Frank Robinson

Frank Robinson (August 31, 1935 – February 7, 2019) was an American outfielder and manager in Major League Baseball who played for five teams from 1956 to 1976. The only player to be named Most Valuable Player (MVP) of both the National League (NL) and the American League (AL), he was named the NL MVP after leading the Cincinnati Reds to the pennant in 1961 and was named the AL MVP in 1966 with the Baltimore Orioles after winning the Triple Crown; his 49 home runs that year tied for the most by any AL player between 1962 and 1989, and stood as a franchise record for 30 years. Robinson helped lead the Orioles to the first two World Series titles in franchise history in 1966 and 1970, and was named the Series MVP in 1966 after leading the Orioles to a four-game sweep of the Los Angeles Dodgers. In 1975, he became the first black manager in major league history.

A 14-time All-Star, Robinson batted .300 nine times, hit 30 home runs eleven times, and led his league in slugging four times and in runs scored three times. His 586 career home runs ranked fourth in major league history at the time of his retirement, and he ranked sixth in total bases (5,373) and extra-base hits (1,186), eighth in games played (2,808) and ninth in runs scored (1,829).[1] His 2,943 career hits are the most since 1934 by any player who fell short of the 3,000-hit mark. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility in 1982.[2]

Robinson went on to manage the San Francisco Giants, the Baltimore Orioles, and the Montreal Expos/Washington Nationals.[2] For most of the last two decades of his life, Robinson served in various executive positions for Major League Baseball, concluding his career as honorary President of the American League.[3]

Frank Robinson
Frank Robinson 1961
Robinson in 1961
Outfielder / Manager
Born: August 31, 1935
Beaumont, Texas
Died: February 7, 2019 (aged 83)
Los Angeles, California
Batted: Right Threw: Right
MLB debut
April 17, 1956, for the Cincinnati Redlegs
Last MLB appearance
September 18, 1976, for the Cleveland Indians
MLB statistics
Batting average.294
Hits2,943
Home runs586
Runs batted in1,812
Managerial record1,065–1,176
Winning %.475
Teams
As player
As manager
As coach
Career highlights and awards
Member of the National
Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Baseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg
Induction1982
Vote89.2% (first ballot)

Early life

Robinson was born on August 31, 1935 in Beaumont, Texas. He was the youngest of ten children born to Frank Robinson and Ruth Shaw. His parents divorced when he was an infant, and his mother moved with her children to Alameda, California, and then to the West Oakland neighborhood of nearby Oakland.[4] He attended McClymonds High School in Oakland, where he was a basketball teammate of Bill Russell. He was a baseball teammate of Vada Pinson and Curt Flood.[5] He also played American Legion Baseball.[4]

Playing career

Minor leagues

In 1953, Bobby Mattick, a scout for the Cincinnati Reds, signed Robinson to a contract worth $3,500 ($32,775 in current dollar terms).[4] He made his professional debut for the Ogden Reds of the Class C Pioneer League. He batted .348 with 83 runs batted in (RBI) in 72 games played. He was promoted to the Tulsa Oilers of the Class AA Texas League in 1954, but was demoted to the Columbia Reds of the Class A South Atlantic League. He returned to Columbia in 1955.[4]

Frank Robinson 1961
Robinson with the Reds in 1961

Cincinnati Reds (1956–1965)

Robinson made his major league debut in 1956. In his rookie year with the Reds, Robinson tied the then-record of 38 home runs by a rookie and was named Rookie of the Year. The Reds won the NL pennant in 1961, and Robinson won his first MVP (in July he batted .409, hit 13 home runs, and drove in 34 runs to win NL Player of the Month), the last time the NL played a 154-game schedule. The Reds lost the 1961 World Series to the New York Yankees.[4] In 1962, Robinson hit a career-high .342 with 39 home runs, 51 doubles, and 136 RBIs.[4] He compiled 208 hits, his career high and only 200+ hit season.

Robinson was noted as a fierce player. He spiked Johnny Logan in 1957, causing Logan to miss six weeks. He also got into a fistfight with Eddie Mathews in 1960.[6]

Baltimore Orioles (1966–1971)

Prior to the 1966 season, Reds owner Bill DeWitt traded Robinson to the Baltimore Orioles in exchange for pitcher Milt Pappas, pitcher Jack Baldschun and outfielder Dick Simpson. The trade turned out to be rather lopsided. DeWitt, who had a slew of successful trades including his time as GM in Detroit and in the early 1960s rebuilding the Reds, famously referred to Robinson as "not a young 30" after the trade. The Reds led the NL in offense in 1965 and needed pitching. Pappas, who was a consistent performer in Baltimore, was a major disappointment in Cincinnati while Robinson had continued success in Baltimore.[7] In Robinson's first year in Baltimore, he won the Triple Crown, leading the American League with a .316 batting average (the lowest ever by a Triple Crown winner), 49 home runs (the most ever by a right-handed Triple crown winner) and 122 runs batted in. On May 8, 1966, Robinson became the only player ever to hit a home run completely out of Memorial Stadium. The shot came off of Luis Tiant in the second game of a doubleheader against the Cleveland Indians, and the home run measured 541 feet (165 m). Until the Orioles' move to Camden Yards in 1992, a flag labeled "HERE" was flown at the spot where the ball left the stadium.[8]

The Orioles won the 1966 World Series, and Robinson was named World Series Most Valuable Player. In the Orioles' four-game sweep of the defending champion Los Angeles Dodgers, Robinson hit two home runs--one in Game One (which Baltimore won 5–2), and one in Game Four (the only run of the game in a 1–0 series-clinching victory). Robinson hit both home runs off of Don Drysdale.[9]

