Franciszek Nowicki

Franciszek Henryk Siła-Nowicki (29 January 1864, in Kraków, Austrian Empire – 3 September 1935, in Zawoja, Poland) was a Young Poland poet, a mountaineer, socialist activist, and designer of the Orla Perć (Eagle's Path) High Tatras mountain trail.

Franciszek Sila-Nowicki
Franciszek Henryk Siła-Nowicki


Franciszek Nowicki was the son of Maksymilian Nowicki — a zoologist and pioneer Polish conservationist — and Antonina Kasparek, sister of Franciszek Kasparek, professor of international law, rector of Kraków University, and founder of the first chair in international law in Poland.

As a university student, Nowicki co-edited (with Kazimierz Tetmajer, Andrzej Niemojewski, Artur Górski and others) a socialist-leaning journal, Ognisko (Focus). Some years later, he co-founded the Polish Socialist-Democratic Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczno-Demokratyczna). From 1894 he taught at a secondary school (gimnazjum).

On February 5, 1901, Nowicki proposed to Towarzystwo Tatrzańskie (the Tatras Society) the building of Orla Perć (the Eagle's Trail), which was partly realized in 1903-07. In 1902 he climbed to the then-as-yet-unnamed Przełęcz Nowickiego (Nowicki's Pass) in the Buczynowe Turnie Tatras peaks.

In 1924 Nowicki retired from teaching, and in 1934 he became an honorary member of the Polish Writers' Union (Związek Zawodowy Literatów Polskich).


Nowicki published poems and stories and, in 1891, his sole little volume of Poems (Poezje), comprising two parts: "The Tatras" ("Tatry") and "Songs of Time" ("Pieśni czasu"). He also translated from German, e.g., Goethe's idyll of Hermann and Dorothea. He ceased writing poetry following an unhappy romantic involvement.

See also


External links


Franciszek (Polish: [franˈt͡ɕiʂɛk]) is a masculine given name of Polish origin (female form Franciszka). It is a cognate of Francis, Francisco, François, and Franz. People with the name include:

Edward Pfeiffer (Franciszek Edward Pfeiffer) (1895–1964), Polish general officer; recipient of the Order of Virtuti Militari

Franciszek Alter (1889–1945), Polish general officer during WWII

Franciszek and Magdalena Banasiewicz (fl. mid-20th century), Polish couple who hid and rescued 15 Jews during the Holocaust

Franciszek Antoni Kwilecki (1725–1794), Polish nobleman, statesman, and ambassador

Franciszek Armiński (1789–1848), Polish astronomer

Franciszek Bieliński (1683–1766), Polish politician and statesman

Franciszek Blachnicki (1921–1987), Polish man who started The Light-Life Movement (Światło-Zycie) as a Catholic association

Franciszek Błażej (1907–1951), Polish military officer and anticommunist resistance fighter

Franciszek Bohomolec (1720–1784), Polish dramatist, linguist, and theatrical reformer

Franciszek Bronikowski (1906–1964), Polish Olympic rower

Franciszek Bukaty (1747–1797), Polish diplomat

Franciszek Cebulak (1906–1960), Polish Olympic football (soccer) player

Franciszek Chalupka (1856–1909), Polish theologian; founder of the first Polish-American parishes in New England

Franciszek Czapek (1811–unknown), Czech-Polish watchmaker

Franciszek Dionizy Kniaźnin (1750–1807), Polish poet of the Enlightenment period

Franciszek Dobrowolski (1830–1896), Polish theater director

Franciszek Ferdynant Lubomirski (1710–1774), Polish nobleman and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle

Franciszek Fiszer (1860–1937), Polish bon vivant, gourmand, erudite, and philosopher

Franciszek Gągor (1951-2010), Polish general officer, Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Army since 2006

Franciszek Gajowniczek (1901–1995), Polish army sergeant whose life was spared when Saint Maximilian Kolbe sacrificed his life for Gajowniczek at Auschwitz

Franciszek Gąsienica Groń (born 1931), Polish Olympic skier

Franciszek Gąsior (born 1947), Polish Olympic handball player

Franciszek Grocholski (1730–1792), Polish nobleman and politician

Franciszek Gruszka (1910–1940), Polish aviator who flew with the RAF during the Battle of Britain

Franciszek Hodur (1866–1953), Polish prelate of the Polish National Catholic Church

Franciszek Jamroż (contemporary), Polish politician, former Mayor of Gdańsk; imprisoned for corruption and bribery

