Frank Chance

Frank Leroy Chance (September 9, 1877 – September 15, 1924) was an American professional baseball player. A first baseman, Chance played in Major League Baseball for the Chicago Cubs (initially named the "Orphans") and New York Yankees from 1898 through 1914. He also served as manager of the Cubs, Yankees, and Boston Red Sox.

Discovered by the Cubs as he played semi-professional baseball while attending college, Chance debuted with the Cubs in 1898, serving as a part-time player. In 1903, Chance became the Cubs' regular first baseman, and in 1905, he succeeded Frank Selee as the team's manager. Chance led the Cubs to four National League championships in the span of five years (1906–1910) and won the World Series in 1907 and 1908. With Joe Tinker and Johnny Evers, Chance formed a strong double play combination, which was immortalized as "Tinker-to-Evers-to-Chance" in "Baseball's Sad Lexicon".

Let go by the Cubs after the 1912 season, Chance signed with the Yankees, serving as a player–manager for two seasons. He joined the Los Angeles Angels of the Pacific Coast League as a player–manager, returning to MLB in 1923 as manager of the Red Sox. Chance was named the manager of the Chicago White Sox in 1924, but never took control of the team as he became ill. He died later that year.

Noted for his leadership abilities, Chance earned the nickname "Peerless Leader." He is the all-time leader in managerial winning percentage in Cubs history. Chance was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in the 1946 balloting by the Veterans Committee, along with Tinker and Evers. He was inducted into the Fresno County Athletic Hall of Fame's first class, in 1959.

Frank Chance
Frank Chance
Chance with the New York Yankees in 1913
First baseman / Manager
Born: September 9, 1877
Salida, California
Died: September 15, 1924 (aged 47)
Los Angeles, California
Batted: Right Threw: Right
MLB debut
April 29, 1898, for the Chicago Orphans
Last MLB appearance
April 21, 1914, for the New York Yankees
MLB statistics
Batting average.296
Home runs20
Runs batted in596
Stolen bases401
Managerial record946–648
Teams
As player

As manager

Career highlights and awards
Member of the National
Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Baseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg
Induction1946
Election MethodVeterans Committee

Early life

Chance was born in Salida, California, in Stanislaus County, on September 9, 1877. His family was of English and Scottish descent.[1] He was raised in Fresno, California[2] and attended Fresno High School.[3] His father was president of the first national bank in Fresno.[1]

Chance enrolled at the University of California, where he pursued a degree in dentistry.[3] He transferred to Washington College in Irvington, California. While playing baseball for the school's baseball team, he received an offer to play semi-professional baseball for a team in Sullivan, Illinois, for $40 a month ($1,205 in current dollar terms), which he accepted.[1]

Returning to college the next year, Chance led his team to a third-place finish in an amateur tournament of 50 teams.[1] Bill Lange of the Chicago Cubs discovered Chance and convinced the Cubs to sign him as a backup catcher and outfielder,[1][3] receiving $1,200 a year ($36,139 in current dollar terms).[1] Chance was scouted by other teams, but chose the Cubs as Tim Donohue was the only catcher ahead of him on the Cubs' depth chart.[1]

Professional baseball career

Chicago Cubs

Frank Chance 1899.jpeg
Chance circa 1899 from The Sporting News

Chance began his career in 1898 with the Chicago Cubs, serving as a reserve catcher and outfielder. He played irregularly through the 1902 season. Due in part to finger injuries suffered while catching, Chance played in no more than 75 games in a season through 1902.[3] In 1903, Johnny Kling became the Cubs' full-time catcher. As Bill Hanlon, the Cubs' first baseman, left the team, manager Frank Selee moved Chance to first base. Though Chance initially balked at the position change, he agreed when he received a pay raise.[3]

In 125 games during the 1903 season, Chance recorded a .327 batting average, and 67 stolen bases; the latter mark led the National League (NL). His .439 on-base percentage was third-best in the league, behind Roy Thomas and Roger Bresnahan, and his 81 runs batted in (RBIs) tied Jake Beckley for sixth-best.[3] Chance had a .310 batting average in 1904, good for sixth place in the NL. His .382 on-base percentage was the fourth-best in the league, and his .430 slugging percentage was fifth-best. Chance also hit six home runs, tying him with Dan McGann, Red Dooin, and Cozy Dolan for third place, his 42 stolen bases tied McGann for fourth place, and his 89 runs scored were seventh-best.[4]