On June 26, 1970, Robinson hit back-to-back grand slams in the fifth and sixth innings in the Orioles' 12–2 victory over the Washington Senators. The same runners were on base both times: Dave McNally was on third base, Don Buford was on second, and Paul Blair was on first.[10]

The Orioles won three consecutive American League pennants between 1969 and 1971. Before the 1969 World Series, Robinson said, "Bring on the Mets and Ron Gaspar!" He was then told by his teammate Merv Rettenmund, "It's Rod, stupid." He then retorted by saying, "OK. Bring on Rod Stupid!"[11] Baltimore won the 1970 World Series over the Reds.[4]

Final years as a player (1972–1976)

On December 2, 1971, the Orioles traded Robinson and Pete Richert to the Los Angeles Dodgers for Doyle Alexander, Bob O'Brien, Sergio Robles and Royle Stillman.[12] The 1972 season was his first season in the National League since playing with the 1965 Reds. He played 103 games, while compiling a .251 batting average, 59 RBIs, 86 hits, and 19 home runs. In November of that year, he was traded along with Billy Grabarkewitz, Bill Singer, Mike Strahler and Bobby Valentine to the California Angels for Ken McMullen and Andy Messersmith.[13] In his time with the Angels, he became their first designated hitter while also being teammates again with Vada Pinson. He played 147 games in 1973 and 129 in 1974. In his tenure with the Angels, he hit for a .259 average while having 50 home runs, 249 hits, and 160 RBIs.[14]

On September 12, 1974, the Angels traded Robinson to the Cleveland Indians for Ken Suarez, cash and a player to be named later (Rusty Torres). Three weeks later, the Indians named him their manager, and persuaded him to continue playing. In his first at bat as a player/manager for Cleveland in 1975, he hit a home run off of Doc Medich of the Yankees. He injured his shoulder in 1975 and did not play often. He retired from playing after the 1976 season, after batting .226 with 14 home runs in 235 at bats for Cleveland from 1974 through 1976.[15]

During a 21-year baseball career, he batted .294 with 586 home runs, 1,812 runs batted in, and 2,943 hits. At his retirement, his 586 career home runs were the fourth most in history (behind only the records of Hank Aaron, Babe Ruth and Willie Mays). He is second on Cincinnati's all-time home run leaders list (324, behind Johnny Bench) and is the Reds' all-time leader in slugging percentage (.554).[16]

Manager

Frank Robinson 1974.jpeg
Robinson, circa 1974

Managing career

Robinson managed in the winter leagues late in his playing career.[17] By the early 1970s, he had his heart set on becoming the first black manager in the majors; the Angels traded him to the Cleveland Indians midway through the 1974 season due to his open campaigning for the manager's job. In 1975, the Indians named him player-manager, giving him distinction of being the first black manager in the Majors.[18] The Indians had a 79–80 record, and had a 81–78 record in 1976. Cleveland started the 1977 season 26–31, and fired Robinson on June 19, 1977.[15]

Robinson managed the San Francisco Giants from 1981 through 106 games of the 1984 season, when he was fired.[4][17] He finished the 1984 season as the hitting coach for the Milwaukee Brewers, on a contract worth $1.[19] In 1985, he joined the Orioles front office. He was named the manager of the Orioles for 1988. He was awarded the American League Manager of the Year Award in 1989 for leading the Orioles to an 87–75 record, a turnaround from their previous season in which they went 54–107.[20]

Robinson managed the Orioles through 1991, and the Montreal Expos/Washington Nationals franchise from 2002 through 2006.[4] After Robinson had spent some years known in baseball as the Director of Discipline, he was chosen by Major League Baseball in 2002 to manage the Expos, which MLB owned at that time.[21] The Expos, who had losing records in the five previous seasons, finished the 2002 and 2003 seasons with 83–79 records. The Expos then next slumped to a 67–95 record in 2004.[22]

In a June 2005 Sports Illustrated poll of 450 MLB players, Robinson was selected the worst manager in baseball, along with Buck Showalter, then manager of the Texas Rangers. In the August 2006 poll, he again was voted worst manager with 17% of the vote and 37.7% of the NL East vote.[23]

On April 20, 2006, with the Nationals' 10–4 victory over the Philadelphia Phillies, Robinson got his 1000th win, becoming the 53rd manager to reach that milestone.[24] He had earned his 1000th loss two seasons earlier.[14]

During a game against the Houston Astros on May 25, 2006, Robinson pulled Nationals catcher Matt LeCroy during the middle of the seventh inning, violating an unwritten rule that managers do not remove position players in the middle of an inning. Instead, managers are supposed to discreetly switch position players in between innings. However, LeCroy, the third-string catcher, had allowed Houston Astros baserunners to steal seven bases over seven innings and had committed two throwing errors. Although the Nationals won the game 8–5, Robinson found the decision so difficult to make on a player he respected so much, he broke down crying during the post-game interviews.[25]

On September 30, 2006, the Nationals' management declined to renew Robinson's contract for the 2007 season, though they stated he was welcome to come to spring training in an unspecified role. Robinson, who wanted either a front office job or a consultancy, declined.[26] On October 1, 2006, he managed his final game, a 6–2 loss to the Mets, and prior to the game addressed the fans at RFK Stadium.[27] Robinson's record as a manager stood at 1,065 wins and 1,176 losses.[28]

Managerial record

Team From To Managerial record
G W L Win %
Cleveland Indians 1975 1977 375 186 189 .496
San Francisco Giants 1981 1984 541 264 277 .488
Baltimore Orioles 1988 1991 515 230 285 .447
Montreal Expos / Washington Nationals 2002 2006 810 385 425 .475
Total 2241 1065 1176 .475
Ref.:[28]

Honors

FrankRobinson20
Frank Robinson's number 20 was retired by the Baltimore Orioles in 1972.
CincinnatiReds20
Frank Robinson's number 20 was retired by the Cincinnati Reds in 1998.
Indians20 FrankRobinson
Frank Robinson's number 20 was retired by the Cleveland Indians in 2017.

