Frank McCloskey

Francis Xavier "Frank" McCloskey (June 12, 1939 – November 2, 2003) was a six-term Democratic representative from Indiana from January 3, 1983, to January 3, 1995, widely remembered for his advocacy on behalf of Bosnian Muslims. He was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and later moved to Bloomington, Indiana after receiving an undergraduate (majoring in political science) and J.D. degree from Indiana University Maurer School of Law. He was the Democratic nominee for a seat in the Indiana House of Representatives in 1970. Frank McCloskey worked as a reporter for The Indianapolis Star, the Bloomington Herald-Telephone, and the City News Bureau in Chicago.

Frank McCloskey
Frank McCloskey
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Indiana's 8th district
In office
January 3, 1983 – January 3, 1995
Preceded byH. Joel Deckard
Succeeded byJohn Hostettler
Mayor of Bloomington, Indiana
In office
1972 – January 3, 1983
Preceded byJohn H. "Jack" Hooker, Jr.
Succeeded byTomilea Allison
Personal details
Born
Francis Xavier McCloskey

June 12, 1939
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
DiedNovember 2, 2003 (aged 64)
Bloomington, Indiana
Resting placeArlington National Cemetery
38°52′45″N 77°04′08″W / 38.879074°N 77.069006°WCoordinates: 38°52′45″N 77°04′08″W / 38.879074°N 77.069006°W
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)
Roberta Ann Barker (m. 1962–2003)
(his death)
Children2
Alma materIndiana University, A.B. 1968, J.D. 1971
ProfessionLawyer, Journalist
CommitteesArmed Services, 1983 to 1995; Small Business, 1983 to 1985; Post Office and Civil Service, 1985 to 1995; Foreign Affairs, 1989 to 1995
Military service
Branch/serviceUnited States Air Force
Years of service1957–1961
RankSergeant

Mayor of Bloomington

McCloskey was elected mayor of Bloomington in 1971, the year he graduated law school, by defeating two-term Republican incumbent John H. "Jack" Hooker, Jr., and served through his election to the 98th Congress in 1982. While mayor, he was credited with helping obtain federal funds to help improve city services and revitalize the city's downtown area. His administration also developed Bloomington Transit, the city's bus service. He was re-elected mayor in 1975 and 1979. In 1981, McCloskey was elected president of the Indiana Association of Cities and Towns.[1] Additionally, he served on a 10-member task force created by the U.S. Conference of Mayors created to study urban financial policy.

Mayor McCloskey was an alternate delegate to the 1972 Democratic National Convention.

Congressional tenure

1982 election and first term

Initially, Mayor McCloskey was an underdog in his race against two-term incumbent Republican representative Joel Deckard in Indiana's 8th congressional district. McCloskey's campaign focused on the effects of Reaganomics, and attempted to tie the district's high unemployment rate to Deckard and President Reagan after Deckard supported Reagan on key tax cut and budget votes in the 97th Congress. Some of the district's counties were experiencing unemployment rates not seen since the Great Depression. During the campaign, McCloskey argued for deferral or elimination of a 10 percent tax cut scheduled in 1983 and for cuts in military spending. McCloskey also attacked Deckard for waffling on the nuclear freeze issue after the incumbent co-sponsored both the stronger and weaker versions of the freeze resolution. McCloskey's campaign was further boosted after Deckard was involved in a drunk driving accident shortly before the election. McCloskey significantly benefited from the support of Michael Vandeveer, the popular Democratic mayor of Evansville, the district's largest city, and emerged the victor on election night, 52% to 48%. McCloskey thus became the sixth challenger since 1966 to unseat an incumbent in what had become known as "the Bloody Eighth".

Upon arriving in Washington, McCloskey sought a seat on the Appropriations Committee, but was rebuffed by then-Majority Leader Jim Wright, who told him first-term members of Congress rarely obtain a seat on that committee. McCloskey instead was given a seat on the Armed Services Committee, where he served throughout his congressional career, and gained a reputation as one of the committee's most liberal members. He was a vocal critic of Pentagon spending during his first term. Knowing he would be a target in 1984, he returned to the district often, and focused on areas of importance to his constituents, such economic development, uses for high-sulfur coal mined in the district, and farm credit. In the 1984 contest for the Democratic nomination for President, McCloskey supported Colorado Senator Gary Hart over Walter Mondale and Jesse Jackson.[2]

1984 re-election and controversial recount

After McCloskey accumulated a liberal voting record by opposing President Reagan over 80% of the time during his first year in office, Republicans recruited a twenty-eight-year-old, two-term conservative state representative Rick McIntyre to challenge McCloskey in 1984. McIntyre, however, hailed from small Lawrence County in the northeastern part of the district, and spent much of the election boosting his profile in the populous Evansville area. McCloskey, however, spent much of his first term tending politically to Evansville, and retained the support of the still popular Vandeveer. Ultimately, McCloskey ran up large margins in Evansville and Vanderburgh County.