Frank Chance Baseball Card
Frank Chance baseball card

Selee fell ill in 1905, and Chance was selected to succeed him as manager.[3] That year, he also batted .316 with 92 runs scored and 70 RBIs. His batting average was sixth-best in the NL, while he led the league with a .450 on-base percentage, and finished seventh with a .434 slugging percentage. His 38 stolen bases were sixth-best in the league.[5] In 1906, Chance batted .319 and led the NL in runs scored (103) and stolen bases (57). His batting average was fifth-best in the league, while his .419 on-base percentage finished in third, and his .430 slugging percentage placed him in fifth.[6] When Chance stole home from second base in a tie game against the Cincinnati Reds, team owner Charles W. Murphy granted him a ten-percent ownership stake in the club to show his gratitude. Chance later sold his share of the franchise for approximately $150,000.[3] Meanwhile, The Cubs won 116 games during the 1906 season, taking the NL pennant.[3][7] The Chicago White Sox of the American League defeated the Cubs in the 1906 World Series.[8]

Chance batted .293 during the 1907 season, finishing sixth in the NL, while his .395 on-base percentage was third-best. He tied Ed Abbaticchio for seventh with 35 stolen bases.[9] The Cubs returned to the World Series in 1907. Though Chance only batted .154 in the 1907 World Series, the Cubs defeated the Tigers in four games.[10]

Chance began to decline during the 1908 season. Though he finished third in the NL with 27 doubles, he did not finish among the ten best in the categories of batting average, on-base percentage, or stolen bases in 1908, 1909, or 1910.[11][12][13] Chance batted .425 in the 1908 World Series, as the Cubs again defeated the Tigers, this time in five games.[14]

By 1910, Chance began to groom Fred Luderus as his successor at first base.[15] He rebuilt the team in 1911 after Evers's nervous breakdown and the departure of Harry Steinfeldt, replacing them with Heinie Zimmerman and Jim Doyle respectively.[16] The Cubs returned to the World Series in 1910, against the Philadelphia Athletics. Chance batted .353 in the 1910 World Series, though the Athletics won the series in five games.[17] Chance was ejected in game three, becoming the first player ever ejected from a World Series game. Chance continued to transition himself out of the Cubs' lineup in 1911, as he played in only 31 games.[3]

New York Yankees

In 1912, Chance endured surgeries to correct blood clots in his brain that were caused by being hit by pitches in his head. Meanwhile, Chance argued with Murphy, who had been releasing expensive players from the Cubs in an effort to save the team money.[3] The New York Yankees negotiated for Chance's release from the Cubs after the 1912 season.[18] The Cubs released Chance while he was hospitalized,[3] and in January 1913, Chance signed a three-year contract with the Yankees, worth $120,000 ($3,042,020 in current dollar terms), to serve as the Yankees' manager.[19] He also played first base for the Yankees[20] and served as field captain, though he played in no more than 12 games in a season.[3] The Yankees sat in last place on the next-to-last day of the 1913 season, but won their final game to finish in seventh place.[21] In 1914, Chance named Roger Peckinpaugh the Yankees' new captain.[22]

After struggling during the 1914 season, Chance criticized the talent brought to him by Yankees scout Arthur Irwin. After repeatedly seeking to have Irwin fired, he offered his resignation from the team late in the season on the condition that he still was to receive his 1915 salary.[23] After this was accepted by team owner Frank J. Farrell, Chance resigned with three weeks remaining in the season, and Peckinpaugh served as player–manager for the remainder of the season.[24][25]

Later career

Frank Chance and Miller Huggins shake hands CROP
Chance (left) shakes hands with Miller Huggins in 1923

Chance returned to his native California, and was named manager of the Los Angeles Angels of the Pacific Coast League in 1916.[26] Chance won the league championship in 1916. He re-signed with the Angels for the 1917 season[27] and was also granted a part ownership in the Angels from the majority owner, John F. Powers. Powers and Chance remained good friends for the rest of his life. He resigned during the 1917 season due to his declining health.[28] He then served as president of the California Winter League, continuing to instill discipline in players: he fined Ty Cobb for "abusing an umpire".[29]

Chance managed the Boston Red Sox in 1923.[30] The Red Sox did not retain Chance after the season.[31] But some sources noted that Chance had only agreed to a one-year contract and was not necessarily interested in returning to the Red Sox, a team described by one sportswriter as no better than a minor league club.[32] After his relationship with the Red Sox was severed, he was named the Chicago White Sox manager for the 1924 season[33] but developed severe influenza before he could take the helm. He soon developed other respiratory complications, including asthma.[34] Chance submitted his resignation to owner Charles Comiskey, but Comiskey refused to accept it, giving him the opportunity to return to the team when his health improved.[35] He returned to Chicago briefly in April,[36] but was unable to take charge of the team.[34] Chance returned to Los Angeles where he underwent emergency surgery in April 1924. Evers was named the White Sox acting manager for the 1924 season.[37]

Career summary

Overview

Chance was part of the trio of infielders remembered for their double-play ability, with Joe Tinker and Johnny Evers. The trio were immortalized as "Tinker-to-Evers-to-Chance", also known as "Baseball's Sad Lexicon", written by the 28-year-old New York Evening Mail newspaper columnist Franklin Pierce Adams in July 1910.[38][39] Chance helped Evers develop an underhanded throw.[40]

