Frank Kitson

General Sir Frank Edward Kitson, GBE, KCB, MC & Bar, DL (born 15 December 1926) is a retired British Army officer and writer on military subjects, notably low intensity operations. He rose to be Commander-in-Chief UK Land Forces from 1982 to 1985 and was Aide-de-Camp General to Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom from 1983 to 1985.

Sir Frank Kitson
Birth nameFrank Edward Kitson
Born15 December 1926 (age 92)
Kensington, London, England
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Years of service1946–1985
Service number362061
UnitRifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own)
Royal Green Jackets
Commands held39 Airportable Brigade
2nd Division
2nd Armoured Division
Staff College, Camberley
Land Forces
Battles/warsMau Mau Uprising
Malayan Emergency
The Troubles
AwardsKnight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire
Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath
Military Cross & Bar

Early life and education

Kitson is the son of Maj. Edward Kitson Vice-Admiral Sir Henry Kitson and Marjorie de Pass, daughter of Sir Eliot Arthur de Pass. His uncle Frank de Pass was the first Jewish recipient of the Victoria Cross.[1]

He was educated at Stowe School.[1]

Military career

Kitson joined the army as a second lieutenant on an emergency commission in the Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own).[2] He was appointed to a regular commission as a lieutenant on 10 April 1948 (with seniority from 15 December 1947),[3] and promoted to captain on 15 December 1953.[4] He was awarded the Military Cross (MC) on 1 January 1955 for service in the Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya,[5] and was awarded a Bar to it on 23 May 1958, for service in the Malayan Emergency the previous year. The citation for the bar read:[6]

The War Office, 23rd May, 1958.

The QUEEN has been graciously pleased to approve the following awards in recognition of gallant and distinguished services in Malaya for the period 31st August to 31st December, 1957:—

Bar to the Military Cross.

Captain (temporary Major) Frank Edward Kitson, M.C. (362061), The Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own).

For exceptional skill and leadership as a Company Commander during jungle operations. By his devotion to duty he attained the virtual elimination of two communist party branches in a difficult area.

Kitson was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 1959 Queen's Birthday Honours.[7] He was promoted major on 15 December 1960,[8] brevet lieutenant-colonel on 1 July 1964,[9] and to the substantive rank on 31 December 1966.[10] He was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 1968 New Year Honours.[11] He was promoted colonel on 31 December 1969 (with seniority from 30 June 1969),[12] and brigadier on 30 June 1970.[13]

From September 1970 Kitson commanded 39 Airportable Brigade, which comprised eight (frequently changing) battalions on short four-month tours. A further brigade was usually attached as brigade reserve, but this could be employed elsewhere as required.[14] On 15 February 1972 he was promoted Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) for his operational service in Northern Ireland the previous year.[15] According to Belfast politician Paddy Devlin, Kitson "probably did more than any other individual to sour relations between the Catholic community and the security forces" in Northern Ireland.[16] On 22 January 1976 he became General Officer Commanding 2 Division, with the acting rank of major-general,[17] with substantive promotion following on 5 April 1976 (and seniority from 2 June 1974),[18] and leading its re-designation as an Armoured Division in Germany before stepping down on 28 February 1978.[19] He was then Commandant of the Staff College, Camberley, 5 March 1978 – 18 January 1980.[20][21] He was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) in the 1980 New Year Honours.[22] On 17 March 1980 he was appointed Deputy Commander-in-Chief UK Land Forces and Inspector General Territorial Army, with substantive promotion to lieutenant-general (and seniority backdated to 17 August 1979).[23] He held those appointments until 30 May 1982,[24] and then became Commander-in-Chief, UK Land Forces on 1 July 1982 with local rank of general.[25]

