Frank Crawford

Frank Crawford (March 12, 1870 – November 25, 1963) was a college football coach, lawyer, and law professor. He attended Yale University and served as the first head football coach at the University of Michigan in 1891. He also coached at the University of Wisconsin (1892), Baker University (1892), the University of Nebraska (1893–1894), and the University of Texas (1895). He later had a long career as a lawyer in Nebraska and France. He was a professor of law at Creighton College of Law from 1906 to 1913.

Frank Crawford
Frank Crawford
Biographical details
BornMarch 12, 1870
Colebrook, New Hampshire
DiedNovember 25, 1963 (aged 93)
Portland, Maine
Coaching career (HC unless noted)
1896Nebraska Wesleyan
Head coaching record
Accomplishments and honors
1 WIUFA (1894)

Early years

Crawford was born in 1870 at Colebrook, New Hampshire.[1] He was the son of Francis B. Crawford, a starch manufacturer and state legislator, and Susan J. (Randall) Crawford.[2][3][4] He attended preparatory school at St. Johnsbury Academy in St. Johnsbury, Vermont.[1] He enrolled at Yale University, receiving his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1891. Sources are at odds over whether or not Crawford played football for the Yale Bulldogs football team. According to the University of Nebraska web site, Crawford was "a member of the dominant Yale teams of the mid-1880s."[5] The Michigan Daily also reported that Crawford played football at Yale "for several years."[6] However, the University of Michigan web site notes that "Yale archivists found no evidence that he played varsity football" and concludes that Crawford "may have played some football while a Bulldog, but definitely did not win a varsity letter."[6]

Coaching career


After graduating from Yale, Crawford enrolled at the University of Michigan School of Law, receiving his law degree in 1893. As a first-year law student, Crawford was both the unpaid coach and a substitute player for the 1891 Michigan Wolverines football team.[7][8] He helped lead the team to a 4–5 record. He has been identified by several sources as the first football coach in University of Michigan history.[9][10] Other sources indicate that Crawford and Mike Murphy were the joint head coaches of the 1891 Michigan football team.[6] Others state that Murphy relinquished the coaching duties to Crawford midway through the season to allow him to focus on his duties as trainer.[5] The Chicago Daily Tribune reported in November 1891 that the Michigan team was "coached systematically" by Murphy, Crawford, Horace Greely Prettyman and James Duffy.[11]

While attending Michigan, Crawford also played for the Michigan Wolverines baseball team in 1892 and 1893. He led the team with a .976 fielding average in 1892.[12] Crawford appeared in 17 games at catcher and left field for the Wolverines in 1892 and was among the team's leaders in runs (tied for 2nd with 20), stolen bases (tied for 2nd with 13) and putouts (2nd with 115).[13] He was also selected as the captain of the 1893 baseball team.[12][14]

In his history of the University of Michigan, Wilfred Byron Shaw cites Crawford's hiring as a watershed moment in the history of the school's football program: "A new era in the history of football at Michigan began in 1891, when with a fair schedule and an experienced coach, Frank Crawford (Yale, '91), '93l, the systematic development of a team began ..."[15] Although football had been played at Michigan without a coaching staff since 1879, the Associated Press noted at the time of Crawford's death that Crawford "is credited with introducing football at the University of Michigan in 1891."[16]


In 1892, he coached at University of Wisconsin and compiled a 4–3 record.[17][18]


In November 1892, Crawford served as "a paid coach-captain player" for the football team at Baker University at Baldwin, Kansas.[19] Crawford reportedly "brought many innovations," including the training table, to Baker's football program.[19] He led Baker to the Kansas state championship and a 2–1 record in "the triangular league," including victories over Washburn (44–0) and Kansas (18–0). In December 1892, the Leavenworth Times reported that Crawford had "succeeded in instilling sufficient foot ball lore into the western farmers to accomplish the defeat of the University of Kansas team by the Baker eleven last week."[20] In May 1893, The Baker Beacon reported: "The Baker team was ably coached and captained by Frank Crawford who had learned the game at Yale and by the close of the season the team ... was in excellent condition."[21]


