Francisco de Ibarra

Francisco de Ibarra (1539 –June 3, 1575) was a Basque explorer, founder of the city of Durango, and governor of the Spanish province of Nueva Vizcaya, in present-day Durango and Chihuahua.

Francisco de Ibarra
Francisco de Ibarra


Francisco de Ibarra was born about 1534 in Eibar, Gipuzkoa, in the Basque Country of Spain. He went to Mexico as a young man, and upon the recommendation and financing of his uncle, conquistador and wealthy mine owner Diego de Ibarra, Francisco was placed at the head of an expedition to explore northwest from Zacatecas in 1554. The young Ibarra noted silver in the vicinity of present-day Fresnillo, but passed it by. He explored further and founded towns at San Martín and Avino, where the silver mines made him a mine owner in his own right.[1] Ibarra's expedition to Zacatecas was later documented by Spanish historian Baltasar Obregón, who traveled with Ibarra in 1554.

In 1562, Ibarra headed another expedition to push farther into northwest Mexico. In particular, he was searching for the fabled golden city of Copala (also called Cibola). He did not find the mythical treasure, but explored and conquered what is now the Mexican state of Durango. Ibarra was appointed governor of the newly formed province of Nueva Vizcaya (New Biscay) in 1562, and the following year he founded the city of Durango to be its capital.[2]:29,53-4

In 1564, Ibarra, following rumors of rich mineral deposits, crossed the Sierra Madre Occidental to conquer what is now southern Sinaloa. Prospectors discovered silver veins in the new territory, and in 1565, de Ibarra founded the towns of Copala and es:Pánuco (Sinaloa).

Soldiers under Ibarra's direction explored north from Durango in 1567, and founded the town of Santa Bárbara in present-day Chihuahua to mine the silver they found there.

Francisco de Ibarra died on 3 June 1575 in Pánuco, Sinaloa, one of the silver-mining cities that he founded.[3]


  1. ^ P. J. Bakewell (1971) Silver Mining and Society in Colonial Zacatecas 1546–1700, Cambridge: University Press, p. 28–29.
  2. ^ John Francis Bannon (1970). The Spanish Borderlands Frontier, 1513-1821. Histories of the American frontier (1 ed.). Albuquerque: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. p. 308. ISBN 0030851696. OCLC 5685684.
  3. ^ José Ignacio Gallegos (1960) Durango Colonial, 1563–1821, Mexico City: Editorial Jus, p. 78.

Year 1575 (MDLXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Baltasar Obregón

Baltasar Obregón (born 1534) was a 16th-century Spanish explorer and historian. He is most notable for publishing the Historia de los descubrimientos de Nueva Espana, an account of his travels in the New World.

Capture of Oppenheim

The Capture of Oppenheim or the Spanish capture of Oppenheim took place on 14 September 1620, at Oppenheim, Electorate of the Palatinate, between the Spanish army commanded by Don Ambrosio Spinola, Marquis of the Balbases, against the forces of the Electoral Palatinate led by Joachim Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, during the Palatinate campaign, in the context of the Thirty Years' War. The Spanish troops under Spinola, with a great maneuver of distraction over Worms, deceived the Protestant army of Joachim Ernst, and captured the important town of Oppenheim without too much difficulty, causing a severe blow to the Protestant forces.

Concordia, Sinaloa

Concordia is a city and its surrounding municipality in the Mexican state of Sinaloa. The town is noted for manufacture of artesinal wooden furniture, symbolized by the giant chair in the town plaza. According to 2010 census, it had a population of 8,328 inhabitants.

Founded as Villa de San Sebastián in 1565 by Francisco de Ibarra, Concordia was originally a center of gold, silver and copper mining. The main church, San Sebastián, was built in 1785 with an ornate baroque facade.

Concordia is about an hour's travel southeast of Mazatlán, on the highway to Durango. It stands at 23°17′18″N 106°04′03″W.


Copala may refer to:

MexicoCopala, Guerrero, city in southwestern Mexico

Copala (municipality) in the State of Guerrero, southwestern Mexico

Copala, Sinaloa, also known as San José de Copala, 400-year-old silvermining town near Mazatlan in northwestern Mexico

San Juan Copala, an indigenous Triqui community and autonomous municipality in Oaxaca stateOtherCopala, a fabled mythical city of gold sought by Spanish conquistadors such as Francisco de Ibarra

Copala Trique, a variant of the Trique language spoken in San Juan Copala, Oaxaca

Copala, Sinaloa

Copala, formerly known as San José de Copala, is a four-century-old silver-mining town in the Mexican state of Sinaloa. The town is in the municipality of Concordia.

Durango City

Durango (Spanish pronunciation: [duˈɾaŋɡo]), officially Victoria de Durango and also known as Ciudad de Durango, is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Durango. It stands at an altitude of 1,890 metres (6,201 feet).The city was founded on July 8, 1563, by the Spanish Basque explorer Francisco de Ibarra. During the Spanish colonial era the city was the capital of the Nueva Vizcaya province of New Spain, which consisted mostly of the present-day states of Durango and Chihuahua.

In 2014, the city had a population of 565,300, up from 518,709 in 2010. It is the municipal seat of Durango Municipality which had a population of 654,876 in 2015. and includes outlying communities such as El Nayar, Cinco de Mayo, La Ferreria, and Colonia Hidalgo.


Eibar (Basque: Eibar, Spanish: Éibar) is a city and municipality within the province of Gipuzkoa, in the Basque Country of Spain. It is the head town of Debabarrena, one of the comarcas of Gipuzkoa.