As is traditional for senior officers of the British Army, Kitson held a number of more honorary positions: Colonel Commandant of 2nd Battalion, Royal Green Jackets 1 January 1979 – 1 January 1987;[26][27] Honorary Colonel to the University of Oxford Officer Training Corps 21 July 1982 – 21 July 1987;[28][29] Aide-de-Camp General to the Queen 14 February 1983 – 1985.[30] In 1985 he was promoted to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE). He was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Devon on 19 June 1989.[31]

In retirement he has given evidence to the Saville Inquiry into Bloody Sunday in Northern Ireland.[14]

On 27 April 2015, Kitson and the Ministry of Defence were served with papers for negligence and misfeasance in office by Mary Heenan, widow of Eugene "Paddy" Heenan who was killed in 1973 by members of the Ulster Defence Association, because of "the use of loyalist paramilitary gangs to contain the republican-nationalist threat through terror, manipulation of the rule of law, infiltration and subversion all core to the Kitson military of doctrine endorsed by the British army and the British government at the time."[32][33][34]

Personal life

In 1962, Kitson married Elizabeth Spencer, whose father, Col. Charles Spencer OBE, DL, was Colonel of the 12th Royal Lancers. Lady Kitson was appointed an OBE in the Queen's Birthday Honours List of June 2015, for her work with the Army Families Federation.[35] They have three daughters: Catherine Alice, Rosemary Diana, and Marion Ruth.[1]

Selected bibliography

He is author of the following books:

  • Gangs and Counter-gangs (1960), Barrie and Rockliff
  • Low Intensity Operations: Subversion, Insurgency and Peacekeeping (1971), Faber and Faber – reprint 1991 ISBN 0-571-16181-2
  • Directing Operations (1989), Faber and Faber ISBN 0-571-15244-9
  • Bunch of Five (1977), Faber and Faber, ISBN 978-0-571-27135-1
  • Prince Rupert: Admiral and General-at-sea (1998), Constable and Robinson, ISBN 978-0-09-475500-0
  • Old Ironsides: The Military Biography of Oliver Cromwell (2004), Weidenfeld Military, ISBN 978-0-7538-2185-5

See also

  • False flag operations (similar to pseudo-operations)


  1. ^ a b c Mosley, Charles, ed. (2003). Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knighthood (107 ed.). Burke's Peerage & Gentry. p. 2208. ISBN 0-9711966-2-1.
  2. ^ "No. 37510". The London Gazette (Supplement). 22 March 1946. p. 1527.
  3. ^ "No. 38256". The London Gazette (Supplement). 6 April 1948. p. 2260.
  4. ^ "No. 40046". The London Gazette (Supplement). 18 December 1953. p. 6928.
  5. ^ "No. 40372". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 1954. p. 53.
  6. ^ "No. 41392". The London Gazette (Supplement). 20 May 1958. p. 3238.
  7. ^ "No. 41727". The London Gazette (Supplement). 5 June 1959. p. 3704.
  8. ^ "No. 42219". The London Gazette (Supplement). 13 December 1960. p. 8625.
  9. ^ "No. 43371". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 June 1964. p. 5715.
  10. ^ "No. 44223". The London Gazette (Supplement). 6 January 1967. p. 310.
  11. ^ "No. 44484". The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 December 1967. pp. 6–7.
  12. ^ "No. 45013". The London Gazette (Supplement). 5 January 1970. p. 215.
  13. ^ "No. 45138". The London Gazette (Supplement). 26 June 1970. p. 7186.
  14. ^ a b Bloody Sunday Inquiry website—Statement of General Sir Frank Kitson. Retrieved 28 May 2008
  15. ^ "No. 45598". The London Gazette (Supplement). 15 February 1972. p. 1895.
  16. ^ "History Ireland". History Ireland. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  17. ^ "No. 46807". The London Gazette (Supplement). 26 January 1976. p. 1289.
  18. ^ "No. 46868". The London Gazette (Supplement). 5 September 1976. p. 5053.
  19. ^ "No. 47474". The London Gazette (Supplement). 27 February 1978. p. 2580.
  20. ^ "No. 47480". The London Gazette (Supplement). 6 March 1978. p. 2897.
  21. ^ "No. 48100". The London Gazette (Supplement). 18 February 1980. p. 2631.
  22. ^ "No. 48041". The London Gazette (Supplement). 28 December 1979. p. 2.
  23. ^ "No. 48130". The London Gazette (Supplement). 17 March 1980. p. 4156.
  24. ^ "No. 48995". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 May 1982. p. 7221.
  25. ^ "No. 49055". The London Gazette (Supplement). 19 July 1982. p. 9457.
  26. ^ "No. 47745". The London Gazette (Supplement). 15 January 1979. p. 656.
  27. ^ "No. 50799". The London Gazette (Supplement). 12 January 1987. p. 452.
  28. ^ "No. 49069". The London Gazette (Supplement). 2 August 1982. p. 10133.
  29. ^ "No. 51009". The London Gazette (Supplement). 27 July 1987. p. 9573.
  30. ^ "No. 49265". The London Gazette (Supplement). 14 February 1983. p. 2218.
  31. ^ "No. 51802". The London Gazette. 6 July 1989. p. 7903.
  32. ^ "Ex-army chief General Sir Frank Kitson sued over 1973 killing in Belfast". BBC News. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  33. ^ "Papers served on ex-British army general 42 years after killing". The Irish Times. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  34. ^ Henry McDonald. "Top Army officer 'handed over IRA files to Adair'". the Guardian. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  35. ^ "Queen's Birthday Honours List 2015". Guardian.
Military offices
Preceded by
Desmond Mangham
GOC 2nd Division
(Re-designated as 2nd Armoured Division from 1977)

