Francysk Skaryna or Francisk Skorina (Belarusian: Францыск (Францішак) Скарына [franˈt͡sɨsk skaˈrɨna]; Latin: Franciscus Scorina, Polish: Franciszek Skaryna; c. 1490 – before 29 January 1552) was a Belarusian humanist, physician, translator and one of the first book printers in Eastern Europe, laying the groundwork for the development of the Belarusian language.
Skaryna was born into the family of a wealthy merchant in Polatsk, then a major trade and manufacturing center of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. His older brother, Ivan, was also a merchant. The brothers had a property, possibly ancestral, in Polatsk.
The exact date of Skaryna's birth is unknown. The year 1490 is often proposed based on the assumption that he was 14 when he came to study in Kraków in 1504. The date is an upper boundary; while new students younger than 14 were rare, older ones were not unusual, and Skaryna could have started his studies at the age of 18 or even older. N. Shchakacihin suggested that the overlapping sun and moon on Skaryna's personal emblem indicates he was born around the time of the 1486 solar eclipse, which was observed in Polatsk.:154–156
It is conjectured that he received his primary education in Polatsk and possibly partly in Vilnius. In 1504, Skaryna is recorded as a student of Jagiellonian University. In 1506, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree. In 1512, after passing all required tests, he received a doctorate in medicine at the University of Padua in Italy. The records suggest that he requested to take his examination in Padua but had not studied in the city. Earlier, he obtained an "artium doctor" degree, but the exact date and place are unknown.
Skaryna arrived in Prague by 1517. According to one hypothesis, he had been a student of Charles University in Prague, but there is no documentary evidence. In the same year, he rented the printing house from merchant Severin in Prague and started publishing a new translation of the Bible with his own prefaces.
On 6 August 1517, his first edition was released in the Old Belarusian (Old Ruthenian): “The Psalter”. “The Psalter” nearly comprises all, what was in other biblical books of Holy Scripture. “It contains everything people needed for the welfare of human life on earth.” Then he released a new book every two months (10 September, 6 October, 5 December, 2 January 1518, 9 January, 19 January). Then, on the 10th of August, he published four books at the same time. The culmination of his life's work was printing a translation of the Bible in twenty-three books during 1517 to 1519.
In 1520, Skaryna became involved in combating an epidemic of a deadly disease in Prague. The epidemic subsided later that year but civil unrest broke out in the autumn in Bohemia. Skaryna left the country and moved to Vilnius, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
In 1522, Skaryna opened the first printing house in Vilnius. Initially he published “The Little Travel Book”. Then in 1525 “Apostol” was published. "Apostol" was released in the same order as it is used in Orthodox worship now.
Skaryna married Margarita, the widow of a Vilnius city councilor. In 1529, following his brother's death, he went to Poznań and obtained a share of Ivan's property. In 1530, he moved with his wife to Königsberg but they soon returned to Vilnius. The 1530 fire in Vilnius destroyed three-quarters of the city, probably including Skaryna's publishing house.
In 1532, he worked as a doctor and secretary of John, Bishop in Vilnius. After two years creditors of his brother Ivan considered Skaryna as the main brother’s heir and put him into Pazan jail. He was there for several months. Roman Skaryna, Ivan's son and Francysk’s nephew, actively helped his uncle in this situation. Roman had a meeting with the king. When Skaryna was released he sent a complaint letter with a counterclaim against the creditors to the King Sigismund I. Later in the response to the complaint letter, he was awarded two royal privilege certificates (from 21 November and 25 November 1532). Those certificates exempted him from the jurisdiction of all authorities except the King.
The last information about Skaryna is mentioned only in the archives of 1534. He moved from Vilnius to Prague. Probably he served in the royal garden in Prague until his death.:163 According to some theories, Skaryna taught as a professor at the Charles University in Prague. It is possible however it is not a fact. Presumably he died in 1551 or 1552.
In 1552, his son Simeon Rus Skaryna got a royal certificate according to which he, as the sole heir, was given all the property of his father. The property included manuscripts, letters and books.