In 1893, Crawford was hired as the head football coach at the University of Nebraska. He was the school's first paid head football coach with a salary of approximately $500. He was Nebraska's head football coach during the 1893 and 1894 seasons and compiled a 9–4–1 record. After starting the 1893 season with a 2–2–1 record, Crawford's team defeated Iowa, 20–18, in a match played in near-blizzard conditions and considered the "first major victory" in Nebraska history. Crawford reportedly also played right halfback and kicked the field goals for Nebraska during the 1893 Iowa game; he was identified in the record book as "Frank." In 1894, Crawford's team defeated Iowa, 36–0. The 1895 team finished the season with five consecutive victories for a 7–2 record and the school's first ever conference championship. During Crawford's tenure at Nebraska, George Flippin played for Crawford and became the first African-American athlete in Nebraska history.[5] However, in 1893, Flippin was voted team captain by the team, but this decision was vetoed by Crawford, stating: "It takes a man with brains to be a captain; all there is to Flippin is brute force." Flippin went on to be a well-respected physician in Polk County, Nebraska and the first African-American inducted into the Nebraska Football Hall of Fame.[22][23]


In 1894, the University of Texas football team suffered its first loss in school history, a 28–0 home loss to Missouri. The previous head coach was fired, and a lengthy search was conducted for a replacement. In October 1895, Texas hired Crawford. At Texas, he was known as "Little" Crawford and reportedly "taught the Yale system of play and stressed conditioning."[24] Crawford led the 1895 Longhorns to a perfect 5–0 record, as the team outscored its opponents by a combined 96–0 margin. After a Thanksgiving Day victory over San Antonio by a score of 38–0, Crawford reportedly left for Mexico to watch bullfights and then returned to his home in Nebraska.[24] The 1895 season was Crawford's last as a football coach.

Legal and teaching career

Frank Crawford (1909)
Crawford as law professor at Creighton, 1909.

In 1893, Crawford opened a law practice with Albert Jefferis in Omaha, Nebraska.[6] Jefferis was a classmate and teammate with Crawford on the baseball and football teams at the University of Michigan and later served in the United States House of Representatives. In 1901, Crawford formed a law partnership in Omaha under the name Crawford & Clarke with Henry Teft Clarke, Jr., a former Major League Baseball pitcher.[25]

Crawford joined the faculty of Creighton University School of Law in 1906 where he remained until 1913.[26][27] He taught classes in evidence and public service companies.[1]

From the end of World War I until the outbreak of World War II, Crawford practiced law in France, first in Paris and later in Nice.[6]

Family and death

Crawford was married to Hannah Louise McNair, a descendant of four colonial governors. Crawford and his wife moved to France in the mid-1920s and to New York City in the early 1940s. His wife died in September 1943 at the French Hospital in New York City.[28][29] In November 1963, Crawford died at a hospital in Portland, Maine at age 93.[30][31]

Head coaching record

Year Team Overall Conference Standing Bowl/playoffs
Michigan Wolverines (Independent) (1891)
1891 Michigan 4–5
Michigan: 4–5
Wisconsin Badgers (Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the Northwest) (1892)
1892 Wisconsin 4–3 2–2 2nd
Wisconsin: 4–3 2–2
Nebraska Bugeaters (Western Interstate University Football Association) (1893–1894)
1893 Nebraska 3–2–1 1–2 3rd
1894 Nebraska 6–2 2–1 1st
Nebraska: 9–4–1 3–3
Texas Longhorns (Independent) (1895)
1895 Texas 5–0
Texas: 5–0
Nebraska Wesleyan (Independent) (1896)
1896 Nebraska Wesleyan 3–2
Nebraska Wesleyan: 3–2
Total: 25–14–1
      National championship         Conference title         Conference division title or championship game berth


