Francisco Vázquez de Coronado

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján (Spanish pronunciation: [fɾanˈθisko ˈβaθkeθ ðe koɾoˈnaðo]; 1510 – 22 September 1554) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542. Vázquez de Coronado had hoped to reach the Cities of Cíbola, often referred to now as the mythical Seven Cities of Gold, which is a term not invented until American gold-rush days in the 1800s. His expedition marked the first European sightings of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River, among other landmarks. His name is often Anglicized as "Vasquez de Coronado".

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado
Pabellón Consistorial medallón 01 Francisco Vázquez Coronado
Francisco Vázquez Coronado in the Plaza Mayor de Salamanca
Governor of New Galicia
MonarchCharles I
Personal details
Born1510
Salamanca, Crown of Castile
Died22 September 1554 (aged 43–44)
Mexico City, Viceroyalty of New Spain
Military service
Allegiance Spain
Years of service1535–1554
Battles/warsSpanish conquest of Mexico
Exploration of North America

Early life

Vázquez de Coronado was born into a noble family in Salamanca, Spain, in 1510 as the second son of Juan Vázquez de Coronado y Sosa de Ulloa and Isabel de Luján. Juan Vázquez held various positions in the administration of the recently captured Emirate of Granada under Iñigo López de Mendoza, its first Spanish governor.[1]

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado went to New Spain (present-day Mexico) in 1535 at about age 25, in the entourage of its first Viceroy, Antonio de Mendoza, the son of his father's patron and Vázquez de Coronado's personal friend.[1] In New Spain, he married twelve-year-old Beatriz de Estrada, called "the Saint" (la Santa), sister of Leonor de Estrada, ancestor of the de Alvarado family and daughter of Treasurer and Governor Alonso de Estrada y Hidalgo, Lord of Picón, and wife Marina Flores Gutiérrez de la Caballería, from a converso Jewish family.[2] Vázquez de Coronado inherited a large portion of a Mexican encomendero estate through Beatriz and had eight children by her.

Expedition

Preparation

Vázquez de Coronado was the Governor of the Kingdom of Nueva Galicia (New Galicia), a province of New Spain located northwest of Mexico and comprising the contemporary Mexican states of Jalisco, Sinaloa and Nayarit. In 1539, he dispatched Friar Marcos de Niza and Estevanico (more properly known as Estevan), a survivor of the Narváez expedition, on an expedition north from Compostela toward present-day New Mexico. When de Niza returned, he told of a city of vast wealth, a golden city called Cíbola, whose Zuni residents were assumed to have killed Estevan. Though he did not claim to have entered the city of Cíbola, he mentioned that it stood on a high hill and that it appeared wealthy and as large as Mexico City.

Vázquez de Coronado assembled an expedition with two components. One component carried the bulk of the expedition's supplies, traveling via the Guadalupe River under the leadership of Hernando de Alarcón.[3] The other component traveled by land, along the trail on which Friar Marcos de Niza had followed Esteban. Vázquez de Coronado and Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza invested large sums of their own money in the venture. Mendoza appointed Vázquez de Coronado the commander of the expedition, with the mission to find the mythical Seven Cities of Gold. This is the reason he pawned his wife's estates and was lent 70,000 pesos.

In the autumn of 1539, Mendoza ordered Melchior Díaz, commander of the Spanish outpost at San Miguel de Culiacán, to investigate Friar de Niza's findings, and on November 17, 1539, Díaz departed for Cíbola with fifteen horsemen.[4] At the ruins of Chichilticalli, he turned around because of "snows and fierce winds from across the wilderness".[4] Díaz had encountered Vázquez de Coronado before he had departed San Miguel de Culiacán, and reported that initial investigations into Friar de Niza's report disproved the existence of the bountiful land he had described. Díaz's report was delivered to Viceroy Mendoza on March 20, 1540.[4]

Expedition

Coronado expedition
The Coronado Expedition (1540–1542) from Mexico north to the future southwestern United States and east through the modern states of Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas
Coronado-Remington
Coronado Sets Out to the North, by Frederic Remington, 1861–1909

Vázquez de Coronado set out from Compostela on February 23, 1540, at the head of a much larger expedition composed of about 400 European men-at-arms (mostly Spaniards), 1,300 to 2,000 Mexican Indian allies, four Franciscan friars (the most notable of whom were Juan de Padilla and the newly appointed provincial superior of the Franciscan order in the New World, Marcos de Niza), and several slaves, both natives and Africans.[5][6] Many other family members and servants also joined the party.