In addition to his two Most Valuable Player awards (1961 and 1966) and his World Series Most Valuable Player award (1966), Robinson was honored in 1966 with the Hickok Belt as the top professional athlete of the year in any sport.[29][30]

In 1982, Robinson was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame as a Baltimore Oriole.[31] Robinson is also a charter member of the Baltimore Orioles Hall of Fame (along with Brooks Robinson), and a member of the Cincinnati Reds Hall of Fame, being inducted into both in 1978. He was named to the Washington Nationals Ring of Honor for his "significant contribution to the game of baseball in Washington, D.C" on May 9, 2015. He was inducted into the Cleveland Indians Hall of Fame in 2016. The Reds, Orioles, and Indians have retired his uniform number 20. He is one of only two major league players, the other being Nolan Ryan, to have his number retired by three different organizations.[32]

FrankRobinsonMedalOfFreedom
Robinson being awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom

In 1999, Robinson ranked 22nd on The Sporting News list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players.[33] He was nominated as a finalist for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team.[34]

Three teams have honored Robinson with statues:

President George W. Bush awarded Robinson the Presidential Medal of Freedom on November 9, 2005.[37] On April 13, 2007, Robinson was awarded the first Jackie Robinson Society Community Recognition Award at George Washington University.[38]

In his career, Robinson held several major league records. In his rookie season, he tied Wally Berger's record for home runs by a rookie (38).[18] (The current record would be set by Aaron Judge in 2017.) Robinson still holds the record for home runs on opening day (8), which includes a home run in his first at bat as a player-manager.[39] Robinson won the American League Triple Crown (.316 BA, 49 HR, 122 RBI) – only two players (Carl Yastrzemski and Miguel Cabrera) have since won the award in either league – and the two MVP awards, which made him the first player in baseball history to earn the title in both leagues.[40]

Front office and media career

Frank Robinson signs autographs in Jan 2014
Robinson in January 2014

Robinson served as an assistant general manager for the Orioles through 1995, when he was fired.[41] He worked for MLB as Vice President of On-Field Operations from 1999 to 2002, responsible for player discipline, uniform policy, stadium configuration, and other on-field issues.[42]

Robinson served as an analyst for ESPN during spring training in 2007.[43] The Nationals offered to honor Robinson during a May 20 game against his former club the Baltimore Orioles but he refused.[44]

In 2007 Robinson rejoined the MLB front office, serving as a Special Advisor for Baseball Operations from 2007 to 2009. He then served as Special Assistant to Bud Selig from 2009 to 2010, and then was named Senior Vice President for Major League Operations from 2010 to 2011. In June 2012, he became Executive Vice President of Baseball Development.[42] In February 2015, Robinson left his position as Executive Vice President of Baseball Development and was named senior advisor to the Commissioner of Baseball and Honorary American League President.[45]

Personal life

While playing for the Reds in the late 1950s, Robinson attended Xavier University in Cincinnati during the off-seasons.[46] While in Baltimore, he became active in the Civil Rights Movement. He originally declined membership in the NAACP unless the organization promised not to make him do public appearances. However, after witnessing Baltimore's segregated housing and discriminatory real estate practices, he reconsidered and became an enthusiastic speaker on racial issues.[18]

Robinson met his wife, Barbara Ann Cole, in 1961. They married that year,[4] and lived in Los Angeles, where Barbara sold real estate.[41] They had two children.[32]

On February 7, 2019, Robinson died of bone cancer in Los Angeles at the age of 83.[47]

See also

Bibliography

  • Robinson, Frank (1968). My Life Is Baseball. with Al Silverman. Doubleday. ISBN 9997502442.
  • Robinson, Frank (1976). Frank: The First Year. with Dave Anderson. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0030149517.
  • Robinson, Frank; Stainback, Barry (1988). Extra Innings. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0070531838.