  1. ^ a b c The Creighton Brief. The Students of Creighton College of Law. April 10, 1909. p. 19.
  2. ^ 1880 United States Census; Census Place: Colebrook, Coos, New Hampshire; Roll: 762; Family History Film: 1254762; Page: 31A; Enumeration District: 31; Image: 0063.
  3. ^ United States Passport Applications by Frank Crawford dated December 22, 1919 and December 14, 1921 identifies his father as Francis B. Crawford and his date of birth as March 12, 1870 in Colebrook, New Hampshire.
  4. ^ Genealogical and Family History of the State of New Hampshire, vol. 2. Lewis Publishing Co. 1908. p. 930.
  5. ^ a b c "Frank Crawford Bio".
  6. ^ a b c d e "University of Michigan Football Coaches: Mike Murphy and Frank Crawford". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library.
  7. ^ "1891 Football Team". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library.
  8. ^ "1891 Michigan Football Roster". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library. Archived from the original on July 3, 2011.
  9. ^ "Forum". The Michigan Alumnus, Volume 60. 1954. p. 258.("He [Crawford] was the first football coach in University of Michigan history and he was unpaid.")
  10. ^ "Alumni Meeting in Omaha". The Michigan Alumnus, Volume 15. December 1908. p. 116.("Frank Crawford first coach of a Michigan football team and captain of the baseball team")
  11. ^ "The Players From Ann Arbor: A New but Strong Team Which Will Play a Clean Game". Chicago Daily Tribune. November 14, 1891.
  12. ^ a b The Michigan Book. The Inland Press. 1898. pp. 154–155.
  13. ^ The Palladium, Vol XXXV. 1893. p. 180.
  14. ^ "Michigan Baseball Captains". June 5, 2009.
  15. ^ Wilfred Byron Shaw (1920). The University of Michigan. Harcourt, Brace, and Howe. p. 250.
  16. ^ "Founder of Football At Michigan U. Dies". Del-Rio News Herald (AP story). November 26, 1963.
  17. ^ "Frank Crawford". Football. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012.
  18. ^ "1892 Wisconsin Football". College Football Data Warehouse.
  19. ^ a b Hal D. Sears (Winter 1992). "The Moral Threat of Intercollegiate Sports: An 1893 Poll of Ten College Presidents, and the End of "The Champion Football Team of the Great West"" (PDF). Journal of Sport History, Vol. 19, No. 3. p. 215.
  20. ^ "A Tale Unfolded". The Daily World (reprinting article from Leavenworth Times). November 27, 1892.
  21. ^ "Football". May 15, 1893. pp. 24–25.
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ a b "Football: Head Coaches". Archived from the original on November 19, 2012.
  25. ^ "Alumni Affairs: Henry T. Clarke, Jr". The University of Chicago Magazine. January 1916. p. 116.
  26. ^ The twelfth general catalogue of the Psi Upsilon Fraternity, by Psi Upsilon Fraternity, 1917, p. 158.
  27. ^ Corrine Jacox (August 2009). "A Century of Creighton University School of Law Faculty Publications, 1904-2004" (PDF). Creighton University Klutznick Law Library / McGrath North Mullin & Kratz Legal Research Center. p. 14.
  28. ^ "Mrs. Crawford, Vassar, 1902, Dies". Poughkeepsie New Yorker. September 29, 1943. p. 2.
  29. ^ "Mrs. Louis Crawford Rites Held at Omaha". The Lincoln Star. September 30, 1943. p. 1.
  30. ^ "Crawford, Michigan Grid Founder, Dies". The Sun, Baltimore, Md. November 27, 1963. p. 20.
  31. ^ "Ex Grid Coach Crawford Dies". Hartford Courant. November 27, 1963.

External links

1891 Michigan Wolverines football team

The 1891 Michigan Wolverines football team was an American football team that represented the University of Michigan in the 1891 college football season. The team compiled a 4–5 record and outscored opponents by a total of 168 to 124.James Van Inwagen was the team captain. Frank Crawford was the team's coach, assisted by Mike Murphy.