It is not known for sure whether Skaryna was Catholic or Orthodox. His name is Catholic, but it is often suggested that he changed it before entering the university. A single copy of a document in which he is called Georgius Franciscus instead of just Franciscus gave birth to a theory that Georgius was his original name; today, however, it is mostly accepted to be a scribe's error (the presumed correct reading being egregius Franciscus, venerable Francysk). In any case the once popular theory that he changed his name from Georgius to Franciscus to be able to enter the university is without ground: the name Georgius was equally popular among the Catholic and the Orthodox in the region, and in fact in Skaryna's year there were more students named Georgius than Franciscus in Kraków.:157
In 1552, after Skaryna's death (and long after his final departure from the country) king Sigismund August mentioned in a letter that a man from his country printed a translation of the Bible and tried to sell his edition in Moscow, the books were burned there because they were produced "by a subject of the Roman Church". The books mentioned in the letter are most probably Skaryna's.:488
Skaryna devoted his life to the publication of the biblical texts. He sought to make the Bible more available to the common people and write it in an easy language. Skaryna also composed prefaces to his editions, in which he emphasized that the purpose of his publishing activities is to help ordinary people "become acquainted with wisdom and science". He contributed to the development of the Belarusian literary language. This Bible became the second printed Bible in the Slavic world, following the publication of a Czech edition.
In 1517 Skaryna started his publishing career in Prague. He printed his Psalter, and then twenty-two books of the Old Testament under the common name Biblia Ruska. His books were not very characteristic for the West European printed Bibles of that time. The reason is that all of them are published in the format of a fourth part of a leaf [quarto?]. Texts of the Bible are printed in the Church Slavonic language with a large amount of Ruthenian words. More than that Belarusian linguists can identify the influence of the Polish and Czech languages.
Skaryna's Bible breaks the existing rules of that time. It contains text from the publisher, his comments, forewords and afterwords. In addition it contains prints with his image. It is the first such case and the last in the history of the publication of Bibles in Eastern Europe.
All Skaryna’s editions are very rare, especially those published in Vilnius. Copies are stored in libraries in Minsk, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Vilnius, Lviv, London, Prague, Copenhagen, and Kraków.
Skaryna was one of the first to publish in the Cyrillic script, but not the first, as the Oktoikh was published by Schweipolt Fiol in 1491. While it was an Eastern Slavic language, it is difficult to determine precisely what language he used as there was no conventional Belarusian language as we know it today. Some researchers maintain that Skaryna's books were in Church Slavonic heavily saturated with Ruthenian. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that Skaryna laid the foundations of the Belarusian literary language.
Some Belarusian scholars see Skaryna as a Renaissance man, on par with Copernicus and Erasmus, whose work was a part of European Reformation in the Slavic lands.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Minsk, the capital of Belarus, had Skaryna Avenue (praspiekt Franciška Skaryny). However, in 2005, under the rule of Alexander Lukashenko, it was renamed into Independence Avenue (praspekt Nezalezhnastsi). The Old Barysau Path (Starabarysauski trakt) was renamed into Skaryna Street (vulica Skaryny).
Alexander Grigorievich Tikhanovich (Belarusian: Аляксандр Рыгоравіч Ціхановіч; 13 July 1952 – 28 January 2017) was a Soviet and Belarusian pop singer, former member of the ensemble Verasy.He was named Honored Artist and People's Artist (Belarus).From 2006-09, Alexander Tikhanovich headed the national TV music project Eurofest Belarusian selection round for the international Eurovision Song Contest.Belarusians in Lithuania
The Belarusian minority in Lithuania (Belarusian: беларусы, biełarusy, Russian: белорусы, byelorusy, Lithuanian: baltarusiai or gudai) numbered 36,200 persons at the 2011 census, and at 1.2% of the total population of Lithuania, being the third most populous national minority. The Belarusian national minority in Lithuania has deep historical, cultural and political relations. Many famous Belarusians lived and created in Lithuania, mostly its capital Vilnius; it was in Vilnius that the first standardized Belarusian language grammar was printed in.
According to the 2011 census, only 18.4% of Belarusians speak Belarusian as their mother tongue, while Russian is native for 56.3%, Polish - 9.3%, Lithuanian - 5.2% of Belarusians.