References

  1. ^ D'Imperio, Chuck (February 8, 2019). "Baseball Hall of Fame Remembers One of the Greats: Frank Robinson". CNY News.
  2. ^ a b Goldstein, Richard (February 7, 2019). "Frank Robinson, Hall of Fame Slugger and First Black Baseball Manager, Dies at 83". The New York Times.
  3. ^ a b Fay, John (February 7, 2019). "Frank Robinson, first African-American star for Cincinnati Reds, dead at 83". Cincinnati Enquirer.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Frank Robinson - Society for American Baseball Research". sabr.org. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  5. ^ "Who's Better At Hoops: Bill Russell Or Frank Robinson?". The Baltimore Sun. December 12, 1990. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  6. ^ Sharnik, Morton. "THE MOODY TIGER OF THE REDS". Vault. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  7. ^ "Baseball: More Than 150 Years" by David Nemec and Saul Wisnia. Publications International, Ltd. 1997, page 413
  8. ^ Landers, Charles. "Frank Robinson once took a Luis Tiant fastball 541 feet straight out of Memorial Stadium". MLB. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  9. ^ "1966 World Series - Baltimore Orioles over Los Angeles Dodgers (4-0)". Baseball-Reference.com. January 1, 1970. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  10. ^ "June 26, 1970: Frank Robinson's back-to-back grand slams - Society for American Baseball Research". sabr.org. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  11. ^ "Ultimate Mets Database - Memories of Rod Gaspar". Ultimatemets.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  12. ^ "Rome News-Tribune - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  13. ^ JOSEPH DURSO (November 29, 1972). "Angels Get Dodgers' Frank Robinson - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  14. ^ a b "Frank Robinson Stats". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  15. ^ a b Special to The Plain Dealer (May 25, 2017). "Frank Robinson's debut as Cleveland Indians player-manager was historic (photos, audio)". cleveland.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  16. ^ "Reds All-Time Leaders | Cincinnati Reds". Cincinnati.reds.mlb.com. May 24, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  17. ^ a b Van, Bill. "Frank Robinson, former SF Giants manager and baseball trailblazer, dies". SFChronicle.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  18. ^ a b c "ESPN Classic - Robinson set records and broke barriers". Espn.go.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  19. ^ https://fox11online.com/sports/brewers-and-mlb/photo-of-frank-robinson-in-brewers-uniform-surfaces
  20. ^ Mike Klingaman; Childs Walker (February 7, 2019). "Baltimore Orioles Hall of Famer Frank Robinson dies at 83". The Baltimore Sun.
  21. ^ MURRAY CHASS (February 13, 2002). "BASEBALL; Minaya, Robinson, Tavares Will Now Run the Expos - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  22. ^ "ESPN Classic - Robinson set records and broke barriers". Espn.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  23. ^ "SI.com – SI Players Poll – Aug 22, 2006". CNN. August 22, 2006. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  24. ^ "Johnson, Nats give Robinson 1000th win". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
  25. ^ Mark Zuckerman (May 26, 2006). "Robinson tearful after win". The Washington Times. Retrieved May 29, 2006.
  26. ^ Svrluga, Barry (January 11, 2007). "Nats Will Not Offer Robinson a Paid Job". The Washington Post.
  27. ^ Sheinin, Dave (October 2, 2006). "Nats' Robinson Bids a Fond Farewell". The Washington Post.
  28. ^ a b "Frank Robinson". Baseball Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  29. ^ Great Baseball Feats, Facts and Figures, 2008 Edition, p.153, David Nemec and Scott Flatow, A Signet Book, Penguin Group, New York, ISBN 978-0-451-22363-0
  30. ^ "Frank Robinson". Hickok Belt. August 31, 1935. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  31. ^ "Frank Robinson". Baseball Hall of Fame. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  32. ^ a b Justice, Richard. "Frank Robinson dies | Baltimore Orioles". Mlb.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  33. ^ "100 Greatest Baseball Players by The Sporting News : A Legendary List by Baseball Almanac". www.baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  34. ^ Sandomir, Richard (October 31, 1999). "TV SPORTS; All-Century Became All About Rose and Gray". Retrieved February 7, 2019 – via NYTimes.com.
  35. ^ Seidel, Jeff. "O's pay tribute to Robinson at Camden Yards". Retrieved July 15, 2012.
  36. ^ "Cleveland Indians to unveil statues honoring Robinson and Boudreau – Cleveland.com (Cleveland Plain Dealer)". Cleveland.com. January 24, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  37. ^ "President Offers Tributes to Medal of Freedom Honorees". The New York Times. Associated Pres. November 10, 2005. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  38. ^ "Fredericksburg.com – Frank Robinson in town for honor". Archive.today. July 9, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  39. ^ "ESPN.com - Most memorable opening day moments". Sports.espn.go.com. March 31, 2003. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  40. ^ "Tigers' Miguel Cabrera wins AL MVP over Angels' Mike Trout". The Washington Post. November 15, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  41. ^ a b Bamberger, Michael. "HOME AGAIN FRANK ROBINSON IS BACK WHERE HE BELONGS: IN THE GAME". Vault. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  42. ^ a b MLB.com – MLB Executives Bio of Frank Robinson http://mlb.mlb.com/mlb/official_info/about_mlb/executives.jsp?bio=robinson_frank Retrieved October 6, 2013
  43. ^ "ESPN Hires Frank Robinson As an Analyst". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  44. ^ Svrluga, Barry (February 16, 2007). "Robinson Declines Celebration in His Honor". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  45. ^ foxsports (February 2, 2015). "Hall of Famer Robinson to become senior adviser to MLB commish". Foxsports.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  46. ^ Moffi, Larry and Kronstadt, Jonathan. Crossing the Line: Black Major Leaguers, 1947–1959. McFarland (1994). pp. 156. ISBN 0-899-50930-4
  47. ^ Waldman, Tyler. "Frank Robinson, Baseball Lifer And Orioles Legend, Has Died". WBAL.com. WBAL. Retrieved February 7, 2019.

Further reading

External links

1957 Major League Baseball All-Star Game

The 1957 Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the 24th playing of the midseason exhibition baseball game between the all-stars of the American League (AL) and National League (NL), the two leagues comprising Major League Baseball. The game was held on July 9, 1957, at Busch Stadium in St. Louis, Missouri, the home of the St. Louis Cardinals of the National League. The game was marked by controversy surrounding Cincinnati Redlegs fans stuffing the ballot box and electing all but one of their starting position players to the game. The game resulted in the American League defeating the National League 6–5.