1892 Wisconsin Badgers football team

The 1892 Wisconsin Badgers football team represented the University of Wisconsin in the 1892 college football season.

1893 Nebraska Bugeaters football team

The 1893 Nebraska Bugeaters football team represented University of Nebraska in the 1893 college football season. The team was coached by Frank Crawford, and played their home games at Lincoln Park, in Lincoln, Nebraska.

Nebraska's football team began its history as the "Old Gold Knights", and was also sometimes known as the "Tree Planters", "Nebraskans", "The Rattlesnake Boys", "Red Stockings", "Antelopes" or "Goldenrods" in their early years.

1894 Nebraska Bugeaters football team

The 1894 Nebraska Bugeaters football team represented University of Nebraska in the 1894 college football season. The team was coached by Frank Crawford and played their home games at the "M" Street Park in Lincoln, Nebraska.

Nebraska's football team began its history as the "Old Gold Knights", and was also sometimes known as the "Tree Planters", "Nebraskans", "The Rattlesnake Boys", "Red Stockings", "Antelopes" or "Goldenrods" in their early years.

1895 Texas Longhorns football team

The 1895 Texas Longhorns football team represented the University of Texas at Austin in the 1895 college football season. The team beat Tulane.

Charles Thomas (American football)

Charles Ladd Thomas (October 21, 1871 – September 19, 1920) was an American football player and coach and newspaper reporter and editor. A native of Omaha, Nebraska, Thomas enrolled at the University of Michigan where he played at the guard position for the Michigan Wolverines football teams of 1891 and 1892. After graduating from Michigan in 1893, Thomas returned to Nebraska where he served as an assistant football coach at the University of Nebraska under Frank Crawford in 1893 and 1894. In 1895, he took over as Nebraska's head football coach, posting a 6–3 record. In 1897, Thomas was the head football coach at Nebraska Wesleyan University. From 1901 to 1902, he served as the head football coach at Arkansas, where he compiled a 9–8 record.

Frank Armstrong

Frank Armstrong may refer to:

Frank A. Armstrong (1902–1969), United States Air Force Lieutenant General

Frank Crawford Armstrong (1835–1909), Confederate Brigadier General during the American Civil War

Frank P. Armstrong (c. 1859–1923), Canadian steamboat captain

Frankie Armstrong (born 1941), English singer and voice coach

Frank Armstrong III (born 1944), American financial advisor

Frank Crawford (Australian rules footballer)

Francis Bartlett Crawford (7 June 1887 – 3 July 1943) was an Australian rules footballer who played with University in the Victorian Football League (VFL).

Educated at Geelong College, he played VFL football while he studied medicine at the University of Melbourne and worked as a doctor in Launceston and Ballarat before taking over a practice in Erin st, Richmond.

Frank Crawford (disambiguation)

Frank Crawford (1870–1963) was an American college football coach and later a professor of law.

Frank Crawford may also refer to:

Frank Crawford (Australian rules footballer) (1887–1943), Australian rules footballer

Frank Fairbairn Crawford (1850–1900), British Army officer and first-class cricketer

Vivian Crawford (1879–1922), English cricketer, known as "Frank" during his playing career

Frank Crawford Armstrong

Francis "Frank" Crawford Armstrong (November 22, 1835 – September 8, 1909) was a United States Army cavalry officer and later a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He is also known for being the only Confederate general to fight on both sides during the Civil War.

Frank Crawford Sites

Frank Crawford Sites (December 24, 1864 – May 23, 1935) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

Frank C. Sites was born in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania. In 1875, he moved with his parents to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. He attended the public schools, learned the trade of watchmaker and jeweler, and afterward engaged in that business at Harrisburg. He became director on the Harrisburg school board from 1903 to 1912, and was appointed postmaster of Harrisburg in 1913, serving until his successor was appointed in 1922.