Chance took over as Chicago's manager in 1905. His playing time decreased towards the end of the decade. The Cubs won the NL pennant in 1906, 1907, 1908 and 1910, and won the World Series in 1907 and 1908—the team's last World Series titles prior to 2016. He became the highest paid player in baseball, earning as much as $25,000 ($672,232 in current dollar terms) in 1910.[41] Noted for his leadership abilities, Chance earned the nickname "Peerless Leader."[42] John McGraw, a contemporary and rival of Chance, considered Chance one of the greatest players he ever saw.[43]

Chance's lifetime record as a manager was 946–648 (.593 winning percentage); his .664 winning percentage as manager of the Cubs is the highest in franchise history.[3] As a player, Chance is the Cubs' all-time career leader in stolen bases, with 400. He led the Cubs in batting average in 1903, 1904, 1905 and 1907. In World Series play, Chance batted .310, recording 22 hits, scoring 11 runs, and stealing 10 bases.[3]

Chance was a disciplinarian.[44] He preached moderation in socializing, including avoiding alcohol, to his players.[45] Chance fined his players for shaking hands with members of the opposing team and forced Solly Hofman to delay his wedding until after the baseball season, lest marriage impair his abilities on the playing field.[3] In August 1911, Chance suspended Tinker for the remainder of the season for using profanity,[46] though he reinstated Tinker two days later.[47]

Managerial record

Team From To Regular season record Post–season record
W L Win % W L Win %
Chicago Cubs 1905 1912 768 389 .664 11 9 .550
New York Yankees 1913 1914 117 168 .411
Boston Red Sox 1923 1923 61 91 .401
Total 946 648 .593 11 9 .550
Reference:[48]

Personal

Frank Chance plaque
Chance's Baseball Hall of Fame plaque

During the baseball offseasons, Chance worked as a prizefighter. James J. Corbett and John L. Sullivan, among the best fighters of the era, both considered Chance "the greatest amateur brawler of all time."[3] Chance owned a ranch in Glendora, California, which he sold prior to becoming manager of the Red Sox.[49]

Chance married Edythe Pancake on October 3, 1903.[50] Edythe became an advocate for baseball, imploring women to attend baseball games.[51]

Chance died at age 47. Some sources simply said that he died after a "long illness",[52] while others attributed it to heart disease brought on by severe spasms of bronchial asthma.[53] He was survived by his wife, mother, sister, and three brothers.[54][55] Chance was interred in the Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery, Los Angeles. His death was greatly mourned, and his funeral received widespread publicity in Los Angeles and Chicago. Among his pallbearers were Powers and race car driver Barney Oldfield.[56] His estate was valued at $170,000 ($2.35 million today).[57]

Honors

After falling short of induction in the Baseball Hall of Fame by seven votes in 1945,[58] Chance was elected to the Hall of Fame in the 1946 balloting by the Veterans Committee. Tinker and Evers were elected the same year.[59][60] Chance was also elected to the Fresno County Athletic Hall of Fame's first class, in 1959.[61][62]

A baseball field in Fresno named after Chance operated from 1935 to 1941. Joe DiMaggio played in the first-ever game at Frank Chance Field.[62] Retired players participated in an exhibition game in Chance's honor in 1937.[63]