However, President Reagan carried the district 61% to 38%. Buoyed by these strong coattails, McIntyre trailed McCloskey by only 72 votes after the initial vote count. A tabulation error in two precincts of one county, however, resulted in an overcounting of McCloskey votes, and Indiana's Secretary of State (a Republican) quickly certified McIntyre as the winner by 34 votes, without checking other counties, even though a recount in another county showed McCloskey with an overall lead of 72 votes.[3] After a recount, McIntyre was up by 418 votes,[4] but more than 4,800 ballots were not recounted for technical reasons. The Democratic-controlled House refused to seat either McIntyre or McCloskey and conducted their own recount.[3] A task force, consisting of two Democrats and one Republican, hired auditors from the U.S. General Accounting Office to do the counting. The recount dragged on for nearly four months, and McCloskey survived three Republican-sponsored floor votes to seat McIntyre. The task force instructed the auditors to ignore many of the "technicalities" that resulted in Indiana officials throwing out ballots. In the end, the House seated McCloskey on May 1, 1985 after declaring him the winner by just four votes (116,645 to 116,641). The vote, 230–195, was largely along partisan lines and in response every Republican House member momentarily marched out of the chamber in symbolic protest.

Subsequent service

99th Congress

Once sworn in for a second term, McCloskey used his position on the Armed Services Committee to prohibit job contracting at the Crane Weapons Center. Following the 1986 U.S. airstrikes on Libya, McCloskey sponsored legislation blocking the Marine Corps from buying bulldozers from a company partially owned by the Libyan government.

Meanwhile, McIntyre sought a rematch in 1986. However, he still faced a geographical disadvantage, and emotions over the bitter recount had faded. McCloskey took advantage of his incumbency and touted his work for Crane, even bringing in Les Aspin to promise the district Crane would not be closed. McCloskey was also able to leverage his incumbency into positive publicity after investigating possible PCB contamination from a Union Carbide plant on the district's border. Seeking to be more than a candidate who was robbed of victory, McIntyre unsuccessfully tried to find an issue he could capitalize on, and ended up criticizing McCloskey's tenure as mayor of Bloomington and his criticisms of the Vietnam War in the 1970s. Despite having no evidence in support of his claim, McIntyre alleged McCloskey had once smoked opium. These false allegations backfired, and without having to fight Reagan's coattails, McCloskey won the rematch by a comfortable margin, 106,662 (53%) to 93,586 (46.5%), carrying nine the district's sixteen counties, including another convincing victory in Evansville.

100th Congress

By his third term, in the 100th Congress, McCloskey had risen to chair of the Postal Personnel and Modernization subcommittee. From this position, he held hearings to determine if toxic biological agents, such as anthrax, should be banned from the U.S. Mail. After investigating the issue, and discovering such a ban could be damaging to medical research, McCloskey adopted a position of strict enforcement of the existing regulations. McCloskey, from his position on the Armed Services Committee, played a high-profile role in the battle over President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative, and argued SDI was a violation of the 1972 U.S.–Soviet ABM Treaty. Following a night-time collision of two military helicopters in neighboring Fort Campbell, Kentucky, McCloskey also launched a probe into military flight accidents linked to the use of night vision goggles. McCloskey was re-elected with 62% of the vote, his highest percentage, in 1988 against little-known newspaper publisher John L. Meyers, who shared a similar name to neighboring Congressman John T. Meyers. Despite his liberal voting record, McCloskey's attention to local issues and efforts to bring money back to the district earned him the support of both Evansville daily newspapers in the 1988 campaign.

101st Congress

In the 101st Congress McCloskey authored a bill enacted requiring a disclaimer on any non-governmental mailings that use an emblem or other identifying symbol to mislead consumers into believing the mailing is a government document. In addition to barring these deceptive mailings, McCloskey sponsored legislation, also enacted, requiring child-proof containers for any potentially harmful drugs and household products sent through the mail. McCloskey moderated his military spending views somewhat in his fourth term, voting against halting production of the B-2 stealth bomber and opposing efforts to eliminate the development of the V-22 Osprey helicopter. Not uncoincidentally, the hybrid airplane-helicopter's engines were built in Indiana.