Sites was elected as a Democrat to the Sixty-eighth Congress, but was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1924. He returned to Harrisburg and engaged in the bond business. He died in Harrisburg and is interred at East Harrisburg Cemetery.

Frank Fairbairn Crawford

Major Frank Fairbairn Crawford (17 June 1850 – 16 January 1900) was a British Army officer who was killed in the Second Boer War. He also played first-class cricket in two countries – in England for Kent County Cricket Club and Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) and in South Africa for Natal.

Hot chocolate effect

The hot chocolate effect, also known as the allassonic effect, is a phenomenon of wave mechanics first documented in 1982 by Frank Crawford, where the pitch heard from tapping a cup of hot liquid rises after the addition of a soluble powder. It was first observed in the making of hot chocolate or instant coffee, but also occurs in other situations such as adding salt to supersaturated hot water or cold beer. Recent research has found many more substances which create the effect, even in initially non-supersaturated liquids.It can be observed by pouring hot milk into a mug, stirring in chocolate powder, and tapping the bottom of the mug with a spoon while the milk is still in motion. The pitch of the taps will increase progressively with no relation to the speed or force of tapping. Subsequent stirring of the same solution (without adding more chocolate powder) will gradually decrease the pitch again, followed by another increase. This process can be repeated a number of times, until equilibrium has been reached.

Upon initial stirring, entrained gas bubbles reduce the speed of sound in the liquid, lowering the frequency. As the bubbles clear, sound travels faster in the liquid and the frequency increases.

List of Michigan Wolverines football seasons

This is a list of seasons completed by the Michigan Wolverines football team of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS). Since the team's creation in 1879, the Wolverines have participated in more than 1,200 officially sanctioned games, including 45 bowl games.

Michigan originally competed as a football independent. Michigan joined the Big Ten Conference (then known as the Western Conference) as one of the founding members in 1896. The Wolverines also competed as an independent between 1907 and 1916, but rejoined the Big Ten in 1917, of which it has been a member since.

List of Michigan Wolverines head football coaches

The Michigan Wolverines football program is a college football team that represents the University of Michigan in the NCAA's Big Ten Conference. The Wolverines have played 1,331 games during their 139 seasons, winning 953 contests for a winning percentage of .730. The mark for wins is the best in college football history.Michigan has had 20 head coaches since its first recorded football game in 1879. Mike Murphy and Frank Crawford, co-head coaches for a single season in 1891, were the team's first head coaches. In his first season at Michigan in 1901, Fielding H. Yost guided the Wolverines to the 1902 Rose Bowl, the first college bowl game ever played. Since then, nine other coaches have led the Wolverines to postseason bowl games: Fritz Crisler, Bennie Oosterbaan, Bump Elliott, Bo Schembechler, Gary Moeller, Lloyd Carr, Rich Rodriguez, Brady Hoke, and Jim Harbaugh. Nine coaches have won at least one of Michigan's 42 Big Ten Conference championships: Gustave Ferbert, Yost, Harry Kipke, Crisler, Oosterbaan, Elliott, Schembechler, Moeller, and Carr. Yost, Kipke, Crisler, Oosterbaan, and Carr have also won national championships with the Wolverines.

Schembechler is the program's all-time leader in wins (194) and games coached (247). Yost coached for the most seasons (25) and has the highest winning percentage (.833) of any coach who led the program for more than three seasons. Michigan had nine head coaches between 1900 and 1989, each of whom has been inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame either as a coach or as a player: Langdon Lea, Yost, George Little, Elton Wieman, Kipke, Crisler, Oosterbaan, Elliott, and Schembechler. The Wolverines' current head coach is Jim Harbaugh.

