tower (Lilaia) in Lilaia, Phocis

Frankish Tower (Livadostro) in Livadostro, Boeotia

Frankish Tower (Melissochori) in Melissochori, Boeotia

Frankish Tower (Oinoi) in Oinoi, Attica

Frankish Tower (Panakton) in Panakton, Boeotia

Frankish Tower (Paralimni) in Paralimni, Boeotia

Frankish Tower (Parorion) in Parorion, Boeotia

Frankish Tower (Polydrosos) in Polydrosos, Phocis

Frankish Tower (Pyrgos) in Pyrgos, Boeotia

Frankish Tower at Schimatari, Boeotia, demolished during World War II

Frankish Tower (Tanagra) in Tanagra, Boeotia

Frankish Tower (Tatitza) in Tatitza, Boeotia

Frankish Tower (Thisvi) in Thisvi, Boeotia

Frankish Tower (Thourio) in Thourio, Boeotia

Frankish Tower (Varnavas) in Varnavas, Attica

Frankish Tower (Vravrona) in Vravrona, Attica

Frankish Tower at Yliki, Boeotia, vanished under the waters of the Yliki reservoir

Frankish Tower (Ypsilantis) in Ypsilantis, Boeotia

History of the Jews in Greece

Jews have been present in Greece since at least the fourth century BC. The oldest and the most characteristic Jewish group that has inhabited Greece are the Romaniotes, also known as "Greek Jews". the term "Greek Jew" is predominantly used for any person of Jewish descent or faith that lives in or originates from the modern region of Greece.

Aside from the Romaniotes, a distinct Jewish population that historically lived in communities throughout Greece and neighboring areas with large Greek populations, Greece had a large population of Sephardi Jews, and is a historical center of Sephardic life; the city of Salonica or Thessaloniki, in Greek Macedonia, was called the "Mother of Israel". Greek Jews played an important role in the early development of Christianity, and became a source of education and commerce for the Byzantine Empire and throughout the period of Ottoman Greece, until suffering devastation in the Holocaust after Greece was conquered and occupied by the Axis powers despite efforts by Greeks to protect them. In the aftermath of the Holocaust, a large percentage of the surviving community emigrated to Israel or the United States.

As of 2019 the Jewish community in Greece amounts to about 6,000 people out of a population of 10.8 million, concentrated mainly in Athens, Thessaloniki (or Salonika in Judeo-Spanish), Larissa, Volos, Chalkis, Ioannina, Trikala, Corfu and a functioning synagogue on Crete, while very few remain in Kavala and Rhodes. Greek Jews today largely "live side by side in harmony" with Christian Greeks, according to Giorgo Romaio, president of the Greek Committee for the Jewish Museum of Greece, while nevertheless continuing to work with other Greeks, and Jews worldwide, to combat any rise of anti-Semitism in Greece. Currently the Jewish community of Greece makes great efforts to establish a Holocaust museum in the country. A permanent pavilion about the Holocaust of Greek Jews in KZ Auschwitz shall be installed. A delegation and the president of the Jewish communities of Greece met in November 2016 with Greek politicians and asked them for support in their demand to get back the community archives of the Jewish community of Thessaloniki from Moscow.Independent candidate Moses Elisaf, a 65-year-old doctor is believed to be the first Jewish person elected mayor in Greece. He was elected in June 2019.

Latin Archbishopric of Larissa

The Latin or Roman Catholic Archbishopric of Larissa is a titular see of the Catholic Church. It was established briefly as a residential episcopal see at Larissa, Thessaly, during the first decades of the Frankokratia period in place of the Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Larissa. Following the recovery of Larissa by the Greeks, the see became titular. The see has been vacant since the death of its last incumbent, Giuseppe Mojoli, in 1980.

Latin Bishopric of Salona

The Latin Bishopric of Salona was a Roman Catholic diocese centred on Amfissa (medieval Salona), in Central Greece, during the period of Frankish rule there after the Fourth Crusade. The see was suppressed with the conquest of the region by the Ottoman Turks in 1410, but is retained by the Catholic Church as a titular see. It has been vacant since 1964.

The see is attested for the first time in the Provinciale Romanum, a list of the sees subordinate to the See of Rome, dating to 1228. It lists Salona as one of the eight suffragan sees of the Latin Archbishopric of Athens. The absence of Salona as a see in previous Notitiae Episcopatuum of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Constantinople has led to the Bishopric of Salona being usually considered a new foundation. Raymond-Joseph Loenertz however suggested that it was actually a replacement of the Greek Orthodox bishopric in nearby Loidoriki, and is followed by Kenneth Setton.

Latin Church in the Middle East

The Latin Church in the Middle East represents members of the Latin Church of the Catholic Church in the Middle East, notably in Turkey and the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan). Latin Catholics are subject to the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem and employ the Latin liturgical rites, in contrast to Eastern Catholics who fall under their respective church's patriarchs and employ distinct Eastern liturgical rites, while being in full communion with the worldwide Catholic Church. Latin Catholics in the Middle East are often of European descent.