Succeeded by
Alexander Boswell
Preceded by
John Stanier
Commandant of the Staff College, Camberley
Succeeded by
David Alexander-Sinclair
Preceded by
Sir Peter Hudson
Deputy C-in-C UK Land Forces
Succeeded by
Sir Edward Burgess
Preceded by
Sir John Stanier
C-in-C, UK Land Forces
Succeeded by
Sir James Glover
1900 Brooklyn Superbas season

The 1900 Brooklyn Superbas captured their second consecutive National League championship by four and a half games. The Baltimore Orioles, which had been owned by the same group, folded after the 1899 season when such arrangements were outlawed, and a number of the Orioles' players, including star pitcher Joe McGinnity, were reassigned to the Superbas.

1900 Cincinnati Reds season

The 1900 Cincinnati Reds season was a season in American baseball. The team finished seventh in the National League with a record of 62–77, 21.5 games behind the Brooklyn Superbas.

1901 Brooklyn Superbas season

The 1901 Brooklyn Superbas lost several players to the newly official major league, the American League, and fell to third place.

1902 Brooklyn Superbas season

The 1902 Brooklyn Superbas finished in a distant second place in the National League, 27 and 1/2 games behind the Pittsburgh Pirates.

1903 Detroit Tigers season

1903 was the third year for the Detroit Tigers in the still-new American League. The team finished in fifth place with a record or 65–71 (.478), 25 games behind the Boston Americans. The 1903 Tigers outscored their opponents 567 to 539. The team's attendance at Bennett Park was 224,523, sixth out of the eight teams in the AL.

1904 Detroit Tigers season

1904 was the fourth year for the Detroit Tigers in the American League. The team finished in seventh place with a record of 62–90 (.408), 32 games behind the Boston Americans. They played ten tie games, which is the major-league record. The 1904 Tigers were outscored by their opponents 627 to 505. The team's attendance at Bennett Park was 177,796, seventh out of the eight teams in the AL. In the year before Ty Cobb's arrival, pitcher George Mullin had a higher batting average than any of the team's regulars at .290.

1905 Detroit Tigers season

1905 was the fifth year for the Detroit Tigers in the American League. The team finished in third place with a record of 79–74 (.516), 15½ games behind the Philadelphia Athletics.