He followed the Sinaloan coast northward, keeping the Gulf of California on his left to the west until he reached the northernmost Spanish settlement in Mexico, San Miguel de Culiacán, about March 28, 1540, whereupon he rested his expedition before they began trekking the inland trail.[7] Aside from his mission to verify Friar de Niza's report, Melchior Díaz had also taken notice of the forage and food situation along the trail, and reported that the land along the route would not be able to support a large concentrated body of soldiers and animals. Vázquez de Coronado, therefore, decided to divide his expedition into small groups and time their departures so that grazing lands and water holes along the trail could recover. At intervals along the trail, Vázquez de Coronado established camps and stationed garrisons of soldiers to keep the supply route open. For example, in September 1540, Melchior Díaz, along with "seventy or eighty of the weakest and least reliable men" in Vázquez de Coronado's army, remained at the town of San Hieronimo, in the valley of Corazones, or Hearts.[8] Once the scouting and planning was done, Vázquez de Coronado led the first group of soldiers up the trail. They were horsemen and foot soldiers who were able to travel quickly, while the main bulk of the expedition would set out later.

After leaving Culiacan on April 22, 1540, Vázquez de Coronado followed the coast, "bearing off to the left", as Mota Padilla says, by an extremely rough way, to the Sinaloa River. The configuration of the country made it necessary to follow the river valley until he could find a passage across the mountains to the course of the Yaqui River. He traveled alongside this stream for some distance, then crossed to the Rio Sonora, which he followed nearly to its source before a pass was discovered. On the southern side of the mountains he found a stream he called the Nexpa, which may have been either the Santa Cruz or the San Pedro in modern Arizona of modern maps, most likely the northward-flowing San Pedro River. The party followed this river valley until they reached the edge of the wilderness, where, as Friar Marcos had described it to them, they found Chichilticalli.[9] Chichilticalli is in southern Arizona in the Sulfur Springs Valley, within the bend of the Dos Cabezas and Chiricahua Mountains. This fits the chronicle of Laus Deo description, which reports that "at Chichilticalli the country changes its character again and the spiky vegetation ceases. The reason is that ... the mountain chain changes its direction at the same time that the coast does. Here they had to cross and pass the mountains in order to get into the level country."[10] There Vázquez de Coronado met a crushing disappointment: Cíbola was nothing like the great golden city that de Niza had described. Instead, it was just a village of simple pueblos constructed by the Zuni Native Americans. The soldiers were upset with de Niza for his mendacious imagination, so Vázquez de Coronado sent him back south to New Spain in disgrace.

Despite what is shown in the accompanying map, on-the-ground research by Nugent Brasher beginning in 2005 revealed evidence that Vázquez de Coronado traveled north between Chichilticalli and Zuni primarily on the future New Mexico side of the state line, not the Arizona side as has been thought by historians since the 1940s.[11] Also, most scholars believe Quivira was about thirty miles east of the great bend of the Arkansas River, ending about twenty miles west-southwest of the location depicted on the map, with Quivira being mostly on tributaries of the Arkansas River instead of directly on the Kansas River.[12] For details, see the heading below, "Location of Quivira...."

Conquest of Cíbola

The Coronado expedition, 1540-1542.djvu&page=7
The Coronado Expedition, 1540–1542 (DjVu format)

Vázquez de Coronado traveled north on one side or the other of today's Arizona–New Mexico state line, and from the headwaters of the Little Colorado River, he continued on until he came to the Zuni River. He followed the Zuni until he found the region inhabited by the Zuni people. The members of the expedition were almost starving and demanded entrance into the village of Hawikuh (of which the preferred Zuni word is Hawikku). The natives refused, denying the expedition entrance to the village. Vázquez de Coronado and his expeditionaries attacked the Zunis. The ensuing skirmish constituted the extent of what can be called the Spanish "Conquest of Cíbola". During the battle, Vázquez de Coronado was injured. He never personally led his men-at-arms in any subsequent battles. During the weeks that the expedition stayed at Zuni, he sent out several scouting expeditions.