The most widespread religion among Belarusians are Roman Catholicism (49.6%) and Orthodox (32.3%).
Francysk Skaryna gymnasium is the only Belarusian school in Vilnius. One Catholic church in Vilnius (St. Bartholomew’s Church) provides religious services in Belarusian.Bible translations into Belarusian
The first translation into Belarusian was by Francysk Skaryna. He printed his first book titled The Psalter, in the Old Belarusian recension of Church Slavonic on August 6, 1517 in Prague. He continued his printing work in Vilnius. The culmination of his life's work was a printing of the Bible in the Old Belarusian recension of Church Slavonic. From 1517 to 1519 he printed 23 books of the Bible. Belarusian bible was the first translation in an Eastern Slavic language and one of the first among European languages.In 2000 a translation from an Old-Slavic Bible was executed by well known Belarusian slavist and translator Vasil Syargeevich Syomukha, with the help of Metropolitan of Belarusian Autocephalous Orthodox Church Nickolaj and missionary of Global Missionary Ministries George Rapetsky (Canada).
Francysk Skaryna, 1517
Luka Dzekul-Malej, 1926, 1931
Anton Lutskevich, 1931
Vasil Syargeevich Syomukha, 2003
George Rapetsky, Canadian, 2003Francisk Skorina Gomel State University
Francisk Skorina Gomel State University (Belarusian: Гомельскі дзяржаўны ўніверсітэт імя Францыска Скарыны) is one of the universities of Republic of Belarus. It is situated in Gomel, Belarus. It was opened in 1930.Gennadiy Seleznyov
Gennadiy Nikolayevich Seleznyov (Russian: Геннадий Николаевич Селезнёв; 6 November 1947 – 19 July 2015) was a Russian politician, the Chairman of the State Duma from 1996 to 2003.Igor Luchenok
Igor Mikhailovich Luchenok (Belarusian: Iгар Міхайлавіч Лучанок, Ihar Mikhaylavich Luchanok, Russian: Игорь Михайлович Лученок; 6 August 1938 in Maryina Horka — 12 November 2018 in Minsk) was a Belarusian composer, People's Artist of Belarus (and People's Artist of the USSR), and chairman of the Belarusian Union of Composers.Igor Makarov (businessman)
Igor Viktorovich Makarov is a Russian businessman. He is the President of ARETI International Group (before 2015 - ITERA International Group with the main company of the group Itera Oil and Gas Company Ltd.).Mykola Hnatyuk
Mykola Vasylyovych Hnatyuk (Ukrainian: Микола Васильович Гнатюк, Russian: Николай Васильевич Гнатюк; born 14 September 1952) is a Soviet, Ukrainian singer, popular in the early 1980s.
In 1979 he won the Grand Prix at the Dresden Pop Music Festival with David Tukhmanov's I Dance With You (Russian: Я с тобой танцую). A year later Dancing on the Drum (Russian: Танец на барабане, penned by Raimonds Pauls) brought Hnatyuk the 1980 Sopot Intervision Song Contest Grand Prix, and made him famous at home. A year later came out Bird of Fortune (Russian: Птица счастья, by the Pakhmutova-Dobronravov songwriting team), another huge hit for him.In 1988 Hnatyuk was awarded the title The People's Artist of the Ukrainian SSR.Nadezhda Babkina
Nadezhda Georgieva Babkina (Russian: Надежда Георгиевна Бабкина; born 19 March 1950, Chyorny Yar, Astrakhan Oblast, Soviet Union) is а Soviet and Russian folk and pop singer. People’s Artist of the RSFSR (1992). A minor planet 10684 Babkina was named in her honor. Since 2014 of Moscow City Duma deputy.Nikolay Baskov
Nikolay Victorovich Baskov (Russian: Николай Викторович Басков) was born on October 15, 1976, in Balashikha Moscow, Russian SFSR. He is a Russian tenor who performs in both operatic and popular music styles. His honors include commendations as Meritorious Artist and People's Artist of the Russian Federation, as well as People's Artist of Ukraine.In addition to his career as a vocalist, Baskov is a regular figure on the Russian game show What? Where? When?.Order of Francysk Skaryna
The Order of Francysk Skaryna (Belarusian: О́рдэн Францы́ска Скары́ны) is an award of Belarus. It is named after Francysk Skaryna, one of the first book printers in Cyrillic script. It is a single level award that was instituted on 13 April 1995. It is awarded for services to the arts, literature, historical study, etc.Orders, decorations, and medals of Belarus
Awards and decorations of Belarus are governed by the Law of the Republic of Belarus on State Awards of 18 May 2004.