Facing Evansville coal-mining executive Richard Mourdock in the 1990 election, McCloskey was reelected with 55% of the vote. Mourdock capitalized on an anti-incumbent trend and criticized McCloskey for his votes for a congressional pay raise and tax increases.

102nd Congress

In the 102nd Congress McCloskey opposed the use of force against Iraq in 1991. However, it was at this time when McCloskey first became a leader in the effort to take strong action, including military intervention, in the Balkans. McCloskey would maintain a passion and interest in the region for the remainder of his life. McCloskey was critical of President George H. W. Bush's "hands-off" approach to the conflict, and later voiced similar criticisms of President Clinton's reluctance to engage in a solution.

1992 saw McCloskey's first congressional election in which his hometown of Bloomington was completely within the boundaries of the 8th District. McCloskey faced a rematch with Mourdock. By this time, the anti-incumbent sentiment in the nation was even stronger, but McCloskey retained his seat with 53% of the vote. McCloskey's lower 1992 margin, coming at the same time that Bill Clinton became the first Democratic presidential candidate to win the 8th District since 1964 and then-Governor Evan Bayh carried all of the district's counties in his re-election bid, was partly attributed to McCloskey's 65 overdrafts at the House bank. McCloskey's efforts to save jobs at the district's Crane Naval Surface Weapons Warfare Center helped secure his re-election.

1994 election defeat

In 1994, McCloskey's Republican opponent was John Hostettler, a then little-known engineer from the Evansville suburbs who claimed the Republican nomination on the strength of strong support from area churches. Ultimately, McCloskey lost to Hostettler, 48% to 52%. He was one of 34 Democratic incumbents unseated that year. During the 103rd Congress, McCloskey supported the assault weapons ban, a vote which undermined his blue-collar labor and rural support. Hostettler sought to tie McCloskey to Clinton, referring to the Congressman as "Frank McClinton". Unlike in previous elections, where he ran up large margins, he only carried Vanderburgh County by a very small margin. McCloskey narrowly lost Martin county, home to the Crane NSW center he had spent his congressional career fighting to keep open. In the end, McCloskey's years of devotion and advocacy on behalf of his district could not overcome his liberal voting record, accumulated over six terms, the unpopularity of President Clinton, and the voters' tiring of long-time Democratic control of Congress.

Election history

Year Office Election Subject Party Votes Pct Opponent Party Votes Pct
1994 Congress, 8th district General Frank McCloskey (Inc.) Democratic 84,857 47.6% John Hostettler Republican 93,529 52.4%
1992 Congress, 8th district General Frank McCloskey (Inc.) Democratic 125,244 53.0% Richard Mourdock Republican 108,054 45.7%
1990 Congress, 8th district General Frank McCloskey (Inc.) Democratic 97,465 54.7% Richard Mourdock Republican 80,645 45.3%
1988 Congress, 8th district General Frank McCloskey (Inc.) Democratic 141,355 61.8% John L. Myers Republican 87,321 38.2%
1986 Congress, 8th district General Frank McCloskey (Inc.) Democratic 106,662 53.3% Rick McIntyre Republican 93,586 46.7%
1984 Congress, 8th district General Frank McCloskey (Inc.) Democratic 116,645 50.0% Rick McIntyre Republican 116,641 50.0%
1982 Congress, 8th district General Frank McCloskey Democratic 100,592 51.7% H. Joel Deckard (Inc.) Republican 94,127 48.3%

Efforts to bring peace to the Balkans

While on a fact-finding mission to Croatia during the Croatian War of Independence, McCloskey was one of the first outsiders to arrive in the Croatian village of Voćin within hours after the Voćin massacre in 1991. After witnessing the atrocities in Voćin (McCloskey was the first to use the word genocide to describe the activities in the disintegrating Yugoslavia), McCloskey made the issue of bringing peace to the Balkans his primary issue, even though his stance on the war in the Balkans put him at odds with members of his own party, including the Clinton White House.

On a Sunday morning in December 1991, McCloskey got into a car and drove to Voćin and surrounding villages, where Vojislav Seselj's withdrawing Chetniks had murdered 53 people, most of them elderly men and women.[5] McCloskey had a close look at every mangled body. Some of them had been shot in the head, others had been burned to death, and at least one had been dismembered with a chainsaw. The next morning McCloskey held a press conference at the Hotel Intercontinental in Zagreb. There were only a small number of American reporters, and about the only coverage of note was in USA Today. Mark Dalmish, the CNN reporter in Zagreb refused to attend McCloskey’s press conference because he didn’t want to give the Congressman a "soapbox".[6] But the story was big in Europe, especially in Germany. During the press conference McCloskey called the massacre at Voćin, and all the others that had happened in Croatia, genocide. He was the first to put it in that context and like a lot of other things McCloskey said and did, the reference to genocide caused considerable consternation at the State Department. In fact, State did not decide to call these murders genocide until much later, after the deaths of a quarter million people in three countries.