The first scouting expedition was led by Pedro de Tovar. This expedition headed northwest to the Hopi villages, which they recorded as Tusayan. Upon arrival, the Spanish were also denied entrance to the village that they came across and, once again, resorted to using force to enter. Materially, the Hopi region was just as poor as the Zuni in precious metals, but the Spaniards did learn that a large river (the Colorado) lay to the west.

Exploration of the Colorado River

Three leaders affiliated with the Vázquez de Coronado expedition were able to reach the Colorado River. The first was Hernando de Alarcón, then Melchior Díaz and lastly Garcia Lopez de Cárdenas. Alarcón's fleet was tasked to carry supplies and to establish contact with the main body of Vázquez de Coronado's expedition but was unable to do so because of the extreme distance to Cibola. He traveled up the Sea of Cortés and then the Colorado River. In this exploration, he hauled some supplies for Vázquez de Coronado, but eventually, he buried them with a note in a bottle. Melchior Díaz was sent down from Cíbola by Vázquez de Coronado to take charge of the camp of Corazones and to establish contact with the fleet. Soon after arriving at the camp he set out from the valley of Corazones in Sonora and traveled overland in a north/northwesterly direction until he arrived at the junction of the Colorado River and Gila River. There the local natives, probably the CocoMaricopa (see Seymour 2007b), told him that Alarcón's sailors had buried supplies and left a note in a bottle. The supplies were retrieved, and the note stated that Alarcón's men had rowed up the river as far as they could, searching in vain for the Vázquez de Coronado expedition. They had given up and decided to return to their departure point because worms were eating holes in their boats. Díaz named the river the "Firebrand (Tizón) River" because the natives in the area used firebrands to keep their bodies warm in the winter. Díaz died on the trip back to the camp in the valley of the Corazones.

La conquista del Colorado
La conquista del Colorado, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, depicts Francisco Vázquez de Coronado's 1540–1542 expedition

While at Hawikuh, Vázquez de Coronado sent another scouting expedition overland to find the Colorado River, led by Don Garcia López de Cárdenas. The expedition returned to Hopi territory to acquire scouts and supplies. Members of Cárdenas's party eventually reached the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, where they could see the Colorado River thousands of feet below, becoming the first Europeans to do so. After trying and failing to climb down into the canyon to reach the river, the expedition reported that they would not be able to use the Colorado River to link up with Hernando de Alarcón's fleet. After this, the main body of the expedition began its journey to the next populated center of pueblos, along another large river to the east, the Rio Grande in New Mexico.

Tiguex War

Hernando de Alvarado was sent to the east, and found several villages around the Rio Grande. Vázquez de Coronado had one commandeered for his winter quarters, Coofor, which is across the river from present-day Bernalillo near Albuquerque, New Mexico. During the winter of 1540–41, his army found themselves in conflict with the Rio Grande natives, which led to the brutal Tiguex War.[13] This war resulted in the destruction of the Tiguex pueblos and the deaths of hundreds of Native Americans.[14]

Search for Quivira

From an Indian the Spanish called "the Turk" (el turco), Vázquez de Coronado heard of a wealthy civilization called Quivira far to the east. In spring 1541 he led his army and priests and Indian allies onto the Great Plains to search for Quivira. The Turk was probably either a Wichita or a Pawnee and his intention seems to have been to lead Vázquez de Coronado astray and hope that he got lost in the wilderness.

With the Turk guiding him, Vázquez de Coronado and his army might have crossed the flat and featureless steppe called the Llano Estacado in the Texas Panhandle and Eastern New Mexico, passing through the present-day communities of Hereford and Canadian. The Spanish were awed by the Llano. "The country they [the buffalo] traveled over was so smooth that if one looked at them the sky could be seen between their legs." Men and horses became lost in the featureless plain and Vázquez de Coronado felt like he had been swallowed up by the sea.[15]

On the Llano, Vázquez de Coronado encountered vast herds of bison—the American buffalo. "I found such a quantity of cows ... that it is impossible to number them, for while I was journeying through these plains ... there was not a day that I lost sight of them."[16]