1961 Cincinnati Reds season

The 1961 Cincinnati Reds season was a season in American baseball. It consisted of the Reds winning the National League pennant with a 93–61 record, four games ahead of the runner-up Los Angeles Dodgers, but losing the World Series in five games to the New York Yankees. The Reds were managed by Fred Hutchinson, and played their home games at Crosley Field. The Reds were also the last team to win the National League in the 154-game schedule era, before going to a 162-game schedule a year later.

Cincinnati's road to the World Series was truly a remarkable one, as the Reds went through significant changes in a single season to improve from a team that won just 67 games and finished 28 games behind the eventual World Series Champion Pittsburgh Pirates in 1960. The architect of the turnaround was the Reds' new general manager Bill DeWitt, who left his role as president and general manager of the Detroit Tigers after the end of the 1960 season to replace Gabe Paul as the Reds' GM. Paul was hired as the general manager of the expansion Houston Colt .45s.

DeWitt, who had a short history of successful trades in Detroit including acquiring Norm Cash and Rocky Colavito, went to work at the 1960 Winter Meetings for Cincinnati. DeWitt found trade partners in the Milwaukee Braves and the Chicago White Sox. In essentially a three-team trade, the Reds acquired pitchers Joey Jay and Juan Pizarro for slick-fielding shortstop Roy McMillan on Dec. 15, 1960. On that same day, the Reds then traded Pizzaro and pitcher Cal McLish to the White Sox for third baseman Gene Freese. It was the fourth time Freese had been traded in 18 months. Most recently, the White Sox had acquired Freese from the Philadelphia Phillies for future all star Johnny Callison in December 1959.

Reds owner Powel Crosley, Jr. died suddenly of a heart attack at his home in Cincinnati 13 days before the start of the season. DeWitt would eventually purchase 100% of the team ownership from Crosley's estate by year's end.

The Reds began the season with Freese at third base, sure-handed Eddie Kasko moved from third (where he played in 1960) to shortstop and long-time minor leaguer Jim Baumer at second base. Baumer was one of MLB's "feel good" stories. After playing in nine games with the White Sox in 1949 as an 18 year old rookie, Baumer returned to the minor leagues and didn't make it back to the big league for 11 years. The Reds drafted Baumer during the Rule 5 draft after the Pittsburgh Pirates left him unprotected. After a solid spring training with the Reds, Baumer was named starting second baseman to open the season. As the season began, expectations were low for the Reds among baseball "experts." The Reds won their first three games, but then went into a slump, losing 10 of 12. To the surprise of many, it was the Reds' offense that struggled most. Baumer in particular was hitting just .125. DeWitt then made a bold move on April 27, 1961, trading all-star catcher Ed Bailey to the San Francisco Giants for second baseman Don Blasingame, catcher Bob Schmidt and journeyman pitcher Sherman Jones. Blasingame was inserted as starter at second base, and Baumer was traded to the Detroit Tigers on May 10 for backup first baseman Dick Gernert. Baumer never again played in the majors.

On April 30, the Reds won the second game of a double-header from the Pittsburgh Pirates to begin a 9-game winning streak. Exactly a month after the trade of Bailey, the Reds began another win streak, this time six games, to improve to 26-16. Those streaks were part of a stretch where the Reds won 50 of 70 games to improve to 55-30. Cincinnati led Los Angeles by five games at the All Star break.

After the break, the Dodgers got hot and the Reds floundered. After the games of August 13, Los Angeles was 69-40 and led Cincinnati (70-46) by 2½ games, but six in the loss column as the Dodgers had played seven fewer games than the Reds due to multiple rainouts. On Aug. 15, the Reds went into Los Angeles to begin a three-game, two-day series highlighted by a double-header. In the first game of the series, Reds' righty Joey Jay bested Sandy Koufax and the Dodgers, 5-2, as Eddie Kasko had four hits and Frank Robinson drove in two for Cincinnati. In the Wednesday double-header, knuckle-baller Bob Purkey threw a four-hit shutout as the Reds won Game 1, 6-0. In Game 2, Freese hit two home runs off Dodgers' lefty Johnny Podres and Jim O'Toole hurled a two-hitter as the Reds completed the sweep with an 8-0 victory. The Reds left Los Angeles with a half-game lead. It was the Dodgers' fourth-straight loss in what would turn out to be a 10-game losing streak to put the Dodgers in a hole, while the Reds stayed in first-place the rest of the season.

The Reds clinched their first pennant in 21 years on Sept. 26 when they beat the Cubs, 6-3, in the afternoon and the Dodgers lost to the Pittsburgh Pirates, 8-0, in the second game of a doubleheader. The Reds earned a chance to face the mighty New York Yankees in the 1961 World Series.

Outfielders Frank Robinson and Vada Pinson led the Reds offense while starting pitchers Bob Purkey, Jim O'Toole and newcomer Joey Jay were the staff standouts. Robinson (37 homers, 124 RBI, 117 runs scored, 22 stolen bases, .323 average) was named National League MVP. Pinson (208 hits, .343 average, 101 runs scored, 23 stolen bases) and a Gold Glove recipient, finished third in MVP voting. Purkey won 16 games, O'Toole won 19 and Jay won an NL-best 21 games. Jay also finished a surprising fifth in NL MVP voting, one spot ahead of future Hall of Famer Willie Mays who hit 40 home runs and drove in 123 for the Giants, such was the respect the Baseball Writers had for Jay's contributions to the Reds' pennant.

At a position (3B) that the Reds had received little offensive production from in the recent years leading up to 1961, Freese provided a major boost, slugging 26 home runs and driving in 87 runs to go with a .277 average.