Depending on the specific area in question, due to their cultural heritage descending from Catholics who lived under the Ottoman Empire, they are sometimes referred to as Levantines, Italo-Levantines, or Franco-Levantines (Arabic: شوام‎; French: Levantins; Italian: Levantini; Greek: Φραγκολεβαντίνοι Frankolevantini; Turkish: Levantenler or Tatlısu Frenkleri) after Frankokratia.

A distinctive era of influence occurred during the Crusades with the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem during the Middle Ages. As with the case of Eastern Catholics and other Christians in the Middle East, Latin Catholics have both a history and a present of persecution.

Latin Empire

The Empire of Romania (Latin: Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire. It was established after the capture of Constantinople in 1204 and lasted until 1261. The Latin Empire was intended to supplant the Byzantine Empire as the titular Roman Empire in the east, with a Western Roman Catholic emperor enthroned in place of the Eastern Orthodox Roman emperors.

Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders, was crowned the first Latin emperor as Baldwin I on 16 May 1204. The Latin Empire failed to attain political or economic dominance over the other Latin powers that had been established in former Byzantine territories in the wake of the Fourth Crusade, especially Venice, and after a short initial period of military successes it went into a steady decline. Weakened by constant warfare with the Bulgarians and the unconquered sections of the empire, it eventually fell when Byzantines recaptured Constantinople under Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos in 1261. The last Latin emperor, Baldwin II, went into exile, but the imperial title survived, with several pretenders to it, until the 14th century.

List of wars involving Greece

This is a list of known wars, conflicts, battles/sieges, missions and operations involving ancient Greek city states and kingdoms, Magna Graecia, other Greek colonies (First Greek colonisation, Second Greek colonisation, Greeks in pre-Roman Crimea, Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul, Greeks in Egypt, Greeks in Syria, Greeks in Malta), Greek Kingdoms of Hellenistic period, Indo-Greek Kingdom, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Byzantine Empire/ Byzantine Greeks, Byzantine Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, Kingdom of Greece and Greece between 3000 BC and the present day.

Lordship of Phocaea

The Lordship of Phocaea (Greek: Ηγεμονία της Φώκαιας) was founded after in 1275, when the Genoese nobleman Manuele Zaccaria received the twin towns of Old Phocaea and New Phocaea as a fief from the Byzantine emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos. The Zaccaria family amassed a considerable fortune from their properties there, especially the rich alum mines. The Zaccaria held the lordship until 1340, when it was repossessed by the Byzantines under Andronikos III Palaiologos.

Navarrese Company

The Navarrese Company (Spanish: Compañía navarra; Basque: Nafarroako konpainia) was a company of mercenaries, mostly from Navarre and Gascony, which fought in Greece during the late 14th century and early 15th century, in the twilight of Frankish power in the dwindling remnant of the Latin Empire. "Navarrese Company" is an informal, modern, and somewhat inaccurate term for these soldiers.

Podestà of Constantinople

The Podestà of Constantinople was the official in charge of Venetian possessions in the Latin Empire and the Venetian quarter of Constantinople during the 13th century. Nominally a vassal to the Latin Emperor, the Podestà functioned as a ruler in his own right, and answered to the Doge of Venice. The podestà was also officially known as Governor of One-Fourth and One-Half of the Empire of Romania and was entitled to wearing the crimson buskins as the emperors.

Polemi

Polemi (Greek: Πολέμι) is a village in the Paphos District of Cyprus.

The village is located within the rolling landscape of the Paphos hills at an altitude of 463m above sea level. It receives an average annual rainfall of about 637 millimeters. Polemi lies 4 km north of Letymvou and 3 km east of Stroumbi, off the main B7 Paphos to Polis (Polis Chrysochous) road. The majority of the houses of Polemi stand on a plateau overlooking its associated farmland in the valleys on each side, where its boundaries meet those of neighbouring villages in the lower lying land. Polemi has a mild climate with temperatures generally cooler at all times than in the coastal areas of Paphos. The village stands at the point between several watersheds with valleys falling southwest towards Mavrokolympos, north towards Chrysochou Bay and also south east.

Polemi has historically been a relatively large village by local standards and this has resulted in the amenities present there today. The village is home to a primary school Δημοτικό Σχολείο Πολεμίου (Demotiko Scholeiou Polemiou) with 84 students; and the local secondary school Γυμνάσιο και Λύκειο Πολεμίου (Gymansio/ Lykeio Polemiou) serving Polemi and surrounding areas. There is also a bank, shops, restaurants and several cafes in the village.

The foundation of Polemi and its naming is uncertain. There has most probably been a settlement of Greek speaking people here by this name since the Byzantine era. The name Polemi can be translated as meaning 'warriors' village'; with πόλεμος (polemos) meaning battle in Ancient Greek, πολέμιος (polemios) translating from modern Greek into English as 'adversary' or 'foe', πολεμικό (polemiko) meaning 'war like'. Some locals believe the name of the village is rooted in the settlement of a division of former soldiers from the Byzantine army in the middle ages or previously.