It was after Voćin that McCloskey became an outspoken critic of the Serbian campaign and of his colleagues in Washington who continued to insist the conflict in Croatia was only a "civil war", and something in which the U.S. had no business interfering. McCloskey went immediately to Belgrade and accused Slobodan Milosevic of war crimes to his face. After that he went back to Washington, contacting State Department officials at the highest levels to which he had access. He gave Deputy Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger a complete briefing, and wondered why nothing was done. When the same Serbian units that conducted the massacres in Croatia began to spread their grim work around Bosnia-Herzegovina, McCloskey went to have a look for himself.

In 1992, after returning from his first trip to Mostar in Bosnia as a guest of the Croatian American Association, McCloskey held a press conference at the Foreign Press Bureau at Hotel Split. In the presence of a State Department representative, a U.S. Marine Corps officer, and members of the international press corps, McCloskey called for U.S. led NATO air strikes against Serbian positions in Bosnia-Herzegovina as a way of ending the war.

When it became clear to him that support would not be forthcoming from either his party or administration leaders, McCloskey broke with the mainstream Democratic party and made history by looking Warren Christopher in the eye during a hearing on the Balkans and demanding the Secretary of State's resignation for his conduct of policy toward Bosnia-Herzegovina.

In December 1993, at the request of Gojko Susak, then Croatian Minister of Defense, McCloskey went to Geneva and helped broker an uneasy peace between Croats and Muslims fighting each other in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Once again, McCloskey was the first, but this time the State Department followed his lead and the peace became permanent. Sadly, when the Washington Agreement was actually signed between Croats and Muslims in 1994, McCloskey was not invited. Undaunted, he elbowed his way into the Old Executive Office Building to witness the ceremony, and said afterwards President Clinton had grudgingly acknowledged his presence.

Part of the reason for his distance from his fellow Democrat may have had to do with the fact that McCloskey had handed President Clinton his very first foreign policy defeat. But that particular battle was the beginning of a movement in Congress that transformed the British-backed Clinton policy toward the Balkans. By continually drawing attention to "ethnic cleansing" in the villages and towns of ex-Yugoslavia, McCloskey managed to gain the support of a majority of Democrats who, on every issue but this one, remained loyal to the administration's position on non-intervention.

McCloskey brokered a broad coalition of Democrats and Republicans who had listened to his daily calls from the floor of the U.S. House of representatives to stop the genocide. They backed legislation called the McCloskey–Gilman amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 (HR 4301, 104th Congress), which was intended to lift the arms embargo first against Bosnia and then Croatia. Despite tough opposition, the McCloskey–Gilman amendment passed the House of Representatives 244–178 on June 9, 1994. In the U.S. Senate, a similar bill was sponsored by Bob Dole and Joe Lieberman. It was defeated by a 50–50 vote on July 1, 1994 (Senate Amendment 1851 to S. 2182, 104th Congress). In 1995, after McCloskey was out of Congress, both houses of the 105th Congress passed a bill to lift the U.S. arms embargo on Bosnia by veto-proof, two-thirds majorities. President Clinton did veto the legislation in August 1995 while Congress was out of session. By the time Congress had returned, Clinton had launched a diplomatic initiative that would result in the Dayton Peace Accords.

During his tenure in Congress, McCloskey made many trips to Bosnia, and spent his post-congressional years working to bring peace and stability to Bosnia and the Balkans. Samantha Power recounted these efforts in her 2002 book, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide.[7]

Life after Congress

Following his 1994 defeat, McCloskey was elected chair of the Monroe County Democratic Party. In addition to his work on achieving peace in the Balkans, he was named director of Kosovo programs for the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs in 2002.

McCloskey Fellowship

Indiana University's Russian and East European Institute and the NDI announced an endowment at Indiana University in McCloskey's honor in 2005.[8] The McCloskey Fellowship brings one scholar every year from the Balkans to Indiana University and Washington, D.C., to conduct academic research, or is awarded to one Indiana University student whose work focuses on the Balkans or residents of the Balkan region.[9]

Death

Rep. McCloskey died in Bloomington on November 2, 2003, following a year-long battle with bladder cancer. As a veteran of the United States Air Force (1957 to 1961), McCloskey's cremated remains were interred at Arlington National Cemetery. Rep. McCloskey and his wife, Roberta, were married for over 41 years and had two children — Helen and Mark. The Woodbridge Station United States Post Office in Bloomington is now named after Rep. McCloskey, who served on the Post Office and Civil Service Committee in the House.[10] A part of Indiana Highway 45 from Bloomington heading west is also named for McCloskey. In Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herzegovina, one of the new bridges over river Miljacka is named as "The bridge of congressman McCloskey" in honor of his deeds and help to the country during the wars in Balkans. McCloskey's widow Roberta died from cancer on February 2, 2005, at the age of 61 in Bloomington.[11] In his honor, representatives in Bosnia named a bridge in downtown after McCloskey.

