Frank A. Haskell

Franklin Aretas Haskell (July 13, 1828 – June 3, 1864) was a Union Army officer during the American Civil War who was killed during the Battle of Cold Harbor. Haskell wrote a famous account of the Battle of Gettysburg that was published posthumously.

Frank A. Haskell
FrankAHaskell2
BornJuly 13, 1828
Tunbridge, Vermont
DiedJune 3, 1864 (aged 35)
Cold Harbor, Virginia
Place of burial
Silver Lake Cemetery
Portage, Wisconsin
AllegianceUnited States of America
Union
Service/branchUnited States Army
Union Army
Years of service1861–64
RankColonel
Commands held36th Wisconsin Infantry
1st Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps
Battles/warsAmerican Civil War
Other worklawyer
author

Early life

Haskell was born at Tunbridge, Vermont to Aretas and Anna E. Folsom Haskell. He moved to Wisconsin to study law in the office of his brother Harrison. He graduated from Dartmouth College in 1854, and returned to Madison, Wisconsin to practice law.[1] During this period, Haskell became the drill master of a militia company.[2]

Civil War

When the Civil War began, Haskell enlisted in Col. Lysander Cutler's 6th Wisconsin Infantry of Brig. Gen. Rufus King's Brigade. This brigade would eventually be known as the Iron Brigade. He served as adjutant for the regiment with the rank of first lieutenant until April 1862, when he was made aide-de-camp for Brig. Gen. John Gibbon, the new Commander of the Iron Brigade.[1] While with the Iron Brigade, Haskell saw action during the Northern Virginia Campaign and the Maryland Campaign. When Gibbon was promoted to command of the 2nd Division, I Corps, Haskell went with him and remained his aide. This division saw action at the Battle of Fredericksburg. After Gibbon suffered a wound at Fredericksburg, he took time off to recuperate and had been replaced in command of his division. He was given command of the 2nd Division, II Corps and again Haskell remained his aide. This division saw action during the Chancellorsville Campaign.[3]

Gettysburg

Gibbon's Division headed north toward Pennsylvania during the Gettysburg Campaign and was in Taneytown, Maryland when the Battle of Gettysburg began.[4] Gibbon was given temporary command of II Corps after I Corps Commander Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds was killed and Maj. Gen. George G. Meade ordered II Corps Commander Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock to Gettysburg to assume command.[5] Haskell and II Corps did not arrive on the battlefield until July 2, 1863. There they took part in the defense of Cemetery Ridge, the area around the Nicholas Codori Farm, and supported the III Corps of Daniel E. Sickles in their defense of the Peach Orchard.[6] In his recollections of the Battle, Haskell was highly critical of Sickles as a soldier and a person as well as his move forward that led to his III Corps being attacked by the Confederates.[7] That night, Gibbon took part in a council of war called by Meade which Haskell recorded in his recollections of the Battle.[8] On July 3, Gibbon was back in command of his division and Haskell was by his side. Late that morning, Gibbon hosted a meal for much of the Union high command which Haskell also recorded for posterity.[9] Shortly after the luncheon broke up Confederate artillery began to shell the area where Gibbon's men were positioned. Gibbon's position bore the brunt of the Confederate attack known as Pickett's Charge.[10] Haskell rallied Gibbon's men after the Confederates had breached the stone wall and Gibbon had been wounded. Hancock,[11] Gibbon,[12] Brig. Gen.William Harrow,[13] Col. Norman J. Hall,[14] and Col. A.F. Devereux (19th Mass.)[15] commended Haskell for his performance, with Gibbon later writing that "I have always thought that to him, more than to any one man, are we indebted for the repulse of Lee's assault."[16]

A few weeks after the Battle, Haskell wrote the account of what he had experienced at Gettysburg to his brother Harrison in Portage, Wisconsin.[1] At the time, Harrison could not even get a newspaper to publish the account. Haskell's account would be published in 1898 as a book called The Battle of Gettysburg. This account was hailed by Bruce Catton as "One of the genuine classics of Civil War literature."[17]