Querechos and Teyas

Vázquez de Coronado found a settlement of people he called Querechos. The Querechos were not awed or impressed by the Spanish, their weapons, and their "big dogs" (horses). "They did nothing unusual when they saw our army, except to come out of their tents to look at us, after which they came to talk to the advance guard, and asked who we were."[17] As Vázquez de Coronado described them, the Querechos were nomads, following the buffalo herds on the plains. The Querechos were numerous. Chroniclers mentioned one settlement of two hundred tipis—which implies a population of more than one thousand people living together for at least part of the year. Authorities agree that the Querechos (Becquerel's) were Apache Indians.[18]

Francisco Coronado picture IMG 4884
Vázquez de Coronado as depicted at the Deaf Smith County Historical Museum in Hereford in the Texas Panhandle

Vázquez de Coronado left the Querechos behind and continued southeast in the direction in which the Turk told him that Quivira was located. He and his army descended off the tabletop of the Llano Estacado into the caprock canyon country. He soon met with another group of Indians, the Teyas, enemies of the Querechos.

The Teyas, like the Querechos, were numerous and buffalo hunters, although they had additional resources. The canyons they inhabited had trees and flowing streams and they grew or foraged for beans, but not corn. The Spanish, however, did note the presence of mulberries, roses, grapes, walnuts, and plums.[19]

An intriguing event was Vázquez de Coronado's meeting among the Teyas an old blind bearded man who said that he had met many days before "four others like us". He was probably talking about Cabeza de Vaca, who with Esteban and two other Spanish survivors of the Narváez expedition to Florida made his way across southern Texas six years before Vázquez de Coronado.[20]

Scholars differ in their opinions as to which historical Indian group were the Teyas. A plurality believe they were Caddoan speakers and related to the Wichita.[21] The place where Vázquez de Coronado found the Teyas has also been debated. The mystery may have been cleared up—to the satisfaction of some—by the discovery of a likely Vázquez de Coronado campsite. While Vázquez de Coronado was in the canyon country, his army suffered one of the violent climatic events so common on the plains. "A tempest came up one afternoon with a very high wind and hail ... The hail broke many tents and tattered many helmets, and wounded many of the horses, and broke all the crockery of the army, and the gourds which was no small loss."[22]

In 1993, Jimmy Owens found crossbow points in Blanco Canyon in Crosby County, Texas, near the town of Floydada in Floyd County. Archaeologists subsequently searched the site and found pottery sherds, more than forty crossbow points, and dozens of horseshoe nails of Spanish manufacture, plus a Mexican-style stone blade. This find strengthens the evidence that Vázquez de Coronado found the Teyas in Blanco Canyon.[23]

Quivira

Another guide, probably Pawnee and named Ysopete, and probably Teyas as well told Vázquez de Coronado that he was going in the wrong direction, saying Quivira lay to the north. By this time, Vázquez de Coronado seems to have lost his confidence that fortune awaited him. He sent most of his expedition back to New Mexico and continued with only forty Spanish soldiers and priests and an unknown number of Indian soldiers, servants, and guides. Vázquez de Coronado, thus, dedicated himself to a reconnaissance rather than a mission of conquest.

After more than thirty days journey, Vázquez de Coronado found a river larger than any he had seen before. This was the Arkansas, probably a few miles east of present-day Dodge City, Kansas. The Spaniards and their Indian allies followed the Arkansas northeast for three days and found Quivirans hunting buffalo. The Indians greeted the Spanish with wonderment and fear but calmed down when one of Vázquez de Coronado's guides addressed them in their own language.