References

  1. ^ "Past IACT Presidents 1962-2010". Indiana Association of Cities and Towns. November 5, 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-09-11.
  2. ^ David S. Broder; Lee Kennedy (May 3, 1984). "Fellow 'New Generation' Officeholders Give Hart Chilly Reception". The Washington Post.
  3. ^ a b Charlie Cook (June 11, 2005). "Close Races Spotlight An Ugly, Broken Mess". The Cook Political Report. Archived from the original on July 3, 2008.
  4. ^ "House Refuses to Seat Republican of Indiana". The New York Times. Associate Press. February 8, 1985. p. A32. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  5. ^ "International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia | United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia". Un.org. 2017-12-21. Retrieved 2018-12-03.
  6. ^ "Chapter 4: What Happened in Vocin". Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  7. ^ "Samantha Power Interview (A Problem From Hell)". Identity Theory. June 1, 2002. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  8. ^ "McCloskeys' legacy to continue through research fund being established at IU". Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  9. ^ Information for Donors, Indiana University Russian and East European Institute Archived 2010-02-06 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "Public Law 108-151, 108th Congress" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  11. ^ "Friends remember Roberta McCloskey". The Herald Times. Bloomington, Indiana. February 4, 2005. Retrieved December 3, 2018 – via Indiana University News Room.

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
H. Joel Deckard
United States Representative for the 8th District of Indiana
1983–1995
Succeeded by
John Hostettler
Preceded by
John H. "Jack" Hooker, Jr.
Mayor of Bloomington, Indiana
1972–1983
Succeeded by
Tomilea Allison

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov.

1994 United States House of Representatives elections

The 1994 United States House of Representatives election (also known as the Republican Revolution) was held on November 8, 1994, in the middle of President Bill Clinton's first term. As a result of a 54-seat swing in membership from Democrats to Republicans, the Republican Party gained a majority of seats in the United States House of Representatives for the first time since 1952 and a majority of votes for the first time since 1946. It was also the largest seat gain for the Republican Party since 1946, and the largest for either party since 1948.

The Democrats had run the House since 1954, and since 1932 there had only been 4 years when the House was under Republican control. But in 1994 the Republican Party ran against President Clinton's proposed healthcare reform, benefited from impressions of corruption created by the Whitewater investigation, and picked up a majority of voters who had voted for Ross Perot in 1992. The Republicans argued that Clinton had abandoned the centrist New Democrat platform he campaigned on during the 1992 Presidential election and reverted to big government solutions. The GOP ran on Newt Gingrich's Contract with America.

The incumbent Speaker, Democrat Tom Foley, lost re-election in his district, becoming the first Speaker of the House to lose re-election since Galusha Grow in 1862. Other major upsets included the defeat of powerful long-serving Representatives such as Democratic Ways and Means Chairman Dan Rostenkowski and Democratic Judiciary Chairman Jack Brooks. In all, 34 incumbents (all Democrats) were defeated. Republicans also won the seats of retiring Democrats. Democrats won four Republican-held seats where the incumbents were stepping down. No Republican incumbent lost his or her seat in these elections.

The incumbent Republican Minority whip, Newt Gingrich, was re-elected in the Republican landslide and became Speaker as the incumbent Republican Minority Leader, Robert H. Michel, retired. The incumbent Democratic Majority Leader, Dick Gephardt, became Minority Leader. The new House leadership, under the Republicans, promised to bring a dozen legislative proposals to a vote in the first 100 days of the session, although the Senate did not always follow suit. A significant realigning election, the South underwent a drastic transformation. Before the election, House Democrats outnumbered House Republicans in the South. Afterwards, with the Republicans having picked up a total of 19 Southern seats, they were able to outnumber Democrats in the South for the first time since Reconstruction. The Republicans would go on to remain the majority party of the House for the following 12 years, until the 2006 elections.

98th United States Congress

The Ninety-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 1983, to January 3, 1985, during the third and fourth years of Ronald Reagan's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the 1980 U.S. Census. The Republicans controlled the Senate, while the Democrats controlled the House of Representatives.