The City of Hope National Medical Center created the Frank L. Chance Research Fellowship Foundation in his memory.[64]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Chance has had busy career in the Majors". The Evening News. Providence, Rhode Island. December 18, 1912. p. 4. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
  2. ^ Bonk, Thomas (September 5, 2008). "In Fresno, there's hope for a Chance". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Ryhal, Gregory. "Frank Chance". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
  4. ^ "1904 National League Batting Leaders". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
  5. ^ "1905 National League Batting Leaders". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
  6. ^ "1906 National League Batting Leaders". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
  7. ^ "Congratulate Frank Chance". The Pittsburgh Press. September 21, 1906. p. 22. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
  8. ^ "1906 World Series – Chicago White Sox over Chicago Cubs (4–2)". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
  9. ^ "1907 National League Batting Leaders". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
  10. ^ "1907 World Series – Chicago Cubs over Detroit Tigers (4–0)". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
  11. ^ "1908 National League Batting Leaders". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
  12. ^ "1909 National League Batting Leaders". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
  13. ^ "1910 National League Batting Leaders". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
  14. ^ "1908 World Series – Chicago Cubs over Detroit Tigers (4–1)". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
  15. ^ "Frank Chance And Not Kling Hurt The Cubs: Joe Tinker Declares Manager's Absence From Many Games Helped Beat Chicago". The Pittsburgh Press. January 5, 1910. p. 14. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  16. ^ Chance, Frank (August 13, 1911). "Frank Chance Tells How He Reorganized Chicago Cubs: Accomplished Big Task Without Missing a Stroke of the Championship Flywheel. Manager's Own Views". The Pittsburgh Press. p. 6. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  17. ^ "1910 World Series – Philadelphia Athletics over Chicago Cubs (4–1)". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
  18. ^ "Yankees Get Frank Chance: Release of Peerless Leader Formally Purchased for Sum of $1,500—Signs Tuesday". The Paterson Press. January 3, 1913. p. 10. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  19. ^ "Frank Chance Manager of New York Yankees: Immense Salary Will Be Paid Former Leader of the Cubs—Contract For Three Years". The Evening Independent. January 9, 1913. p. 6. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  20. ^ "Frank Chance Here — To Play First Base — Yankees' New Manager Intends to Get Into the Game Again Next Season". The New York Times. February 11, 1913. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
  21. ^ Schuyler, Ed, Jr. (September 8, 1966). "Yankees in Last Place: Houk Knows How Frank Chance Felt". The Day. New London, Connecticut. Associated Press. p. 20. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  22. ^ Gordon, Peter. "Roger Peckinpaugh". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved March 21, 2012.
  23. ^ "Chance Says He Or Irwin Must Go — Peerless Leader Dissatisfied with Yankee Scout – Wants Better Players". The New York Times. September 14, 1914. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
  24. ^ "Peckinpaugh in Charge of Yanks". The Day. September 16, 1914. p. 11. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
  25. ^ "Chance Paid Off, Quits The Yankees – Roger Peckinpaugh Appointed Manager of Team for Remainder of Season". The New York Times. September 16, 1914. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
  26. ^ "Frank Chance Is Wanted As Angel Leader: Los Angeles Club Leadership is Offered to the Former Cub and Yank Pilot". Detroit Free-Press. December 31, 1915. p. 12. Retrieved September 20, 2012. (subscription required)
  27. ^ "Frank Chance Signs Again: Will Manage the Angels for Another Season; Strengthening the Team will Occupy Him Now; Stage Set for Tremendous Season in 1917". Los Angeles Times. December 17, 1916. p. VI15. Retrieved September 20, 2012. (subscription required)
  28. ^ "Frank Chance Resigns". The New York Times. July 4, 1917. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
  29. ^ Ward, Frank B. (December 3, 1921). "Frank Chance Seems to Be Making Great Name as League Head: Former "Peerless Leader" Ruling California Winter Circuit with Iron Hand—Plastered Fine on Ty Cobb—Chasing the Roughnecks". Youngstown Vindicator. p. 12. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  30. ^ "Frank Chance Would Like To Get Roger Peckinpaugh For Red Sox". The Evening Independent. NEA Service. February 10, 1923. p. 14. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  31. ^ O'Leary, James C. (September 28, 1923). "Frank Chance To Go, New Pilot For 1924". Boston Daily Globe. p. 20. Retrieved January 14, 2013. (subscription required)
  32. ^ "Lee Fohl Slated to Succeed Frank Chance as Red Sox Leader." Baton Rouge (LA) State Times, July 26, 1923, p. 14.
  33. ^ Doherty, Edward (March 13, 1924). "Frank Chance Will Take Charge Of White Sox Early Next Month; Doesn't Have Tuberculosis: Peerless Leader Getting in Shape at Resort Says He is Well Enough to Handle Team Now Thinks Athletes Are All Good Ball Players". Los Angeles Times. p. B1. Retrieved September 20, 2012. (subscription required)