Franciszek Jarecki (born 1931), Polish Air Force aviator who defected to the West with a MIG-15 in 1953

Franciszek Jerzy Jaskulski (1913–1947), Polish soldier and commander in the anticommunist Freedom and Independence organization

Franciszek Kamieński (1851–1912), Polish botanist

Franciszek Kamiński (1902–2000), Polish general and activist of the peasant movement

Franciszek Kareu (1731–1802), Belarusian Jesuit priest; Superior General of the Society of Jesus 1801–02

Franciszek Karpiński (1741–1825), Polish poet of the Age of Enlightenment

Franciszek Karwowski (1895–2005), Austria-Hungary World War I veteran

Franciszek Kasparek (1844–1903), Polish jurist, professor of law, and rector of Kraków University

Franciszek Kleeberg (1888–1941), Polish general officer in the Austro-Hungarian army and subsequently in the Polish Legions

Franciszek Kniaźnin (1750–1807), Polish dramatist and writer

Franciszek Kokot (born 1929), Polish nephrologist and endocrinologist

Franciszek Kostrzewski (1826–1911), Polish painter, illustrator, and caricaturist

Franciszek Krajowski (1861–1932), Czech-Polish military officer and general of the Polish Army

Franciszek Krupiński (1836–1898), Polish philosopher

Franciszek Ksawery Branicki (1730–1819), Polish nobleman, magnate, and a leader of the Targowica Confederation

Franciszek Ksawery Chomiński (died 1809), Polish politician, writer, and translator

Franciszek Ksawery Dmochowski (1762–1818), Polish Romantic novelist, poet, translator, and satirist

Franciszek Ksawery Drucki-Lubecki (1778–1846), Polish politician and government minister in partitioned Poland

Franciszek Ksawery Godebski (1801–1869), Polish writer and publicist

Franciszek Ksawery Lampi (1782–1852), Polish painter of the Romantic era

Franciszek Ksawery Zachariasiewicz (1770–1845), Polish Roman Catholic prelate, professor, and historian

Franciszek Latinik (1864–1949), Polish general officer

Franciszek Leja (1885–1979), Polish mathematician

Franciszek Lessel (1780–1838), Polish composer

Franciszek Lilius (1600–1657), Polish composer

Franciszek Lubomirski (died 1721), Polish nobleman

Franciszek Macharski (born 1927), Polish Roman Catholic cardinal; Archbishop of Kraków 1978–2005

Franciszek Maksymilian Ossoliński (1676–1756), Polish nobleman, politician, collector, and patron of arts

Franciszek Malewski (1800–1870), Polish lawyer, archivist, and journalist

Franciszek Misztal (1901–1981), Polish aircraft designer

Franciszek Niepokólczycki (1900–1974), Polish military officer and anticommunist resistance fighter; imprisoned under Stalin

Franciszek Nowicki (1864–1935), Polish poet, mountaineer, and socialist activist

Franciszek Pieczka (born 1928), Polish film and stage actor

Franciszek Piper (born 1941), Polish scholar, historian and author; specializing in the Holocaust

Franciszek Pius Radziwiłł (1878–1944), Polish nobleman and political activist

Franciszek Pokorny (fl. mid-20th century), Polish military officer and cryptographer

Franciszek Przysiężniak (1909–1975), Polish military officer and anticommunist resistance fighter; recipient of the Virtuti Militari

Franciszek Rychnowski (1850–1929), Polish engineer and an inventor

Franciszek Salezy Dmochowski (1801–1871), Polish writer, poet, translator, critic, and journalist

Franciszek Salezy Jezierski (1740–1791), Polish priest, writer, and activist of the Enlightenment period

Franciszek Salezy Potocki (1700–1772), Polish-Lithuanian nobleman; Knight of the Order of the White Eagle

Franciszek Sebastian Lubomirski (diet 1699), Polish nobleman

Franciszek Siarczyński (1758–1829), Polish Roman Catholic Piarist priest, historian, geographer, teacher, and writer

Franciszek Smuda (born 1948), Polish professional football player, coach, and manager

Franciszek Smuglewicz (1745–1807), Polish-Lithuanian draftsman and painter

Franciszek Starowieyski (1930–2009), Polish artist

Franciszek Stefaniuk (born 1944), Polish politician from Chełm

Franciszek Sulik (1908–2000), Polish-Australian chess master

Franciszek Szymczyk (1892–1976), Polish Olympic track cyclist

Franciszek Trąbalski (1870–1964), Polish socialist politician

Franciszek Trześniewski (died 1939), Polish gourmand and chef; eponym of the Trześniewski restaurant in Vienna