The highest award is the title of the Hero of Belarus. The law also specifies orders, medals and honorary titles of Belarus.Pavel Borodin
Pavel Pavlovich Borodin (Russian: Павел Павлович Бородин) (born 25 October 1946) is a Russian official and politician.
Borodin was born in the town of Shakhunya, near the city of Nizhny (Formerly known as Gorky during Soviet times) in the Nizhny Novgorod Region.
Shortly after his birth, the family moved to the city of Kyzyl in the Tuva Region, which is situated in the far south of Siberia.
From 1993–2000, he was Head of the Presidential Property Management Department of the Russian Federation.
From 2000–2011, he was the State Secretary of the Union of Russia and Belarus.In 2001, he was arrested in New York for money-laundering. Later, he was released on bond of five million Swiss francs. In 2002, his case was closed and the bond was returned while further details are not disclosed.Pavel Yakubovich
Pavel Yakubovich (Russian: Павел Изотович Якубович, born September 23, 1946 in Unecha or Starodub, Russia) is a Belarusian journalist and politician. As the chief editor of Sovetskaya Belorussiya – Belarus' Segodnya, the main official newspaper of Belarus, he has been accused of propaganda in favour of the authoritarian regime of president Alexander Lukashenko.Philipp Kirkorov
Philipp Bedrosovich Kirkorov PAR (Russian: Фили́пп Бедро́сович Кирко́ров; Bulgarian: Филип Бедросов Киркоров, born 30 April 1967) is a Russian pop singer of Armenian-Bulgarian origin. He is a five-time winner of the "Best Selling Russian Artist" title at the World Music Awards ceremonies.Tamara Nizhnikova
Tamara Nikolaevna Nizhnikova (Russian: Тамара Николаевна Нижникова; 9 March 1925 – 15 February 2018) was a Belarusian opera singer.
Born in Samara on 9 March 1925, Nizhnikova attended the Moscow Conservatory before joining what later became National Opera and Ballet of Belarus. Prior to her retirement in 1976, Nizhnikova was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labour, and named a People's Artist of the USSR. She later received the Order of Friendship of Peoples, and the Order of Francysk Skaryna.,Viktor Drobysh
Viktor Yakovlevich Drobysh (Russian: Ви́ктор Я́ковлевич Дро́быш; born June 27, 1966, Leningrad, Russian SFSR) is a Russian composer and music producer, Honored Artist of Russia (2010).Song Author group Buranovskiye Babushki Party for Everybody, who took 2nd place at Eurovision 2012.
From 1996 he worked in Germany. After working in Germany, Drobysh moved to Finland, where he created the duet Pets.
In 2004, Drobysh participated as a co-producer in the talent show Fabrika Zvyozd of Channel One Russia. In 2006, he single-handedly led the 6th season of the project.
In August 2004, Viktor Drobysh's Producer Centre was created. It was engaged in promoting the groups Tootsie, K.G.B., Chelsea, Princessa Avenue and Ultrafiolet, as well as solo artists, such as Yulia Mikhalchik, Natalia Podolskaya, Stas Piekha, Dmitry Koldun, Zara, Avraam Russo, Sogdiana Fedorinskaya, Prokhor Chaliapin and others.Vladimir Gostyukhin
Vladimir Vasilyevich Gostyukhin (Russian: Владимир Васильевич Гостюхин, born March 10, 1946) is a Soviet and Russian, Belarusian film and stage actor.Vladimir Mulyavin
Vladimir Mulyavin (Russian: Влади́мир Гео́ргиевич Муля́вин; Belarusian: Уладзімір Мулявін (Uladzimir Muliavin); 12 January 1941 – 26 January 2003) was a Belarusian rock musician and the founder of the folk-rock band Pesniary.