99th United States Congress

The Ninety-ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 1985, to January 3, 1987, during the fifth and sixth years of Ronald Reagan's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twentieth Census of the United States in 1980. The Republicans maintained control of the Senate, while the Democrats maintained control of the House of Representatives. This was the most recent session of Congress prior to the 116th United States Congress in which Democrats controlled the United States House of Representatives and Republicans controlled the presidency and the United States Senate.

Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe

The Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), also known as the U.S. Helsinki Commission, is an independent U.S. government agency created by Congress in 1975 to monitor and encourage compliance with the Helsinki Final Act and other Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) commitments. It was initiated by House representative Millicent Fenwick and established in 1975 pursuant to Public Law No. 94-304 and is based at the Ford House Office Building.

The Commission consists of nine members from the U.S. House of Representatives, nine members from the United States Senate, and one member each from the Departments of State, Defense, and Commerce. The positions of Chairman and Co-Chairman are shared by the House and Senate and rotate every two years, when a new Congress convenes. A professional staff assists the Commissioners in their work.

The Commission contributes to the formulation of U.S. policy toward the OSCE and the participating states and takes part in its execution, including through Member and staff participation on official U.S. delegations to OSCE meetings and in certain OSCE bodies. Members of the Commission have regular contact with parliamentarians, government officials, NGOs, and private individuals from other OSCE participating states.

The Commission convenes public hearings and briefings with expert witnesses on OSCE-related issues; issues public reports concerning implementation of OSCE commitments in participating States; publishes a periodic Digest with up-to-date information on OSCE developments and Commission activities; and organizes official delegations to participating States and OSCE meetings to address and assess democratic, economic, and human rights developments firsthand.

In February 2018, the CSCE convened in Washington, DC to address the issue of Russian doping in international sport. Central to the discussion was an exploration of the need to protect whistle-blowers. The meeting included testimony from Jim Walden, attorney for Dr. Grigory Rodchenkov, the former head of Russia's anti-doping laboratory.

Deaths in November 2003

The following is a list of notable deaths in November 2003.

Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:

Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent country of citizenship (if applicable), reason for notability, cause of death (if known), and reference.

Dungiven GAC

St Canice's GAC Dungiven (Irish: Cumann Chainnigh Naofa Dún Geimhin) is a Gaelic Athletic Association club based in Dungiven, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It is part of Derry GAA. It currently caters for Gaelic football and Ladies' Gaelic football. The hurling club in the town is Kevin Lynch's.

The club's biggest success was when they won the 1997 Ulster Senior Club Football Championship. They have also won the Derry Senior Football Championship on seven occasions, and the Derry GAA Senior Hurling Championship nine times.

Dungiven GAC was a combined football and hurling club until 1981. Following the death of Kevin Lynch (an Irish National Liberation Army volunteer from Dungiven) on hunger strike the hurling team changed its name as a mark of respect and became a separate club.

H. Joel Deckard

Huey Joel Deckard (March 7, 1942 – September 6, 2016) was a U.S. Representative from Indiana.

Born in Vandalia, Illinois, Deckard attended public schools in Mount Vernon, Indiana. He attended the University of Evansville from 1962 to 1967, and served in the Indiana National Guard from 1966 to 1972. Deckard was affiliated with broadcasting stations in southern Illinois and Indiana from 1959 to 1972. He was a cable television executive and legislative liaison for the Illinois-Indiana TV Association from 1974 to 1977. Deckard also formed a corporation involved in design and construction of energy-efficient and solar-heated homes and offices. He served as member of the Indiana House of Representatives from 1966 to 1974.

Deckard was elected as a Republican to the Ninety-sixth and to the Ninety-seventh Congresses (January 3, 1979 – January 3, 1983). He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1982 to the Ninety-eighth Congress, losing to then-Bloomington mayor Frank McCloskey. Initially favored for reelection to a third term, Deckard was involved in an automobile accident three weeks before the election. He refused to take a blood test and was charged with driving under the influence. McCloskey sought to tie Deckard to President Ronald Reagan at a time of high unemployment in the district. When McCloskey defeated Deckard, Deckard became the sixth incumbent from 1966 to 1982 to lose reelection in the district known as the "Bloody Eighth."

Deckard ultimately moved to Florida, where he became a computer technical specialist for Citibank in Tallahassee. A supporter of Pat Buchanan, he was the Reform Party's nominee for U.S. Senator in 2000. Deckard's 17,338 votes, only 0.30% of the total votes cast, became the subject of statistical analysis by critics of the butterfly ballot in Palm Beach county. He died of an apparent heart attack on September 6, 2016 at a hospital in McKinney, Texas. He lived in Little Elm, Texas in his retirement.