Hutchinson, a former MLB pitcher, was masterful in his handling of the pitching staff as well as juggling a lineup that included part-timers (and former slugging standouts) Gus Bell, Wally Post (20, 57, .294) as well as Jerry Lynch (13, 50, .315). For the second straight season, Lynch led the National League with 19 pinch hits. Hutchinson was named Manager of the Year.

1961 World Series

The 1961 World Series matched the New York Yankees (109–53) against the Cincinnati Reds (93–61), with the Yankees winning in five games to earn their 19th championship in 39 seasons. This World Series was surrounded by Cold War political puns pitting the "Reds" against the "Yanks." But the louder buzz concerned the "M&M" boys, Roger Maris and Mickey Mantle, who spent the summer chasing the ghost of Babe Ruth and his 60–home run season of 1927. Mantle finished with 54 while Maris set the record of 61 on the last day of the season. With all the attention surrounding the home run race, the World Series seemed almost anticlimatic.

The Yankees were under the leadership of first-year manager Ralph Houk, who succeeded Casey Stengel. The Yankees won the American League pennant, finishing eight games better than the Detroit Tigers. The Bronx Bombers also set a Major League record for most home runs in a season with 240. Along with Maris and Mantle, four other Yankees, Yogi Berra, Elston Howard, Bill Skowron, and Johnny Blanchard, hit more than 20 home runs. The pitching staff was also led by Cy Young Award-winner Whitey Ford (25–4, 3.21).

The underdog Reds, skippered by Fred Hutchinson, finished four games ahead of the Los Angeles Dodgers in the National League and boasted four 20-plus home run hitters of their own: NL MVP Frank Robinson, Gordy Coleman, Gene Freese and Wally Post. The second-base, shortstop, and catcher positions were platooned, while center fielder Vada Pinson led the league in hits with 208 and finished second in batting with a .343 average. Joey Jay (21–10, 3.53) led the staff, along with dependable Jim O'Toole and Bob Purkey.

The American League added two teams, the Los Angeles Angels and the Washington Senators, through expansion and also increased teams' respective schedules by eight games to 162. The National League was a year away from its own expansion as the Reds and the other NL teams maintained the 154-game schedule.

The Most Valuable Player Award for the series went to lefty Whitey Ford, who won two games while throwing 14 shutout innings.

Ford left the sixth inning of Game 4 due to an injured ankle. He set the record for consecutive scoreless innings during World Series play with 32, when, during the third inning he passed the previous record holder, Babe Ruth, who had pitched ​29 2⁄3 consecutive scoreless innings for the Boston Red Sox in 1916 and 1918. Ford would extend that record to ​33 2⁄3 in the 1962 World Series.

The 1961 five-game series was the shortest since 1954, when the New York Giants swept the Cleveland Indians in four games.

These two teams would meet again 15 years later in the 1976 World Series, which the Reds would win in a four-game sweep.

1966 Baltimore Orioles season

The 1966 Baltimore Orioles season involved the Orioles finishing first in the American League with a record of 97 wins and 63 losses, nine games ahead of the runner-up Minnesota Twins. It was their first AL pennant since 1944, when the club was known as the St. Louis Browns. The Orioles swept the NL champion Los Angeles Dodgers in four games to register their first-ever World Series title. The team was managed by Hank Bauer, and played their home games at Memorial Stadium. They drew 1,203,366 fans to their home ballpark, third in the ten-team league. It would be the highest home attendance of the team's first quarter-century at Memorial Stadium, and was eclipsed by the pennant-winning 1979 Orioles.

1966 Major League Baseball season

The 1966 Major League Baseball season was contested from April 11 to October 9, 1966. The Atlanta Braves played their inaugural season in Atlanta, following their relocation from Milwaukee. Three teams played the 1966 season in new stadiums. On April 12, the Braves ushered in Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium with the Pittsburgh Pirates taking a 3–2 win in 13 innings. One week later, Anaheim Stadium opened with the California Angels losing to the Chicago White Sox, 3–1 in the Angels' debut in neighboring Orange County. On May 8, the St. Louis Cardinals closed out old Sportsman's Park/Busch Stadium I with a 10–5 loss to the San Francisco Giants before opening the new Busch Memorial Stadium four days later with a 4–3 win in 12 innings over the Atlanta Braves.

In the World Series the Baltimore Orioles defeated the Los Angeles Dodgers 4 games to 0.

1966 World Series

The 1966 World Series matched the American League (AL) champion Baltimore Orioles against the defending World Series champion and National League (NL) champion Los Angeles Dodgers, with the Orioles sweeping the Series in four games to capture their first championship in franchise history. It was also the last World Series played before Major League Baseball (MLB) introduced the Commissioner's Trophy the following year. The Dodgers suffered record low scoring, accumulating just two runs over the course of the series, the lowest number of runs ever scored by any one team in the history of the World Series.

This World Series marked the end of the Dodgers dynasty of frequent postseason appearances stretching back to 1947. Conversely, it marked the beginning of the Orioles dynasty of frequent postseason appearances that continued until 1983.

1969 World Series

The 1969 World Series was played between the New York Mets and the Baltimore Orioles, with the Mets prevailing in five games to accomplish one of the greatest upsets in Series history, as that particular Orioles squad was considered to be one of the finest ever. The World Series win earned the team the sobriquet "Miracle Mets", as they had risen from the depths of mediocrity (the 1969 team had the first winning record in Mets history).