Franciszek Walicki (born 1921), Polish jazz and rock musician

Franciszek Wielopolski (died 1732), Polish nobleman

Franciszek Wład (1888–1939), Polish general officer killed during the German invasion of Poland

Franciszek Zabłocki (1754–1821), Polish comic dramatist and satirist of the Enlightenment period

Franciszek Zachara (1898–1966), Polish-American pianist and composer

Franciszek Żmurko (1859–1910), Polish painter

Franciszek Żwirko (1895–1932), Polish sport and military aviator

Ksawery Lubomirski (Franciszek Ksawery Lubomirski) (1747–1829), Polish nobleman and Russian general officer

Franciszek Brodniewicz

Franciszek Brodniewicz (29 November 1892 in Kwilcz – 17 August 1944 in Warsaw) was a Polish actor. He died during the Warsaw Uprising

Franciszek Kasparek

Franciszek Ksawery Kasparek (Sambor, 29 October 1844 – 4 August 1903, Kraków) was a Polish jurist, professor of law and rector of Kraków University, founder of the first chair in international law in Poland (at Kraków University), and member of the Polish Academy of Learning in Kraków.

He was the brother-in-law of biologist Professor Maksymilian Nowicki of Kraków University and uncle of poet Franciszek Nowicki.

List of Polish-language authors

Notable Polish novelists, poets, playwrights, historians and philosophers, listed in chronological order by year of birth:

(ca.1465–after 1529) Biernat of Lublin

(1482–1537) Andrzej Krzycki

(1503–1572) Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski

(1505–1569) Mikołaj Rej

(ca. 1525–1573) Piotr z Goniądza

(1530–1584) Jan Kochanowski

(1566–1636) Fabian Birkowski

(1580–1653) Szymon Okolski

(1651–1701) Anna Stanisławska

(1694–1774) Przybysław Dyjamentowski

(1720–1784) Franciszek Bohomolec

(1733–1798) Adam Naruszewicz

(1734–1823) Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski

(1735–1801) Ignacy Krasicki

(1746–1835) Izabela Fleming Czartoryska

(1750–1812) Hugo Kołłątaj

(1755–1826) Stanisław Staszic

(1757–1841) Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz

(1761–1815) Jan Potocki

(1762–1808) Franciszek Ksawery Dmochowski

(1765–1809) Cyprian Godebski

(1768–1854) Maria Wirtemberska

(1770–1861) Adam Jerzy Czartoryski

(1771–1820) Alojzy Feliński

(1786–1861) Joachim Lelewel

(1787–1861) Antoni Gorecki

(1791–1835) Kazimierz Brodziński

(1793–1876) Aleksander Fredro

(1798–1855) Adam Mickiewicz

(1798–1845) Klementyna Hoffmanowa

(1801–1869) Franciszek Ksawery Godebski

(1801–1876) Seweryn Goszczyński

(1804–1886) Michał Czajkowski

(1807–1875) Karol Libelt

(1809–1849) Juliusz Słowacki

(1812–1859) Zygmunt Krasiński

(1812–1887) Józef Ignacy Kraszewski

(1814–1894) August Cieszkowski

(1817–1879) Ryszard Wincenty Berwiński

(1818–1876) Narcyza Żmichowska

(1819–1890) Agnieszka Baranowska

(1821–1883) Cyprian Kamil Norwid

(1822–1899) Edmund Chojecki

(1829–1901) Lucyna Ćwierczakiewiczowa

(1838–1897) Adam Asnyk

(1839–1902) Adolf Dygasiński

(1841–1910) Eliza Orzeszkowa

(1846–1916) Henryk Sienkiewicz

(1847–1912) Bolesław Prus

(1849–1935) Michał Bobrzyński

(1852–1930) Kazimierz Bartoszewicz

(1858–1924) Ludwik Stasiak

(1860–1921) Gabriela Zapolska

(1860–1926) Jan Kasprowicz

(1862–1949) Feliks Koneczny

(1864–1925) Stefan Żeromski

(1864–1935) Franciszek Nowicki

(1865–1940) Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer

(1867–1925) Władysław Reymont

(1868–1927) Stanisław Przybyszewski

(1869–1907) Stanisław Wyspiański

(1873–1940) Wacław Berent

(1874–1915) Jerzy Żuławski

(1874–1941) Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński

(1876–1945) Ferdynand Antoni Ossendowski

(1877/79–1937) Bolesław Leśmian

(1878–1911) Stanisław Brzozowski

(1878/79–1942) Janusz Korczak

(1881–1946) Paweł Hulka-Laskowski

(1884–1944) Leon Chwistek

(1885–1939) Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz (Witkacy)