  34. ^ a b "Frank Chance, Famed White Sox Manager, Is Dead; Keystone of Tinker-to-Evers-to-Chance Triangle". The Spokesman-Review. Spokane, Washington. September 16, 1924. p. 15. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  35. ^ "Frank Chance Resigns As Manager Of White Sox But Comiskey Refuses To Accept It; Asks to Be Relieved As He Is Not In Best Of Health: Johnny Evers Told to Report in Chicago Last of Month". The Hartford Courant. February 17, 1924. p. 6Z. Retrieved March 30, 2013. (subscription required)
  36. ^ "Frank Chance Is On Job To Handle Chicago Team". The Evening Independent. April 11, 1924. p. 12. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  37. ^ "Evers Made Manager: Frank Chance Ordered Home Because of Health". Reading Eagle. April 20, 1924. p. 17. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  38. ^ Ashley, Sally (1986). F.P.A.: The Life and Times of Franklin P. Adams. Beaufort. p. 65.
  39. ^ Rice, Grantland (February 2, 1945). "Sportlight". The Pentwater News. p. 3. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
  40. ^ "How Evers Developed The Underhand Throw: Gives Frank Chance Credit for Teaching Him a New Style". The Pittsburgh Press. October 4, 1907. p. 27. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
  41. ^ "Frank Chance Receives Highest Wages of Any Player In Organized Baseball". The Milwaukee Journal. November 7, 1910. p. 11. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
  42. ^ "Peerless Leader of Baseball Dies After Long Fight." Baton Rouge (LA) State Times, September 16, 1924, p. 8.
  43. ^ McGraw, John (February 23, 1923). "McGraw Picks Frank Chance Among Greatest Players". Los Angeles Times. p. III3. Retrieved September 20, 2012. (subscription required)
  44. ^ Chance, Frank (October 24, 1915). "Subduing a Ball Player. – Frank Chance Tells How He Dealt with a "Fresh" Recruit". The New York Times. p. 19. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
  45. ^ "Frank Chance Hands Out Some Good Advice For the Amateurs: To Become a Good Professional Ballplayer Means a Great Amount of Hard Work, Clean Habits First on List". The Milwaukee Journal. March 15, 1914. p. 9. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
  46. ^ "Joe Tinker Fined And Suspended: Reprimanded by Chance for Failing to Get Fly Balls, He Answers Profanely and Is Given Severe Punishment; Declares Penalty is Unjust and Undeserved". The Pittsburgh Press. August 6, 1911. p. 6. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
  47. ^ "Chance Has Reinstated Tinker". Trenton True American. August 8, 1911. p. 4. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
  48. ^ "Chuck Tanner". Baseball Reference. Sports Reference. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
  49. ^ "Frank Chance Sells Ranch". Los Angeles Times. November 15, 1922. p. III3. Retrieved January 14, 2013. (subscription required)
  50. ^ Bogen, Gil (2003). Tinker, Evers, and Chance: A triple biography. McFarland. p. 49. ISBN 0-7864-1681-5.
  51. ^ "Baseball Needs Help of Women: Mrs. Frank Chance Says They Had Better Drop Bridge and Teas". The Day. April 13, 1909. p. 10. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  52. ^ "Frank Chance Dies at Los Angeles Home After Long Illness." Springfield (MA) Republican, September 16, 1924, p. 4.
  53. ^ "Sudden Attack Fatal to Great First Baseman." San Francisco Chronicle, September 16, 1924, p. 16.
  54. ^ "Frank Chance Dies Here Suddenly". Los Angeles Times. September 16, 1924. Retrieved September 22, 2012. (subscription required)
  55. ^ ""Peerless Leader" of Baseball Dead: Frank Chance, Famous as Chicago Pilot, Dies After Long Illness". Providence News. September 16, 1924. p. 13. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  56. ^ "Frank Chance Memorial Ceremonies On Today". Los Angeles Times. February 3, 1955. Retrieved September 20, 2012. (subscription required)
  57. ^ "Frank Chance Left $170,000; Goes to Widow". Chicago Tribune. October 29, 1925. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
  58. ^ "Frank Chance Misses by 7 Votes: Writers Unable to Agree on Hall of Fame Nominee". The Pittsburgh Press. United Press International. January 29, 1945. p. 16. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
  59. ^ "New Plaques Placed in Baseball Hall of Fame". Reading Eagle. International News Service. July 21, 1947. p. 11. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
  60. ^ "Frank Chance Named To The Hall Of Fame". The New York Times. April 24, 1946. Retrieved September 20, 2012. (subscription required)
  61. ^ "Fresno County Athletic Hall of Fame | Home". Fresno County Athletic Hall of Fame | Home. Retrieved 2017-02-02.
  62. ^ a b "Frank Chance ballpark memorialized". abc11.com. KFSN-TV. May 22, 2010. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
  63. ^ "Honor For Frank Chance: Old Time Ball Players in Program In His Memory". Lawrence Journal-World. Associated Press. June 24, 1937. p. 12. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  64. ^ Wolf, Al (January 20, 1955). "Foundation Established to Honor Frank Chance". Los Angeles Times. p. C2. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
  • The Editors of Total Baseball (2000). Baseball:The Biographical Encyclopedia. Sports Illustrated. pp. 191–192. ISBN 1-892129-34-5.