The Mets became the first expansion team to win a division title, a pennant, and the World Series, winning in their eighth year of existence. Two teams later surpassed that, as the Florida Marlins won the 1997 World Series in their fifth year (also becoming the first wild card team to win a World Series) and the Arizona Diamondbacks won the 2001 World Series in their fourth year of play. This was the first World Series since 1954 to have games played in New York that didn't involve the New York Yankees; it was also the first World Series in which neither the New York Giants nor Brooklyn Dodgers (as both teams had moved to California in 1958) represented New York on the National League side.

1971 World Series

The 1971 World Series was the 68th edition of Major League Baseball's championship series, and the conclusion of the 1971 season. A best-of-seven playoff, it matched the defending World Series and American League (AL) champion Baltimore Orioles against the National League (NL) champion Pittsburgh Pirates, with the Pirates winning in seven games. Game 4, played in Pittsburgh on Wednesday, was the first-ever World Series game played at night.

The teams proved to be evenly matched, as the Series went the full seven games; the home team prevailed in each of the first six. In Game Seven in Baltimore, the Pirates' Steve Blass pitched a four-hit complete game for a 2–1 win over Mike Cuellar and the Orioles.

In his final World Series appearance, Roberto Clemente became the first Spanish-speaking ballplayer to earn World Series MVP honors. He hit safely in all seven games of the Series, duplicating a feat he had performed in 1960.

Twenty-one-year-old rookie Bruce Kison pitched 6⅓ scoreless innings and allowed just one hit in two appearances for the Pirates; he set a record of three hit batters in a World Series game (#4), which also tied the 1907 record for a World Series.

This was the first of three consecutive World Series, all seven games, in which the winning team scored fewer runs overall. The trend continued for the next seven-game series in 1975.

These two teams met again in the fall classic eight years later, with the same result, as the Pirates won the final three games to win in seven.

1975 Cleveland Indians season

The 1975 Cleveland Indians season was a season in American baseball. It involved the Indians competing in the American League East, where they finished fourth with a record of 79–80.

1975 Major League Baseball season

The 1975 Major League Baseball season saw Frank Robinson become the first black manager in the Major Leagues. He managed the Cleveland Indians.

At the All-Star Break, there were discussions of Bowie Kuhn's reappointment. Charlie Finley, New York owner George Steinbrenner and Baltimore owner Jerry Hoffberger were part of a group that wanted him gone. Finley was trying to convince the new owner of the Texas Rangers Brad Corbett that MLB needed a more dynamic commissioner. During the vote, Baltimore and New York decided to vote in favour of the commissioner's reappointment. In addition, there were discussions of expansion for 1977, with Seattle and Washington, D.C. as the proposed cities for expansion.

1976 Cleveland Indians season

The Cleveland Indians finished the 1976 MLB season with an 81–78 win-loss record. The team scored 615 runs and allowed 615 runs for a run differential of zero.

1981 San Francisco Giants season

The 1981 San Francisco Giants season was the Giants' 99th season in Major League Baseball, their 24th season in San Francisco since their move from New York following the 1957 season, and their 22nd at Candlestick Park. Giants manager Frank Robinson became the first black manager in the history of the National League. Robinson was also the first black manager in the history of the American League.

1982 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 1982 followed the system in place since 1978.

The Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) voted by mail to select from recent major league players and elected two, Hank Aaron and Frank Robinson.

The Veterans Committee met in closed sessions to consider older major league players as well as managers, umpires, executives, and figures from the Negro Leagues.

It selected Happy Chandler and Travis Jackson.

Baltimore Orioles

The Baltimore Orioles are an American professional baseball team based in Baltimore, Maryland. As one of the American League's eight charter teams in 1901, this particular franchise spent its first year as a major league club in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as the Milwaukee Brewers (not related to the second current Brewers franchise there) before moving to St. Louis, Missouri, to become the St. Louis Browns. After 52 often-beleaguered years in St. Louis, the franchise was purchased in November 1953 by a syndicate of Baltimore business and civic interests led by attorney/civic activist Clarence Miles and Mayor Thomas D'Alesandro Jr. The team's current majority owner is lawyer Peter Angelos.

The Orioles adopted their team name in honor of the official state bird of Maryland; it had also been used by several previous major and minor league baseball clubs in Baltimore, including another AL charter member franchise also named the "Baltimore Orioles," which moved north in 1903 to eventually become the New York Yankees. Nicknames for the team include the "O's" and the "Birds".

The Orioles experienced their greatest success from 1966 to 1983, when they made six World Series appearances, winning three of them (1966, 1970, 1983). This era of the club featured several future Hall of Famers who would later be inducted representing the Orioles, such as third baseman Brooks Robinson, outfielder Frank Robinson, starting pitcher Jim Palmer, first baseman Eddie Murray, shortstop Cal Ripken Jr., and manager Earl Weaver. The Orioles have won a total of nine division championships (1969–1971, 1973–1974, 1979, 1983, 1997, 2014), six pennants (1966, 1969–1971, 1979, 1983), and three wild card berths (1996, 2012, 2016). Since moving to Baltimore in 1954, the franchise has a win-loss record of 5252-5066 (with a winning "percentage" of .509) as of the end of the 2018 season.After suffering a stretch of 14 straight losing seasons from 1998 to 2011, the team qualified for the postseason three times under manager Buck Showalter and general manager Dan Duquette, including a division title and advancement to the American League Championship Series for the first time in 17 years in 2014. However, the 2018 team finished with a franchise-worst record of 47–115, prompting the team to move on from Showalter and Duquette following the season's conclusion. The Orioles' current manager is Brandon Hyde, while Mike Elias serves as general manager and executive vice president.