(1885–1954) Zofia Nałkowska

(1886–1980) Władysław Tatarkiewicz

(1886–1981) Tadeusz Kotarbiński

(1887–1936) Stefan Grabiński

(1889–1968) Zofia Kossak-Szczucka

(1889–1931) Tadeusz Hołówko

(1889–1965) Maria Dąbrowska

(1890–1963) Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz

(1891–1963) Gustaw Morcinek

(1891–1945) Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska

(1892–1942) Bruno Schulz

(1893–1970) Roman Ingarden

(1894–1942) Józef Stefan Godlewski

(1894–1980) Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz

(1894–1985) Arkady Fiedler

(1895–1959) Stanislaw Mlodozeniec

(1896–1945) Ferdynand Ossendowski

(1897–1962) Władysław Broniewski

(1898–1939) Tadeusz Dołęga-Mostowicz

(1899–1956) Jan Lechoń

(1900–1966) Jan Brzechwa

(1901–1938) Bruno Jasieński

(1901–1964) Sergiusz Piasecki

(1902–1970) Tadeusz Manteuffel

(1902–1985) Józef Mackiewicz

(1902–1995) Józef Maria Bocheński

(1903-1978) Aleksander Kamiński

(1904–1969) Witold Gombrowicz

(1905–1953) Konstanty Ildefons Gałczyński

(1905–1982) Adam Ważyk

(1906–1965) Stanisław Jaśkowski

(1907–1991) Stanislaw Wygodzki

(1908–1979) Sydor Rey

(1908–1988) Teodor Parnicki

(1908–1980) Aleksander Baumgardten

(1908–1995) Helena Bechlerowa

(1909–1942) Henryka Łazowertówna

(1909–1966) Stanisław Jerzy Lec

(1909–1970) Paweł Jasienica

(1909–1983) Jerzy Andrzejewski

(1909–1988) Józef Łobodowski

(1910–1978) Maria Boniecka

(1910–2007) Stanisław Dobosiewicz

(1911–1975) Eugeniusz Żytomirski

(1911–2004) Czesław Miłosz

(1912–1990) Adolf Rudnicki

(1913–1979) Zygmunt Witymir Bieńkowski

(1913–2005) Józef Garliński

(1914–1973) Bohdan Arct

(1915–2006) Jan Twardowski

(1916–1991) Wilhelm Szewczyk

(1917–1944) Zuzanna Ginczanka

(1918–1963) Stanisław Grzesiuk

(1919–2000) Gustaw Herling-Grudziński

(1919–2011) Marian Pankowski

(1920–2006) Leslaw Bartelski

(1920–1985) Leopold Tyrmand

(1920–2005) Karol Wojtyła (Pope John Paul II)