External links

1905 Chicago Cubs season

The 1905 Chicago Cubs season was the 34th season of the Chicago Cubs franchise, the 30th in the National League and the 13th at West Side Park. The Cubs finished third in the National League with a record of 92–61.

1906 Chicago Cubs season

The 1906 Chicago Cubs season was the 35th season of the Chicago Cubs franchise, the 31st in the National League and the 14th at West Side Park. The team won the National League pennant with a record of 116–36, a full 20 games ahead of the second-place New York Giants. The team's .763 winning percentage, with two ties in their 154-game season, is the highest in modern MLB history. The 2001 Seattle Mariners also won 116 games, but they did that in 162 games with a .716 winning percentage.

In a major upset, the Cubs were beaten by the Chicago White Sox in the 1906 World Series.

1906 World Series

The 1906 World Series featured a crosstown matchup between the Chicago Cubs, who had posted the highest regular-season win total (116) and winning percentage (.763) in the major leagues since the advent of the 154-game season; and the Chicago White Sox. The White Sox, known as the "Hitless Wonders" after finishing with the worst team batting average (.230) in the American League, beat the Cubs in six games for one of the greatest upsets in Series history. This was the first World Series played by two teams from the same metropolitan area.

The teams split the first four games; then the Hitless Wonders (a name coined by sportswriter Charles Dryden) exploded for 26 hits in the last two games. True to their nickname, the White Sox hit only .198 as a team in winning the series but it beat the .196 average produced by the Cubs.

In Game 3, Ed Walsh struck out 12 Cubs, breaking the previous record of 11 set by Bill Dinneen in 1903.

The 1906 Series was the first to be played between two teams from the same city. To date, it remains the only World Series played between the two Chicago teams (In fact, it would be another 102 years before both Chicago teams would qualify for the playoffs during the same season, as this was next accomplished in 2008), and one of only two Series (the other being the 1944 World Series) played outside New York City that featured two teams from the same city (although the 1989 World Series was played between the San Francisco Giants and the Oakland Athletics, which are roughly 10 miles apart). This is also the most recent World Series where both teams were making their first appearance in the Fall Classic.

1907 Chicago Cubs season

The 1907 Chicago Cubs season was the 36th season of the Chicago Cubs franchise, the 32nd in the National League and the 15th at West Side Park. It was the first season that the Chicago Cubs became the franchise's name officially. The team finished in first place in the National League with a record of 107–45, 17 games ahead of the Pittsburgh Pirates. It was their second straight NL pennant. The Cubs faced the Detroit Tigers in the 1907 World Series, which they won four games to none (with one tie) for their first World Series victory.

1908 Chicago Cubs season

The 1908 Chicago Cubs season was the 37th season of the Chicago Cubs franchise, the 33rd in the National League and the 16th at West Side Park. It involved the Cubs winning their third consecutive National League pennant, as well as the World Series.

This team included four future Hall of Famers: manager / first baseman Frank Chance, second baseman Johnny Evers, shortstop Joe Tinker, and pitcher Mordecai Brown. In 1908, Brown finished second in the NL in wins and ERA. This would be the last World Series victory for the Cubs until the 2016 World Series.

1909 Chicago Cubs season

The 1909 Chicago Cubs season was the 38th season of the Chicago Cubs franchise, the 34th in the National League and the 17th at West Side Park. The Cubs won 104 games but finished second in the National League, 6½ games behind the Pittsburgh Pirates. The Cubs had won the pennant the previous three years and would win it again in 1910. Of their 104 victories, 97 were wins for a Cubs starting pitcher; this was the most wins in a season by the starting staff of any major league team from 1908 to the present day.The legendary infield of Joe Tinker, Johnny Evers, Frank Chance, and Harry Steinfeldt was still intact, but it was the pitching staff that excelled. The Cubs pitchers had a collective earned run average of 1.75, a microscopic figure even for the dead-ball era. Three Finger Brown was one of the top two pitchers in the league (with Christy Mathewson) again, going 27–9 with a 1.31 ERA.

1909 Major League Baseball season

The 1909 Major League Baseball season. The Pittsburgh Pirates defeated the Detroit Tigers 4–3 to win the World Series.

1910 Chicago Cubs season

The 1910 Chicago Cubs season was the 39th season of the Chicago Cubs franchise, the 35th in the National League and the 18th at West Side Park. The Cubs finished first in the National League with a record of 104–50, 13 games ahead of the second place New York Giants. The team was defeated four games to one by the Philadelphia Athletics in the 1910 World Series.

1911 Chicago Cubs season

The 1911 Chicago Cubs season was the 40th season of the Chicago Cubs franchise, the 36th in the National League and the 19th at West Side Park. The Cubs finished second in the National League with a record of 92–62.

1912 Chicago Cubs season

The 1912 Chicago Cubs season was the 41st season of the Chicago Cubs franchise, the 37th in the National League and the 20th at West Side Park. The Cubs finished third in the National League with a record of 91–59. Third baseman Heinie Zimmerman led the circuit in home runs, batting average, and slugging percentage.

1913 New York Yankees season

The 1913 New York Yankees season was the club's eleventh in New York and thirteenth overall. This was their first season exclusively using the "Yankees" name. The team finished with a record of 57–94, coming in 7th place in the American League. The team also moved into the Polo Grounds which they would share with the New York Giants until 1923.

1914 New York Yankees season

The 1914 New York Yankees season was the club's twelfth in New York and fourteenth overall. The team finished with a record of 70–84, coming in 7th place in the American League.