List of Nebraska Cornhuskers head football coaches

The Nebraska Cornhuskers football program is a college football team that represents the University of Nebraska–Lincoln in the West Division of the Big Ten Conference in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. The team has had 31 head coaches since organized football began in 1890. The university adopted the nickname Cornhuskers in 1900. Prior to that, the team was also known as the Old Gold Knights, Antelopes, Rattlesnake Boys and Bugeaters. The Cornhuskers have played 1,219 games during their 120 seasons. In those seasons, seven coaches have led the Cornhuskers to postseason bowl games: Biff Jones, Bill Glassford, Bob Devaney, Tom Osborne, Frank Solich, Bill Callahan, and Bo Pelini. Twelve coaches have won conference championships with the Cornhuskers: Frank Crawford, Charles Thomas, Robbie Robinson, W. C. Cole, Ewald O. Stiehm, E. J. Stewart, Fred Dawson, Ernest Bearg, Dana X. Bible, Jones, Devaney, Osborne, and Frank Solich

Osborne is the all-time leader in games coached (307), years coached (25) and wins (255). Williams and Langdon Frothingham are tied with the highest winning percentage. Williams won his only game as head coach and Frothingham won his two games. Among coaches with at least a full season of coaching, Stiehm's winning percentage of .913 is the highest. Adolph J. Lewandowski and A. Edwin Branch each have a winning percentage of .250, the lowest of all Nebraska coaches. Of the 31 Cornhusker coaches, six have been inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame: Robinson, Fielding H. Yost, Bible, Jones, Devaney, and Osborne. Bo Pelini, hired in December 2007, was fired at the end of the 2014 regular season.On December 4, 2014 Oregon State coach Mike Riley was announced as the next head coach of the Nebraska football program. Riley was relieved of his duties on November 25, 2017 following Nebraska's worst season of football in 56 years with a 4-8 year. Riley was 19-19 overall (12-14 Big Ten) in his three years. On December 2, 2017 UCF coach Scott Frost was named the head coach of the Nebraska football program. Frost was a quarterback on the 1997 National Championship Nebraska football team.

List of Texas Longhorns head football coaches

The Texas Longhorns football program is a college football team that represents the University of Texas at Austin of the Big 12 Conference in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. The team has had 28 head coaches since it started playing organized football in 1893 with the nickname Longhorns, although they played without a head coach in their first season. Texas was an original member of the Southwest Conference, joining in 1915. The Longhorns became a charter member of the Big 12 in 1996 when the Southwest Conference disbanded. The Longhorns have played in 1,200 games during their 117 seasons. In those seasons, 10 coaches have led Texas to postseason bowl games: Dana X. Bible, Blair Cherry, Ed Price, Darrell Royal, Fred Akers, David McWilliams, John Mackovic, Mack Brown and Charlie Strong Tom Herman

Ten coaches have won conference championships with the Longhorns: Berry Whitaker, Clyde Littlefield, Bible, Cherry, Price, Royal, Akers, McWilliams, Mackovic, and Brown. Royal and Brown have also won national championships with Texas.

Royal is the all-time leader in games coached (219), years coached (20) and total wins (167). Frank Crawford has the highest winning percentage of any Longhorn coach after going 5–0 his only year. Of coaches who served more than one season, Whitaker leads with a .865 winning percentage. Charlie Strong trails with a .455 winning percentage. Of the 28 Longhorns coaches, Bible, Royal, and Brown have been inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame. Royal and Brown have each received National Coach of the Year honors from at least one organization. The current coach is Tom Herman.

List of Wisconsin Badgers head football coaches

The following is a lead of the head coaches of the Wisconsin Badgers football, which represent the University of Wisconsin–Madison. The Badgers have competed in the Big Ten Conference since its formation in 1896.

Vivian Crawford

Vivian Frank Shergold Crawford (11 April 1879 – 21 August 1922) was an English cricketer who played as a right-handed batsman and an occasional right-arm fast bowler in first-class cricket for Surrey and Leicestershire between 1896 and 1910. He also played for many amateur teams. He was born in Leicester and died at Merton, Surrey. He was the brother of the England Test cricketer Jack Crawford and of the Leicestershire first-class cricketer Reginald Crawford.

During his lifetime, he was generally referred to as "Frank Crawford".

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