Eibar has 27,138 inhabitants (Eustat, 2018). Its chief industry is metal manufacturing, and has been known since the 16th century for the manufacture of armaments, particularly finely engraved small arms. It was also the home of Serveta scooters.

It is home to the SD Eibar football team in La Liga.

El Fuerte, Sinaloa

El Fuerte (Spanish [el 'fwerte] ) is a city and El Fuerte Municipality its surrounding municipality in the northwestern Mexican state of Sinaloa. The city population reported in the 2010 census were 12,566 people.

El Fuerte, meaning "The Fort", was named "Pueblo Mágico" ("Magical Town") in 2009, for it has many attractions and a special, pretty-small-town Aura.


Fresnillo /fres'nijo/ (2005 census pop. 110,892), founded in 1554 by Francisco de Ibarra, is the second largest city in Zacatecas state, north central Mexico and the seat of Fresnillo municipality. As a rail and highway junction, Fresnillo is the center of a rich mining area known especially for silver, and the location of one of the world's richest silver mines, the Mina Proaño or Fresnillo Mine, which belongs to the Peñoles mining company. It has a mining school, and agriculture (cereals, beans) and cattle raising are other important economic activities. Fresnillo is also the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name which surrounds it. The municipality had a population of 196,538 and an areal extent of 4,947 square kilometres (1,910 sq mi).

It is the location of religious pilgrimages to see the famous Santo Niño de Atocha ("Holy Child of Atocha"), a Roman Catholic devotional statue brought to Mexico from Spain.

List of television stations in Durango

The following is a list of all IFT-licensed over-the-air television stations broadcasting in the Mexican state of Durango. There are 15 television stations in Durango which are either independent or affiliated to a Televisa, TV Azteca, Multimedios, Imagen Televisión or Canal Once network.

Lobos FM

Lobos FM is a network of radio stations owned by the Universidad Autónoma de Durango (known in the state of Sonora as the Universidad Durango Santander), a private university with campuses in multiple Mexican states. The seven Lobos FM stations cover cities in western Mexico and broadcast from the UAD campuses in each city. With Lobos FM, the UAD is the only multi-state private university broadcaster in the country.

Maestre de campo

Maestre de campo was a rank created in 1534 by the Emperor Carlos V, inferior in rank only to the capitán general and acted as a chief of staff. He was chosen by the monarch in the Council of State, and commanded a tercio. Their powers were similar to those of the old marshals of the Kingdom of Castile: he had the power to administer justice and to regulate the food supply. His personal guard consisted of eight German halberdiers, paid by the king, who accompanied him everywhere. Immediately inferior in the chain of command was the sargento mayor. One of the most famous maestre de campo was Julian Romero, a common soldier who reached the rank of maestre de campo and that brought victory to the Spanish tercios in the battles of San Quintín and Gravelines.

In the overseas colonies of the Spanish Empire a governor held the rank of capitán general over his local forces and would appoint his maestre de campo.

Nueva Vizcaya, New Spain

Nueva Vizcaya (New Biscay, Basque: Bizkai Berria) was the first province in the north of New Spain to be explored and settled by the Spanish. It consisted mostly of the area which is today the states of Chihuahua and Durango in Mexico.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Caracas

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Caracas is the Latin an ecclesiastical territory of the Roman Catholic Church in part of Venezuela. It was founded as the Diocese of Caracas on June 20, 1637, and was later elevated to the rank of a Metropolitan see on November 27, 1803.

This episcopal see occupies a territory of about 790 square kilometers and is not unlikely to be given several auxiliary bishops. The current Archbishop is Cardinal Jorge Urosa, appointed by Pope Benedict XVI on September 19, 2005.

Its cathedral episcopal see is the Catedral Metropolitana de Santa Ana, in national capital Caracas, Distrito Federal, which also has three Minor Basilicas: Basílica de Santa Teresa, Basílica San Pedro Apóstol and Basílica Santuario de Santa Capilla (also a National Shrine).

Santa Bárbara, Chihuahua

Santa Bárbara is a city and seat of the municipality of Santa Bárbara, in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. As of 2010, the city of Santa Bárbara had a population of 8,765, up from 8,673 as of 2005.

Universidad Autónoma de Durango

The Universidad Autónoma de Durango (Durango Autonomous University) is a private university in Durango, Durango with campuses in multiple Mexican states, founded in 1992. It is operated by Fomento Educativo y Cultural Francisco de Ibarra, A.C.. It has campuses in 26 Mexican cities.

Vicente Guerrero Municipality, Durango

Vicente Guerrero is one of the 39 municipalities of Durango, in north-western Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Vicente Guerrero. The municipality covers an area of 402.24 km² and is composed of 19 localities.

As of 2010, the municipality had a total population of 21,117, up from 20,614 as of 2005. As of 2010, the city of Vicente Guerrero had a population of 15,982. Other than the city of Vicente Guerrero, the municipality had 31 localities, the largest of which (with 2010 population in parentheses) was: San Francisco Javier (1,669), classified as rural.It was named for Independence War hero and early President Vicente Guerrero. It is now home to about 200 restaurants and other places to visit, including museums, historical places, and rides. Spanish is the spoken language of the region, although there are approximately 150 speakers of indigenous languages. Vicente Guerrero's principal economic activities are agriculture and ranching.


XHUAD-TDT channel 46 is an educational television station founded in 2012 by the Universidad Autónoma de Durango, broadcasting in Durango, Durango, Mexico. Branded as TV Lobo, the station carries a variety of local interest and university programs. It is a sister station to XHUAD-FM 94.1.

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