1923 Boston Red Sox season

The 1923 Boston Red Sox season was the 23rd season in the franchise's Major League Baseball history. The Red Sox finished last in the eight-team American League (AL) with a record of 61 wins and 91 losses.

Baseball's Sad Lexicon

"Baseball's Sad Lexicon," also known as "Tinker to Evers to Chance" after its refrain, is a 1910 baseball poem by Franklin Pierce Adams. The eight-line poem is presented as a single, rueful stanza from the point of view of a New York Giants fan watching the Chicago Cubs infield of shortstop Joe Tinker, second baseman Johnny Evers, and first baseman Frank Chance complete a double play. These three players helped the Cubs win four National League championships and two World Series from 1906 to 1910.

"Baseball's Sad Lexicon" became popular across the United States among sportswriters, who wrote their own verses along the same vein. The poem only enhanced the reputations of Tinker, Evers, and Chance over the succeeding decades as the phrase became a synonymous with a feat of smooth and ruthless efficiency. It has been credited with their elections to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1946.

Frank Selee

Frank Gibson Selee (October 26, 1859 – July 5, 1909) was an American Major League Baseball manager in the National League (NL). In his sixteen-year Major League career, he managed the Boston Beaneaters for twelve seasons, and the Chicago Orphans/Cubs for four.

He was noted for his ability to assess and utilize talent, which gave his teams a great opportunity to be successful. His success is measurable in that he won five NL titles with the Beaneaters, including three years in a row from 1891 to 1893. After he left Boston, he went on to manage in Chicago where he built the basis for the Cubs' later success by signing and utilizing the talents of Frank Chance, Joe Tinker, and Johnny Evers. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1999 for his managerial achievements.

Jack Harper (1900s pitcher)

Charles William "Jack" Harper (April 2, 1878 – September 30, 1950) was a pitcher in Major League Baseball. He pitched eight seasons in the majors, from 1899 to 1906.

Harper started his professional baseball career in 1898. After a short stint with the Cleveland Spiders, he had a good season with the Fort Wayne Indians of the Interstate League in 1900 (going 20-15). This got him into the majors for good.

Over the next few seasons, Harper jumped from league to league, finally settling in with the Cincinnati Reds. He had his best season in 1904, when he went 23–9 with a 2.30 earned run average.

On May 30, 1904, Harper hit Chicago Cubs first baseman Frank Chance three times in one game, the last of which knocked Chance out cold. By 1906, Chance had become the manager of the Cubs, and Harper was struggling on the mound. Chance traded for Harper, cut his salary by two-thirds, and sat him on the bench for the entire season.At that time, organized baseball had the reserve clause; Harper had to pitch for the Cubs or no team at all. He never played professional baseball again.

Johnny Evers

John Joseph Evers (July 21, 1881 – March 28, 1947) was an American professional baseball second baseman and manager. He played in Major League Baseball (MLB) from 1902 through 1917 for the Chicago Cubs, Boston Braves, and Philadelphia Phillies. He also appeared in one game apiece for the Chicago White Sox and Braves while coaching them in 1922 and 1929, respectively.

Evers was born in Troy, New York. After playing for the local minor league baseball team for one season, Frank Selee, manager of the Cubs, purchased Evers's contract and soon made him his starting second baseman. Evers helped lead the Cubs to four National League pennants, including two World Series championships. The Cubs traded Evers to the Braves in 1914; that season, Evers led the Braves to victory in the World Series, and was named the league's Most Valuable Player. Evers continued to play for the Braves and Phillies through 1917. He then became a coach, scout, manager, and general manager in his later career.

Known as one of the smartest ballplayers in MLB, Evers also had a surly temper that he took out on umpires. Evers was a part of a great double-play combination with Joe Tinker and Frank Chance, which was immortalized as "Tinker-to-Evers-to-Chance" in the poem "Baseball's Sad Lexicon". Evers was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee in 1946.