Indiana's 8th congressional district

Indiana's 8th congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Indiana. Based in Southwest and west central Indiana, the district is anchored in Evansville and also includes Jasper, Princeton, Terre Haute, Vincennes and Washington.

Commonly referred to as "The Bloody Eighth" at the local (and sometimes national) levels (See below for explanation), it was formerly a notorious swing district. However, due to a political realignment similar to contemporary realignment happening in the Deep South and Appalachia, it has in recent elections become a safe Republican district.

Indiana University Maurer School of Law

The Indiana University Maurer School of Law is located on the campus of Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana. IU Maurer is one of the top 15 public law schools in the United States, and tied for 30th overall, according to rankings published by U.S. News and World Report.

The school is named after Michael S. "Mickey" Maurer, an Indianapolis businessman and 1967 alumnus who donated $35 million in 2008. From its founding in 1842 until Maurer's donation, the school was known as the Indiana University School of Law – Bloomington.The law school is one of two law schools operated by Indiana University, the other being the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law (IU McKinney) in Indianapolis. Although both law schools are part of Indiana University, each law school is wholly independent of the other.

According to the law school's ABA-required disclosures, 78.8% of the Class of 2015 had obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment 10 months after graduation.

John Hostettler

John Nathan Hostettler (born June 19, 1961), served in the U.S. House of Representatives from January 3, 1995 to January 3, 2007, representing the 8th District of Indiana (map). He lost his reelection bid for a seventh term to Democratic challenger Brad Ellsworth in the 2006 midterm election, ending a twelve-year Congressional career.

He was a Republican candidate for the open U.S. Senate seat in the state of Indiana held by retiring Senator Evan Bayh. On December 3, 2009, Hostettler announced his candidacy for the U.S. Senate, but lost the primary to former Senator Dan Coats.

June 12

June 12 is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 202 days remaining until the end of the year.

List of Indiana University (Bloomington) people

This is a list of notable current and former faculty members, alumni, and non-graduating attendees of Indiana University Bloomington in Bloomington, Indiana.

McCloskey

McCloskey is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

McCloskey (baseball), a 19th-century baseball player

C. John McCloskey, Catholic priest and member of Opus Dei

Country McCloskey (fl. 1841–1850), American bare-knuckle boxer

Deirdre McCloskey (born 1942), American economist

Delamere Francis McCloskey (1897–1983), Canadian-born Los Angeles City Councilman

Frank McCloskey (1939–2003), Indiana politician

Gloria McCloskey (born 1935), All-American Girls Professional Baseball League player

Helen McCloskey, All-American Girls Professional Baseball League player

Jack McCloskey (1925–2017), American basketball coach

John McCloskey (1810–1885), Catholic archbishop

Leigh McCloskey (born 1955), American actor

Matthew McCloskey (1893–1973), Democratic Party fundraiser and US Ambassador to Ireland, father of Thomas McCloskey

Paul McCloskey (born 1979), Irish boxer

Pete McCloskey (born 1927), California politician

Robert McCloskey (1914–2003), American author and illustrator

Robert J. McCloskey (1922–1996), American statesman and ambassador

Thomas McCloskey (1924–2004), Philadelphia construction magnate, son of Matthew McCloskey

William George McCloskey (1823–1909), American Catholic Bishop

November 2

November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 59 days remaining until the end of the year.

Republican Revolution

The Republican Revolution, Revolution of '94 or Gingrich Revolution refers to the Republican Party (GOP) success in the 1994 U.S. midterm elections, which resulted in a net gain of 54 seats in the House of Representatives, and a pickup of eight seats in the Senate. The day after the election, conservative Democrat Senator Richard Shelby of Alabama changed parties, becoming a Republican; on March 3, 1995, Colorado senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell switched to the Republican side as well, increasing the GOP senate majority and angering the Democrats.

Rather than campaigning independently in each district, Republican candidates chose to rally behind a single national program and message fronted by Georgia congressman Newt Gingrich. They alleged President Bill Clinton was not the New Democrat he claimed he was during his 1992 campaign but was a "tax and spend" liberal. The Republicans offered an alternative to Clinton's policies in the form of the Contract with America.The gains in seats in the mid-term election resulted in the Republicans gaining control of both the House and the Senate in January 1995. Republicans had not held the majority in the House for forty years, since the 83rd Congress (elected in 1952). Republicans only controlled 4 years of both House and Senate from 1933 to 1995.