The Orioles are also well known for their influential ballpark, Oriole Park at Camden Yards, which opened in 1992 in downtown Baltimore.

Cincinnati Reds award winners and league leaders

This article is a list of baseball players who are Cincinnati Reds players that are winners of Major League Baseball awards and recognitions, Reds awards and recognitions, and/or are league leaders in various statistical areas.

Frank Robinson (Canadian football)

Frank Robinson is a former American football player who played at the linebacker position for the Tulane Green Wave from 1977 to 1980. Robinson then played ten seasons in the CFL (Canadian Football League) from 1981 to 1990 with the Saskatchewan Roughriders, Winnipeg Blue Bombers, Toronto Argonauts and the Hamilton Tigercats. Robinson was a CFL East All-Star at linebacker in 1987 and an CFL All-Star in 1989.

Harry Dalton

Harry I. Dalton (August 23, 1928 – October 23, 2005) was an American front-office executive in Major League Baseball. He served as general manager of three American League teams, the Baltimore Orioles (1966–71), California Angels (1972–77) and Milwaukee Brewers (1978–91), and was a principal architect of the Orioles' dynasty of 1966–74 as well as the only AL championship the Brewers ever won (1982).

Born in West Springfield, Massachusetts—also the hometown of Baseball Hall of Fame manager Leo Durocher—Dalton graduated from Amherst College and served in the United States Air Force during the Korean War, earning a Bronze Star. After a brief stint as a sportswriter in Springfield, he joined the front office of the Orioles, newly reborn as the relocated St. Louis Browns, in 1954. For the next 11 years, Dalton worked his way up the organizational ladder, rising to the position of director of the Orioles' successful farm system in 1961.In the autumn of 1965, Baltimore general manager Lee MacPhail departed to become top aide to the new Commissioner of Baseball, William Eckert. Dalton was named Director of Player Personnel—in effect, MacPhail's successor. His first order of business was to complete a trade that brought Cincinnati Reds outfielder Frank Robinson to Baltimore for pitchers Milt Pappas and Jack Baldschun and a minor league outfielder. Robinson, 1961 National League Most Valuable Player, was one of the greatest stars in the game, but he had developed a strained relationship with the Cincinnati front office. In Baltimore, he would team with third baseman Brooks Robinson to lead the O's to the 1966 and 1970 World Series championships, and pennants in 1969 and 1971. Dalton was the man who hired Earl Weaver as manager, brought to the Majors young stars such as Bobby Grich and Don Baylor, and acquired key players such as Mike Cuellar, Pat Dobson and Don Buford. (Weaver, Frank Robinson and Brooks Robinson, along with pitching great Jim Palmer, a product of Dalton's farm system, are all in the Hall in Fame.)

After the Orioles lost the 1971 World Series to the Pittsburgh Pirates, Dalton was hired to turn around a stumbling Angels franchise. He acquired the great pitcher Nolan Ryan in a December 1971 trade with the New York Mets, but during Dalton's six seasons in Anaheim the team never posted a winning record. After the 1977 season, the Angels hired veteran executive Buzzie Bavasi as Dalton's boss, then released Dalton from his contract so that he could become the general manager of the Brewers.

Milwaukee had a group of talented young players, such as Robin Yount, Cecil Cooper and rookie Paul Molitor, but the nine-year-old franchise had never had a winning season. In 1978, Dalton hired George Bamberger, Weaver's pitching coach for many years, as the Brewers' new manager, and the team gelled into contenders in the American League East Division. By 1981, they made the playoffs and in 1982, Milwaukee won its first and only American League pennant (the Brewers moved to the National League Central Division in 1998). In the 1982 World Series, the "Harvey's Wallbangers" Brewers of manager Harvey Kuenn lost to the St. Louis Cardinals in seven games.

The Brewers contended in 1983, but then began to struggle on the field. The team rebounded in 1987 and 1988, but when it returned to its losing ways, Dalton's position was weakened. After a poor 1991 season, he was replaced as general manager by Sal Bando. Dalton, who remained a consultant in the Milwaukee front office through his 1994 retirement, nevertheless was one of the most respected men in baseball, who had trained other successful general managers such as John Schuerholz, Lou Gorman and Dan Duquette, a fellow Amherst alumnus.On July 24, 2003, Dalton was inducted into the Milwaukee Brewers Walk of Fame outside Miller Park.

Harry Dalton died at age 77 in Scottsdale, Arizona, of complications from Lewy body disease, misdiagnosed as Parkinson’s disease.

List of American League presidents

The American League President was the chief executive of the American League of professional baseball until 1999, when the AL and National League merged into Major League Baseball.

List of Cincinnati Reds team records

This is a list of team records for the Cincinnati Reds baseball team. (The Reds do not recognize records set before 1900.)

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Mickey Mantle
Hitting for the cycle
May 2, 1959
Succeeded by
Brooks Robinson
Preceded by
George Altman
Ron Santo
Major League Player of the Month
July 1961
August 1964
Succeeded by
Warren Spahn
Bob Gibson
Preceded by
Jim Northrup
Two Grand Slams in a game
June 26, 1970
Succeeded by
Robin Ventura
Sporting positions
Preceded by
Jim Frey
Baltimore Orioles Hitting Coach
1978–1980
Succeeded by
Ralph Rowe
Preceded by
Jim Frey
Baltimore Orioles First Base Coach
1980
Succeeded by
Jimmy Williams
Preceded by
vacant
Baltimore Orioles Bench Coach
1985–1987
Succeeded by
vacant

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