List of Chicago Cubs managers

The Chicago Cubs are a Major League Baseball team that plays in the National League (NL) Central Division. Since their inception as the White Stockings in 1876, the Cubs have employed 60 managers. The duties of the team manager include team strategy and leadership on and off the field. The Cubs have had 13 general managers. The general manager controls player transactions, hiring and firing of the coaching staff, and negotiates with players and agents regarding contracts. The first person to officially hold the title of general manager for the Cubs was Charles Weber, who assumed the title in 1934. The franchise's first manager was Baseball Hall of Famer Albert Spalding, who helped the White Stockings become the first champions of the newly formed National League.After co-managing with Silver Flint during the 1879 Chicago White Stockings season, Hall of Famer Cap Anson began an 18-year managerial tenure in 1880, the longest in franchise history. Under Anson, the team won five more NL pennants — in 1880, 1881, 1882, 1885 and 1886—tying the 1885 World Series and losing the 1886 World Series in the process. Anson won 1,283 games as the White Stockings' manager, the most in franchise history. After taking over for Hall of Fame manager Frank Selee in 1905, Frank Chance — another Hall of Famer — managed the team through the 1912 season. During his tenure, the franchise won four more NL pennants in 1906, 1907, 1908, and 1910, winning its only two World Series titles in 1907 and 1908 until 2016 Chance's .664 career winning percentage is the highest of any Cubs manager. After Chance, from 1913 through 1960, the Cubs employed nineteen managers, nine of which were inducted into the Hall of Fame. During this period, the Cubs won six more NL pennants, including three under manager Charlie Grimm. Split between Grimm's two managerial stints in the 1930s and 1940s, plus a brief appearance as manager in 1960, Grimm accumulated 946 career wins, second-most in franchise history behind Anson.Owner P. K. Wrigley then began experimenting with the managerial position and in December 1960, announced that Cubs would not have only one manager for the coming season. Instead, the team implemented a new managerial system known as the "College of Coaches". The system was meant to blend ideas from several individuals instead of relying on one manager. During its first year, the team rotated four different managers into the role: Vedie Himsl, Harry Craft, El Tappe and Lou Klein. The next year, under the guidance of Tappe, Klein and Charlie Metro, the Cubs lost a franchise-record 103 games. Bob Kennedy managed the team for the next three seasons until Hall of Famer Leo Durocher assumed the managerial role for the 1966 season, effectively ending the five-year-long "College of Coaches" experiment. During his first season as manager, Durocher's Cubs tied the franchise's 103-game loss record set four years earlier by the "College"; however, he maintained a winning record for the rest of his seven-year tenure.In the last 37 seasons since Durocher, the Cubs have had 22 managers. Jim Frey and Don Zimmer led the team to the National League Championship Series (NLCS) in 1984 and 1989, respectively. In both of those seasons, the team's manager won a Manager of the Year Award. Jim Riggleman managed the team for five years from 1995 through 1999, earning the team's first and only wild card playoff spot in 1998. Dusty Baker's Cubs lost in the 2003 NLCS during the first year of a four-year managing tenure. Baker's successor, Lou Piniella, led the team to two consecutive National League Central Division titles during his first two years with the team and was awarded the 2008 Manager of the Year Award. On July 20, 2010, Piniella announced his intention to retire as manager of the Cubs following the end of the season. However, on August 22, 2010, Piniella announced he would resign after that day's game with the Atlanta Braves, citing family reasons. Third base coach Mike Quade would finish the rest of the season as manager. The Cubs' current general manager is Jed Hoyer, who replaced Jim Hendry.On November 7, 2013, the Cubs hired Rick Renteria as their new manager. He replaced Dale Sveum. He was fired on October 31, 2014 as the team prepared to hire Joe Maddon.

List of New York Yankees captains

There have been 15 captains of the New York Yankees, an American professional baseball franchise also known previously as the New York Highlanders. The position is currently vacant after the most recent captain, Derek Jeter, retired after the 2014 season, after 12 seasons as team captain. Jeter was named as the 11th officially recognized captain of the Yankees in 2003. In baseball, the captain formerly served as the on-field leader of the team, while the manager operated the team from the dugout. Today, the captain is a clubhouse leader.

The first captain officially recognized by the Yankees was Hal Chase, who served in the role from 1910 through 1912. Roger Peckinpaugh served as captain from 1914 through 1922, until he was traded to the Boston Red Sox. He was succeeded by Babe Ruth, who was quickly deposed as captain for climbing into the stands to confront a heckler. Everett Scott served as captain from 1922 through 1925. Ten years later, Lou Gehrig was named captain, serving for the remainder of his career. After the death of Gehrig, then manager Joe McCarthy declared that the Yankees would never have another captain. The position remained vacant until team owner George Steinbrenner named Thurman Munson as captain in 1976. Following Munson's death, Graig Nettles served as captain. Willie Randolph and Ron Guidry were named co-captains in 1986. Don Mattingly followed them as captain in 1991, serving until his retirement in 1995. Gehrig, Munson, Guidry, Mattingly and Jeter are the only team captains who spent their entire career with the Yankees. Jeter is the longest tenured captain in franchise history, the 2014 season being his 12th as team captain.

There is, however, some controversy over the official list. Howard W. Rosenberg, a baseball historian, found that the official count of Yankees captains failed to include Clark Griffith, the captain from 1903–1905, and Kid Elberfeld, the captain from 1906–1907, while manager Frank Chance may have served as captain in 1913.In addition, right after The New York Times reported Rosenberg's research in 2007, Society for American Baseball Research member Clifford Blau contacted him to say he had found Willie Keeler being called the team's captain in 1908 and 1909, research that Rosenberg has confirmed.

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