Large Republican gains were made in state houses as well when the GOP picked up twelve gubernatorial seats and 472 legislative seats. In so doing, it took control of 20 state legislatures from the Democrats. Prior to this, Republicans had not held the majority of governorships since 1972. In addition, this was the first time in 50 years that the GOP controlled a majority of state legislatures.

Discontent against the Democrats was foreshadowed by a string of elections after 1992, including the capture of the mayoralties of New York and Los Angeles by the Republicans in 1993. In that same year, Christine Todd Whitman captured the New Jersey governorship from the Democrats and Bret Schundler became the first Republican mayor of Jersey City, New Jersey that had been held by the Democratic Party since 1917.

Republican George Allen won the 1993 Virginia Governor election while Texas Republican Kay Bailey Hutchison took a U.S. Senate seat from the Democrats in the 1993 special election. Republicans Frank Lucas and Ron Lewis also picked up two congressional seats from Democrats in Oklahoma and Kentucky in May 1994.

Richard Mourdock

Richard Earl Mourdock (born October 8, 1951) was the 53rd treasurer of the state of Indiana, serving from February 10, 2007, to August 29, 2014. Running with the support of the Tea Party movement, he defeated six-term incumbent U.S. Senator Richard Lugar in the May 2012 Republican primary election. He lost the November 6, 2012, general election for Lugar's seat to Democratic Congressman Joe Donnelly.

Rick McIntyre

Richard D. McIntyre, Sr. (October 5, 1956 – October 30, 2007) was a lawyer and public official from Indiana.

He was born in 1956 and his original ambition was to become a Navy Pilot. He enrolled in Naval air training in Pensacola, but was forced to quit after a knee injury. He then entered law school in Bloomington, Indiana, and also entered the Indiana National Guard, where he became a military lawyer and rose to the rank of Colonel. He also ran successfully for the state House of Representatives in 1980 and was reelected two years later. In 1984, he ran for the U.S. House of Representatives against freshman Democrat Frank McCloskey. On election night, he appeared to have won a hairbreadth victory and was certified by the Secretary of State as having won by 34 votes. However, the Democratic majority refused to seat him, claiming voting irregularities. An investigation by a House committee ruled that McCloskey won by four votes, which stirred up controversy and caused House Republicans to stage a symbolic walkout. McIntyre was interested in running for Lieutenant Governor in 1986, but was persuaded to seek a rematch with McCloskey. By this time, President Ronald Reagan was less popular than in 1984 and McIntyre was outspent. As a result, McCloskey won by a 53% to 47% margin.

McIntyre lost interest in the national arena and was appointed a Lawrence County Circuit Court Judge in 1988. He was reelected without opposition in 1990, 1996, and 2002, and served until 2007 when he was found dead in his home at the age of 51 of an apparent suicide amid reports of his possible involvement in a military furniture-buying scandal. At the time of his death, McIntyre was a member of the Indiana National Guard, 76th Infantry Brigade Combat team, serving as a judge advocate and preparing for deployment to Iraq.

The Arizonian

The Arizonian is a 1935 American western film directed by Charles Vidor from an original screenplay by Academy Award winner Dudley Nichols. Released by RKO Radio Pictures on June 28, 1935, the film stars Richard Dix, Margot Grahame, Preston Foster, and Louis Calhern.

Voćin massacre

The Voćin massacre was the killing of 43 civilians in Voćin, Croatia, by the Serbian White Eagles paramilitary unit on 13 December 1991, during the Croatian War of Independence. The massacre was carried out after the unit was ordered to abandon the village before the Croatian Army (Hrvatska vojska – HV) recaptured the area in Operation Papuk-91. All the victims were local Croats, save one Serb, who had tried to protect his neighbours. Gunfire was the leading cause of death, though some of the victims were killed with axes or chainsaws, or were burned to death. The victims exhibited signs of torture and were left unburied. On the night of 13–14 December, the White Eagles dynamited a 550-year-old church in the village.

The HV secured Voćin on the night of 14/15 December, the Serb population having left the previous night. Afterwards, Croatian soldiers torched many homes belonging to the Serbs who had once inhabited the village. The area was toured shortly afterwards by then-US Congressman Frank McCloskey, who publicised the killings at a news conference held in Zagreb the next day, calling them genocide. He persuaded Dr. Jerry Blaskovich, an Associate Clinical Professor at the University of Southern California Los Angeles County Hospital Medical Center to take part in the investigation of the killings.

The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) later charged Slobodan Milošević with the killings and Vojislav Šešelj with the deportation of non-Serbs from Voćin. In 2015, the International Court of Justice ruled that the massacre in Voćin was not an example of genocide, and stated that Croatia had failed to prove that the killings had even occurred.

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