Gibbon and Haskell returned to Gettysburg in November 1863 to attend the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery and witnessed President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address after recreating their role in the battle for some tourists on Cemetery Ridge.[18]

Death

On February 9, 1864, Haskell was appointed colonel of the 36th Wisconsin. On June 3, he assumed command of the 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps when its commander Col. Henry Boyd McKeen was killed during the Battle of Cold Harbor. Shortly after taking command he was shot through the temple and killed while leading a charge.[1] A distraught Gibbon cried out: "My God! I have lost my best friend, and one of the best soldiers in the Army of the Potomac has fallen!"[19] Gibbon wrote to his wife that he had planned to promote "poor Haskell" to field command after the battle.[20]

Haskell's Battle of Gettysburg in popular culture

Haskell's account is reprinted in volume 43, "American Historical Documents", of The Harvard Classics.

In The Killer Angels, the novel by Michael Shaara, part 4 ("Friday, July 3, 1863"), chapter 3 ("Chamberlain"), Col. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain goes to see Gen. Sykes, his corps commander, where there is a lunch for the senior commanders, and is finally taken some chicken by Lt. Haskell himself. That lunch is from Haskell's account.[21]

In The Civil War, the documentary by Ken Burns, the subtitle of Episode 5, "The Universe of Battle", comes from Haskell's account, where, shortly after the lunch, he and Gen. Gibbon are sitting, watching the great cannonade of the third day. During "Gettysburg: The Third Day", Garrison Keillor reads a relevant excerpt.[22]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Haskell, p. iv.
  2. ^ Byrne and Weaver.
  3. ^ Lavery and Jordan, pp. 69; 76-79.
  4. ^ Lavery and Jordan, pp. 80-83.
  5. ^ Martin, pp. 481; 495; 551.
  6. ^ Lavery and Jordan, pp. 83-85.
  7. ^ Haskell 1958, pp. 35-36.
  8. ^ Haskell, pp. 34-37.
  9. ^ Haskell, pp. 46-48.
  10. ^ Haskell, pp. 48-68.
  11. ^ OR & Vol 27, p. 376.
  12. ^ OR & Vol 27, p. 418.
  13. ^ OR & Vol 27, p. 421.
  14. ^ OR & Vol 27, p. 441.
  15. ^ OR & Vol 27, p. 444.
  16. ^ Gibbon 1928, p. 158.
  17. ^ Haskell 1958, vii.
  18. ^ Gaff, p. 305.
  19. ^ Haskell 1958, xii.
  20. ^ Lavery and Jordan, pp. 111-12.
  21. ^ Haskell, Frank Aretas (November 1908). The Battle of Gettysburg. Wisconsin History Commission. pp. 88–93. Retrieved January 21, 2014.
  22. ^ Haskell, Frank Aretas (November 1908). The Battle of Gettysburg. Wisconsin History Commission. pp. 105–107. Retrieved January 21, 2014.

References

  • Byrne, Frank L. and Andrew T. Weaver, Haskell of Gettysburg, The Kent State University Press, 1989.
  • Gaff, Alan D., On Many a Bloody Field: Four Years in the Iron Brigade, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1999, ISBN 978-0-253-21294-8.
  • Gibbon, John. Personal Recollections of the Civil War. New York : G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1928.
  • Haskell, Frank A. The Battle of Gettysburg, Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States Commandery of the State of Massachusetts, 1908.
  • Haskell, Frank A. The Battle of Gettysburg, edited by Bruce Catton, Houghton, Mifflin Company, 1958.
  • Lavery, Dennis S. and Mark H. Jordan, Iron Brigade General: John Gibbon, Rebel in Blue, Greenwood Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-313-28576-9.
  • Martin, David G. Gettysburg: July 1, Da Capo Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-306-81240-8
  • Nolan, Alan T., The Iron Brigade, A Military History, Indiana University Press, 1961, ISBN 0-253-34102-7.
  • The War of the Rebellion: a compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate armies. 1. 27 (Part 1). U.S. War Dept. 1889. Retrieved January 19, 2014.