1906 Washington Senators season

The 1906 Washington Senators won 55 games, lost 95, and finished in seventh place in the American League. They were managed by Jake Stahl and played home games at National Park.

1907 New York Highlanders season

The 1907 New York Highlanders season, its fifth in New York and its seventh overall, finished with the team in 5th place in the American League with a record of 70–78. Another notable newcomer was New York's recently acquired left fielder Branch Rickey, who would become well known for integrating Jackie Robinson into the major leagues some four decades later.

1907 Washington Senators season

The 1907 Washington Senators won 49 games, lost 102, and finished in eighth place in the American League. They were managed by Joe Cantillon and played home games at National Park.

39th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

The 39th Infantry Brigade was a military formation of the British Army that was first established during the First World War and reformed in the 1950s.

Baltimore Orioles (19th century) all-time roster

The following is a list of players and who appeared in at least one game for the Baltimore Orioles franchise of Major League Baseball, which played in the American Association from 1882 until 1891 and in the National League from 1892 until 1899. Players in bold are in the Baseball Hall of Fame.

Chronicle-Telegraph Cup

The Chronicle-Telegraph Cup was the trophy awarded to the winner of a postseason competition in American professional baseball in 1900. The series, played only once, was a precursor to the current World Series.

The Pittsburgh Pirates finished in second place, 4.5 games behind the Brooklyn Superbas, in the 1900 National League season (the only Major League in American baseball at the time). Fans of the Pittsburgh club felt their club was every bit the equal of the Brooklyn nine. While Brooklyn led the league in offense, Pirates fans claimed their team, which led the NL in strikeouts and ERA, boasted the pitching to best Brooklyn. A local newspaper, the Pittsburgh Chronicle Telegraph, offered to award a silver cup to the winner of a best-of-five series between the two teams.

Despite the series being held in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, which was annexed into Pittsburgh in 1907, the Superbas prevailed, 3–1. The teams were evenly matched in most statistical categories — both totaled 15 runs apiece, batted about .230 and had comparable numbers of extra-base hits (neither team hit any home runs) and walks. Both teams' ERAs were below 1.30.

However, Pittsburgh committed 14 errors to Brooklyn's 4, letting the Superbas win by comfortable margins. Three unearned runs in the top of the sixth inning of Game 2 allowed the Superbas to break a 1–1 tie, and Pirates pitcher Sam Leever's crucial fourth-inning error in Game 4 broke the game open for Brooklyn. A 10–0 blowout behind Deacon Phillippe's six-hitter in Game 3 gave the Pirates their only win in the series.

Pirates' outfielder Honus Wagner led his team in batting average (.400), hits (6), doubles (1), RBIs (3) and stolen bases (2). Brooklyn's Wee Willie Keeler also cranked out 6 hits to lead his club, posting a .353 average. The Superbas' Fielder Jones had 4 RBIs.

The Pirates won the next three National League pennants and played in the inaugural World Series in 1903. The Brooklyn baseball club did not win another postseason series until 1955, their first World Series championship.

Eliot de Pass

Sir Eliot Arthur de Pass (16 March 1851 – 11 July 1937) was an English merchant in the West Indies. He was the founder of EA de Pass & Co., which specialised in trading sugar and coffee from Jamaica.

Frank Kitson (baseball)

Frank R. Kitson (September 11, 1869 – April 14, 1930) was an American baseball pitcher.

A native of Michigan, Kitson played 10 seasons in Major League Baseball with the Baltimore Orioles (1898–1899), Brooklyn Superbas (1900–1902), Detroit Tigers (1903–1905), Washington Senators (1906–1907), and New York Highlanders (1907).

Kitson helped lead the 1900 Brooklyn Superbas to the National League pennant. He had 22 wins in 1899 and won at least 15 games five consecutive years from 1899 to 1903. He compiled a career record of 128–117 with a 3.18 earned run average (ERA) and 729 strikeouts. He appeared in 304 games and threw complete games in 211.