(1920–2006) Lucjan Wolanowski

(1921–1944) Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński

(1921–2006) Stanisław Lem

(1922–1951) Tadeusz Borowski

(1923–2001) Maksymilian Berezowski

(1923–2003) Władysław Kozaczuk

(1923–2012) Wisława Szymborska

(1924–1998) Zbigniew Herbert

(born 1925) Bat-Sheva Dagan

(born 1926) Tadeusz Konwicki

(1927–2009) Leszek Kołakowski

(born 1928) Roman Frister

(1929–1994) Zbigniew Nienacki

(1929–2004) Zygmunt Kubiak

(born 1930) Sławomir Mrożek

(born 1932) Wiesław Myśliwski

(1932–1957) Andrzej Bursa

(1932–2013) Joanna Chmielewska

(1932–2007) Ryszard Kapuściński

(1933–1991) Jerzy Kosiński

(born 1933) Joanna Olczak-Ronikier

(1934–1969) Marek Hłasko

(1934–1976) Stanisław Grochowiak

(1935–1984) Janusz Gaudyn

(born 1936) Henryk Grynberg

(1936–1997) Agnieszka Osiecka

(born 1937) Hanna Krall

(1938–1985) Janusz A. Zajdel

(born 1938) Janusz Głowacki

(1941–1989) Mirosław Dzielski

(born 1941) Leszek Długosz

(born 1943) Wojciech Karpiński

(born 1944) Michał Heller

(born 1945) Małgorzata Musierowicz

(1946–2015) Piotr Domaradzki

(born 1946) Ewa Kuryluk

(born 1948) Andrzej Sapkowski

(born 1949) Stefan Chwin

(born 1949) Aleksandra Ziolkowska-Boehm

(born 1952) Eva Stachniak

(born 1952) Jerzy Pilch

(born 1954) Marek Huberath

(born 1955) Leszek Engelking

(born 1955) Magdalena Tulli

(born 1957) Grazyna Miller

(born 1957) Paweł Huelle

(born 1957) Agata Tuszynska

(born 1957) Grażyna Wojcieszko

(1958–2005) Tomasz Pacyński

(born 1960) Andrzej Stasiuk

(born 1960) Andrzej Ziemiański

(born 1961) Agnieszka Taborska

(born 1962) Olga Tokarczuk

(born 1964) Rafal A. Ziemkiewicz

(born 1965) Jarosław Grzędowicz

(born 1966) Andrzej Majewski

(born 1966) Marek Krajewski

(born 1966) Mariusz Szczygieł

(born 1968) Joanna Bator

(born 1971) Anna Brzezińska

(born 1972) Wojciech Kuczok

(born 1974) Jacek Dukaj

(born 1974) Andrzej Pilipiuk

(born 1975) Michał Witkowski

(born 1976) Zygmunt Miłoszewski

(born 1976) Anna Kańtoch

(born 1977) Łukasz Orbitowski

(born 1979) Sylwia Chutnik

(born 1980) Jacek Dehnel

(born 1982) Jakub Ćwiek

(born 1983) Dorota Masłowska

(born 1984) Joanna Lech

List of Polish-language poets

List of poets who have written much of their poetry in the Polish language. See also Discussion Page for additional poets not listed here.

There have been four Polish Nobel Prize laureates in literature: Henryk Sienkiewicz, Władysław Reymont, Czesław Miłosz, Wisława Szymborska. The last two have been poets.

List of Polish people

This is a partial list of notable Polish or Polish-speaking or -writing persons. Persons of partial Polish heritage have their respective ancestries credited.

Maksymilian Nowicki

Maksymilian Siła-Nowicki (9 October 1826 – 30 October 1890) was a Polish zoology professor and pioneer conservationist in Austrian Poland, and father of the poet Franciszek Nowicki. He was brother-in-law to Kraków University law professor and rector Franciszek Kasparek.

Morskie Oko

Morskie Oko (literally "Sea Eye" or "Eye of the Sea"; Slovak: Morské oko, "Sea Eye"; Hungarian: Halas-tó, "Fish Lake") is the largest and fourth-deepest lake in the Tatra Mountains. It is located deep within the Tatra National Park, Poland, in the Rybi Potok (the Fish Brook) Valley, of the High Tatras mountain range at the base of the Mięguszowiecki Summits, in Lesser Poland Voivodeship.


Nowicki (Polish pronunciation: [nɔˈvit͡ski]; feminine: Nowicka; plural: Nowiccy) is a Jewish and Polish surname. It comes from place names such as Nowice, which are derived from the Polish adjective nowy ("new"). The surname is somewhat more frequent in central Poland. It has many forms in other languages.

Orla Perć

Orla Perć (English: Eagle's Path) is a tourist path in the Tatra Mountains in southern Poland. It is considered the most difficult and dangerous public path in the entire Tatras and is therefore a suitable route only for experienced climbers. The path is marked with red signs. Since it was established, more than 140 people have lost their lives on the route.

Polish literature

Polish literature is the literary tradition of Poland. Most Polish literature has been written in the Polish language, though other languages used in Poland over the centuries have also contributed to Polish literary traditions, including Latin, Yiddish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, German and Esperanto. According to Czesław Miłosz, for centuries Polish literature focused more on drama and poetic self-expression than on fiction (dominant in the English speaking world). The reasons were manifold, but mostly rested on historical circumstances of the nation. Polish writers typically have had a more profound range of choices to motivate them to write, including historical cataclysms of extraordinary violence that swept Poland (as the crossroads of Europe); but also, Poland's own collective incongruities demanding adequate reaction from the writing communities of any given period.The period of Polish Enlightenment began in the 1730s–40s and peaked in the second half of the 18th century. One of the leading Polish Enlightenment authors included Ignacy Krasicki (1735–1801) and Jan Potocki (1761–1815). Polish Romanticism, unlike Romanticism elsewhere in Europe, was largely a movement for independence against the foreign occupation. Early Polish Romantics were heavily influenced by other European Romantics. Notable writers included Adam Mickiewicz, Seweryn Goszczyński, Tomasz Zan and Maurycy Mochnacki. In the second period, many Polish Romantics worked abroad. Influential poets included Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz Słowacki and Zygmunt Krasiński.