The village is laid out on a network of streets with a mix of older houses built from the local white limestone and newer constructions from the later 20th Century and 21st century. The village was traditionally made up of a series of related hamlets rather than one single village around a core, though it has progressively concentrated around the church of Παναγία Χρυσελεούσα Panagia Chryseleousa (the Virgin Mary of mercy). Another core of older dwellings can be seen close to the chapel of Prophitis Ilias (Prophet Elijah) at Matsima in the west of the plateau. There was another hamlet named Ayios Giorgios (Saint George) in the lower lands to the west of the village. A small chapel of the same name still stands in this area amongst olive groves and has been restored in recent years.

Polemi has a long and rich history of association with the Greek Orthodox Church. As well as the main church and smaller chapels in Polemi, the Metochi Μετόχι stands at the northern edge of the village. This large stone building and enclosed courtyard was built as an outpost of the Kykkos Monastery, the pre-eminent monastic institution of Cyprus. Polemi's association with Kykkos, which is itself located high in the Troodos Mountains, was longstanding. Much of the farmland around the village was under the ownership of the monastery until the twentieth century. This historic ownership may have dated back to the rule of the Frankokratia, the Crusaders or Venetians when a feudal system was introduced on the island; or from the time of the Ottoman Empire in Cyprus when families were subject to onerous taxes and private property was sometimes transferred to recognised religious institutions.

While some villages in the Paphos region were settled by Turkish speaking populations during the Ottoman period, Polemi was historically a village of Greek Cypriots. Today Polemi retains its predominantly Greek character but is home to a mix of nationalities with a number of British people living there as in other villages in the Paphos district.

Polemi is one of the 'wine villages' of Paphos with extensive cultivation of vines in the fields around the village. The SODAP Kamanterena winery is located just outside the village boundary to the south west.

Polemi is also known for its naturally occurring red tulips that flower in the fields around the village in springtime. An annual tulip festival is celebrated to mark this phenomenon.

http://dim-polemi-paf.schools.ac.cy/

http://gym-polemi-paf.schools.ac.cy/

http://www.polemi.org/

https://maps.google.co.uk/maps?q=polemi+cyprus&ie=UTF-8&hq=&hnear=0x14e70dc3fa38100f:0x99721330e0132add,Polemi,+Cyprus&gl=uk&ei=I9-wUuzGCqjC7AaH6oHABw&ved=0CJ8BELYD

Sack of Constantinople (1204)

The siege and sack of Constantinople occurred in April 1204 and marked the culmination of the Fourth Crusade. Crusader armies captured, looted, and destroyed parts of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. After the capture of the city, the Latin Empire (known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation) was established and Baldwin of Flanders was crowned Emperor Baldwin I of Constantinople in the Hagia Sophia.

After the city's sacking, most of the Byzantine Empire's territories were divided up among the Crusaders. Byzantine aristocrats also established a number of small independent splinter states, one of them being the Empire of Nicaea, which would eventually recapture Constantinople in 1261 and proclaim the reinstatement of the Empire. However, the restored Empire never managed to reclaim its former territorial or economic strength, and eventually fell to the rising Ottoman Sultanate in the 1453 Siege of Constantinople.

The sack of Constantinople is a major turning point in medieval history. The Crusaders' decision to attack the world's largest Christian city was unprecedented and immediately controversial. Reports of Crusader looting and brutality scandalised and horrified the Orthodox world; relations between the Catholic and Orthodox churches were catastrophically wounded for many centuries afterwards, and would not be substantially repaired until modern times.

The Byzantine Empire was left much poorer, smaller, and ultimately less able to defend itself against the Turkish conquests that followed; the actions of the Crusaders thus directly accelerated the collapse of Christendom in the east, and in the long run facilitated the expansion of Islam into Europe.

Stato da Màr

The Stato da Màr or Domini da Mar ("State/Domains of the Sea") was the name given to the Republic of Venice's maritime and overseas possessions, including Istria, Dalmatia, Albania, Negroponte, the Morea (the "Kingdom of the Morea"), the Aegean islands of the Duchy of the Archipelago, and the islands of Crete (the "Kingdom of Candia") and Cyprus. It was one of the three subdivisions of the Republic of Venice's possessions, the other two being the Dogado, i.e. Venice proper, and the Domini di Terraferma in northern Italy.

William Miller (historian)

William Miller (8 December 1864 – 23 October 1945) was a British-born medievalist and journalist.

Zaraka Monastery

Zaraka Monastery is a ruined Frankish abbey near Stymfalia, in the Peloponnese, in Greece. It was built about a kilometre from the shores of Lake Stymphalia, the site of the ancient city of Stymphalus, during the "Frankokratia", i.e. the occupation of parts of the Byzantine Empire by Franks and Venetians, following the events of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, and the establishment of the Latin Empire of Constantinople and Greece.

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