Frank de Pass

Frank Alexander de Pass VC (26 April 1887 – 25 November 1914) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross (VC), the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was the first person of the Jewish faith to receive the VC, and was the first officer of the Indian Army to receive the VC.

De Pass was born in Kensington to London merchant Sir Eliot de Pass and Beatrice de Mercado. The family's original surname, Shalom, was translated to the Spanish word for peace and became Paz before being anglicised to Pass when the family first settled in England in the 1660s.He attended Rugby School. By the age of 27, he had attained the rank of Lieutenant in the 34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse.

On 24 November 1914, de Pass entered a German sap near Festubert, France and destroyed a traverse in the face of the enemy's bombs. He also rescued, under heavy fire, a wounded man who was lying exposed to enemy bullets in the open. The next day, de Pass was killed in a second attempt to capture the sap, which the enemy had re-occupied. He was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross on 18 February 1915. His Victoria Cross is displayed at the National Army Museum in Chelsea, London.His sister, Marjorie, married Sir Henry Kitson and had two sons, including Sir Frank Kitson.In 2014, on the centennial of his death, de Pass was honoured with a memorial paving stone laid outside the Ministry of Defence in Whitehall, London. The ceremony was attended by his nephew, Col. Jonny Kitson, and Sgt. Johnson Beharry VC, the first living recipient of the Victoria Cross in more than three decades.

Grey Court School

Grey Court School is a mixed-sex high school academy in Ham, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. In September 2014, a new sixth form centre opened for Grey Court's founding sixth form students.The school occupies a large acreage in Ham, with playing fields and tennis courts. The school's current head teacher is Maggie Bailey.

List of Baltimore Orioles (19th century) Opening Day starting pitchers

The Baltimore Orioles were a Major League Baseball team that was based in Baltimore, Maryland and played from 1882 through 1899. They played in the American Association from 1882 through 1891 and in the National League from 1892 through 1899. The Orioles used 10 Opening Day starting pitchers in their 18 years as a Major League Baseball franchise. The first game of the new baseball season for a team is played on Opening Day, and being named the Opening Day starter is an honor, which is often given to the player who is expected to lead the pitching staff that season, though there are various strategic reasons why a team's best pitcher might not start on Opening Day. The Orioles had a record of 10 wins and 8 losses in their Opening Day games.

The first game in Orioles' history was played on May 2, 1882 against the Philadelphia Athletics at Oakdale Park in Philadelphia. Tricky Nichols was the Orioles' Opening Day starting pitcher for that game, which the Orioles lost by a score of 10–7. The team's first game as a member of the National League was played on April 12, 1892 against the Brooklyn Bridegrooms at Union Park in Baltimore. Sadie McMahon was the Orioles' Opening Day starting pitcher in a game the Orioles lost be a score of 13–3. The last Opening Day game in Orioles' history was played on April 15, 1899 against the New York Giants at Union Park. Frank Kitson was the Orioles' Opening Day starting pitcher and the Orioles won by a score of 5–3.Three pitchers made multiple Opening Day starts for the Orioles. McMahon made the most Opening Day starts for the team, five, including four consecutive Opening Day starts from 1891 through 1894. Matt Kilroy was the Orioles' Opening Day starting pitcher four times, every year from 1886 to 1889. Hardie Henderson made two Opening Day starts for the Orioles, in 1884 and 1885.The Orioles won the National League championship three times, in 1894, 1895 and 1896. McMahon was the Orioles' Opening Day starting pitcher in two of those championship seasons, in 1894 and 1896. Duke Esper was the Orioles' Opening Day starting pitcher in 1895.

Thiepval Barracks

Thiepval Barracks in Lisburn, County Antrim, is the headquarters of the British Army in Northern Ireland and its 38th (Irish) Brigade.


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