In the aftermath of the failed January Uprising, the new period of Polish Positivism began to advocate skepticism and the exercise of reason. The modernist period known as the Young Poland movement in visual arts, literature and music, came into being around 1890, and concluded with the Poland's return to independence (1918). Notable authors included Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer, Stanisław Przybyszewski and Jan Kasprowicz. The neo-Romantic era was exemplified by the works of Stefan Żeromski, Władysław Reymont, Gabriela Zapolska, and Stanisław Wyspiański. In 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz received a Nobel Prize in literature for his patriotic Trilogy inspiring a new sense of hope. Literature of the Second Polish Republic (1918-1939) encompasses a short, though exceptionally dynamic period in Polish literary consciousness. The socio-political reality has changed radically with Poland's return to independence. New avant-garde writers included Tuwim, Witkacy, Gombrowicz, Miłosz, Dąbrowska and Nałkowska.

In the years of German and Soviet occupation of Poland, all artistic life was dramatically compromised. Cultural institutions were lost. Out of 1,500 clandestine publications in Poland, about 200 were devoted to literature.

Much of Polish literature written during the Occupation of Poland appeared in print only after the conclusion of World War II, including books by Nałkowska, Rudnicki, Borowski and others. The situation began to worsen dramatically around 1949–1950 with the introduction of the Stalinist doctrine by minister Sokorski. Poland had three Nobel Prize winning authors in the later 20th century: Isaac Bashevis Singer (1978), Czesław Miłosz (1980) and Wisława Szymborska (1996).

Tatra Mountains

The Tatra Mountains, Tatras, or Tatra (Tatry either in Slovak (pronounced [ˈtatri]) or in Polish (pronounced [ˈtatrɨ])- plurale tantum), is a mountain range that forms a natural border between Slovakia and Poland. This is the highest mountain range in the Carpathian Mountains. The Tatras should not be confused with the Low Tatras (Slovak: Nízke Tatry), which are located south of the Tatra Mountains in Slovakia.

The Tatra Mountains occupy an area of 785 square kilometres (303 sq mi), of which about 610 square kilometres (236 sq mi) (77.7%) lie within Slovakia and about 175 square kilometres (68 sq mi) (22.3%) within Poland. The highest peak, called Gerlach, at 2,655 m (8710 ft), is located north of Poprad, entirely in Slovakia. The highest point in Poland, Rysy, at 2,499 m (8200 ft), is located south of Zakopane, on the border with Slovakia.The Tatras' length, measured from the eastern foothills of the Kobylí vrch (1109 m) to the southwestern foot of Ostrý vrch (1128 m), in a straight line, is 57 km (35 mi) (or 53 km (33 mi) according to some), and strictly along the main ridge, 80 km (50 mi). The range is only 19 km (12 mi) wide. The main ridge of the Tatras runs from the village of Huty at the western end to the village of Ždiar at the eastern end.

The Tatras are protected by law by the establishment of the Tatra National Park, Slovakia and the Tatra National Park, Poland, which are jointly entered in UNESCO's World Network of Biosphere Reserves.

In 1992, UNESCO jointly designated the Polish and Slovak parks a transboundary biosphere reserve in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, under its Man and the Biosphere Programme.


Yabluniv (ukr. Яблунів, rus. Яблонoв, pol. Jabłonów) is an urban-type settlement in Kosiv district, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ukraine. It is located on the banks of the river Luchka, 15 km from Kolomyia. Population: 2,082 (2016 est.).

Young Poland

Young Poland (Polish: Młoda Polska) was a modernist period in Polish visual arts, literature and music, covering roughly the years between 1890 and 1918. It was a result of strong aesthetic opposition to the earlier ideas of Positivism which followed the suppression of the 1863 January Uprising against the occupying army of Imperial Russia. Młoda Polska promoted trends of decadence, neo-romanticism, symbolism, impressionism and art nouveau.

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