External links

106th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment

The 106th Pennsylvania (originally raised as the 5th California) was a volunteer infantry regiment which served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. It was part of the famous Philadelphia Brigade, which helped defend against Pickett's Charge in the Battle of Gettysburg.

36th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment

The 36th Regiment Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

69th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment

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71st Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment

The 71st Pennsylvania Volunteers (originally raised as the 1st California) was an infantry regiment of the Union Army that participated in the American Civil War.

72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment

The 72nd Pennsylvania Infantry (originally raised as the 3rd California) was a volunteer infantry regiment which served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. It was part of the famous Philadelphia Brigade. They wore a very Americanized zouave uniform, consisting of a zouave jacket trimmed with red without a tombeux on the jacket, sky-blue trousers with a red stripe down the leg, a sky-blue zouave vest trimmed in red, white gaiters, and a dark blue kepi. The jacket was decorated with 16 ball brass buttons down the front of the jacket, which were not part of the original French Zouave uniform.

Battle of Old Church

The Battle of Old Church, also known as Matadequin Creek, was fought on May 30, 1864, as part of Union Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign against Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War.

As the opposing armies faced each other across Totopotomoy Creek, a Union cavalry division under Brig. Gen. Alfred T. A. Torbert collided with a cavalry brigade under Brig. Gen. Matthew C. Butler at Matadequin Creek, near the Old Church crossroads. After sharp dismounted fighting, the outnumbered Confederates were driven back to within 1.5 miles (2.4 km) of Old Cold Harbor, which preceded the Union capture of that important crossroads the following day.

Cold Harbor Union order of battle

The following Union Army units and commanders fought in the Battle of Cold Harbor (May 31–June 12, 1864) of the American Civil War. The Confederate order of battle is listed separately. Order of battle compiled from the army organization May 31, 1864, army organization May 26-June 3, 1864, the casualty returns and the reports.

Frank Haskell

Frank Haskell may refer to:

Frank A. Haskell (1828–1864), Union Army officer during the American Civil War

Frank W. Haskell (1843–1903), member of the U.S. Army, who fought for the Union in the American Civil War, and Medal of Honor recipient

Harvard Classics

The Harvard Universal Classics, originally known as Dr. Eliot's Five Foot Shelf, is a 51-volume anthology of classic works from world literature compiled and edited by Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot and first published in 1909.Eliot had stated in speeches that the elements of a liberal education could be obtained by spending 15 minutes a day reading from a collection of books that could fit on a five-foot shelf. (Originally he had said a three-foot shelf.) The publisher P. F. Collier and Son saw an opportunity and challenged Eliot to make good on this statement by selecting an appropriate collection of works, and the Harvard Classics was the result.

Eliot worked for one year with William A. Neilson, a professor of English; Eliot determined the works to be included and Neilson selected the specific editions and wrote introductory notes. Each volume had 400–450 pages, and the included texts are "so far as possible, entire works or complete segments of the world's written legacies." The collection was widely advertised by Collier and Son, in Collier's and elsewhere, with great success.

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D or unmarked years – recipient of Dartmouth College Bachelor of Arts

DMS – recipient of Dartmouth Medical School degree (Bachelor of Medicine 1797–1812, Doctor of Medicine 1812–present)

Th – recipient of any of several Thayer School of Engineering degrees (see Thayer School of Engineering#Academics)

T – recipient of Tuck School of Business Master of Business Administration, or graduate of other programs as indicated

M.A., M.A.L.S., M.S., Ph.D, etc. – recipient of indicated degree from an Arts and Sciences graduate program, or the historical equivalent

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Following a wide-ranging flanking march, Confederate Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson captured the Union supply depot at Manassas Junction, threatening Pope's line of communications with Washington, D.C. Withdrawing a few miles to the northwest, Jackson took up strong concealed defensive positions on Stony Ridge and awaited the arrival of the wing of Lee's army commanded by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet. On August 28, 1862, Jackson attacked a Union column just east of Gainesville, at Brawner's Farm, resulting in a stalemate but successfully getting Pope's attention. On that same day, Longstreet broke through light Union resistance in the Battle of Thoroughfare Gap and approached the battlefield.

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