Vázquez de Coronado reached Quivira itself after a few more days of traveling. He found Quivira "well settled ... along good river bottoms, although without much water, and good streams which flow into another". Vázquez de Coronado believed that there were twenty-five settlements in Quivira. Both men and women Quivirans were nearly naked. Vázquez de Coronado was impressed with the size of the Quivirans and all the other Indians he met. They were "large people of very good build".[24] Vázquez de Coronado spent twenty-five days among the Quivirans trying to learn of richer kingdoms just over the horizon. He found nothing but straw-thatched villages of up to two hundred houses and fields containing corn, beans, and squash. A copper pendant was the only evidence of wealth he discovered. The Quivirans were almost certainly the ancestors of the Wichita people.[25]

West indies
"Episode from the Conquest of America" by Jan Mostaert (c. 1545), probably Vázquez de Coronado in New Mexico

Vázquez de Coronado was escorted to the further edge of Quivira, called Tabas, where the neighboring land of Harahey began. He summoned the "Lord of Harahey" who, with two hundred followers, came to meet with the Spanish. He was disappointed. The Harahey Indians were "all naked -- with bows, and some sort of things on their heads, and their privy parts slightly covered".[26] They were not the wealthy people Vázquez de Coronado sought. Disappointed, he returned to New Mexico. Before leaving Quivira, Vázquez de Coronado ordered the Turk garroted. The Turk is regarded as an Indian hero in a display at Albuquerque's Indian Pueblo Cultural Center because he led Vázquez de Coronado onto the Great Plains and thus relieved the beleaguered pueblos of Spanish depredations for at least a few months.

Location of Quivira, Tabas, and Harahey

Archaeological evidence suggests that Quivira was in central Kansas with the western-most village near the small town of Lyons on Cow Creek, extending twenty miles east to the Little Arkansas River, and north another twenty miles to the town of Lindsborg on a tributary of the Smoky Hill River. Tabas was likely on the Smoky Hill River. Archaeologists have found numerous 16th-century sites in these areas that probably include some of the settlements visited by Vázquez de Coronado.

At Harahey "was a river, with more water and more inhabitants than the other". This sounds as if Vázquez de Coronado may have reached the Smoky Hill River near Salina or Abilene. It is a larger river than either Cow Creek or the Little Arkansas and is located at roughly the 25 league distance from Lyons that Vázquez de Coronado said he traveled in Quivira. The people of Harahey seem Caddoan, because "it was the same sort of a place, with settlements like these, and of about the same size" as Quivira. They were probably the ancestors of the Pawnee.[27]

Expedition end

Vázquez de Coronado returned to the Tiguex Province in New Mexico from Quivira and was badly injured in a fall from his horse "after the winter was over", according to the chronicler Castañeda—probably in March 1542. During a long convalescence, he and his expeditionaries decided to return to New Spain (Mexico). Vázquez de Coronado and his expedition departed New Mexico in early April 1542, leaving behind two friars.[28] His expedition had been a failure. Although he remained governor of Nueva Galicia until 1544, the expedition forced him into bankruptcy and resulted in charges of war crimes being brought against him and his field master, Cárdenas. Vázquez de Coronado was cleared by his friends on the Audiencia, but Cárdenas was convicted in Spain of basically the same charges by the Council of the Indies. Vázquez de Coronado remained in Mexico City, where he died of an infectious disease on September 22, 1554.[29] He was buried under the altar of the Church of Santo Domingo in Mexico City.[30]

Vázquez de Coronado caused a large loss of life among the Puebloans, both from the battles he fought with them in the Tiguex War and from the demands for food and clothing that he levied on their fragile economies. However, thirty-nine years later when the Spanish again visited the Southwestern United States, they found little evidence that Vázquez de Coronado had any lasting cultural influences on the Indians except for their surprise at seeing several light-skinned and light-haired Puebloans. See: The Chamuscado and Rodriguez Expedition and Antonio de Espejo.

Legacy

In 1952, the United States established Coronado National Memorial near Sierra Vista, Arizona to commemorate his expedition.

Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade references the "Cross of Coronado". According to the film, this gold cross, discovered in a Utah cave system, was given to Vázquez de Coronado by Hernán Cortés in 1521. Such an event never happened because Vázquez de Coronado would have been 11 or 12 years old in 1521 and still living in Spain. In addition, when Indy captures the cross from robbers aboard a ship off the coast of Portugal, the ship can be seen to be named 'The Coronado'.

In 1992, underground found-footage filmmaker Craig Baldwin made the film "O No Coronado!"[31] detailing the expedition of Vázquez de Coronado through the use of recycled images from Westerns, conquest films, and The Lone Ranger television series.

The song Hitchin' to Quivira[32] from independent singer-songwriter Tyler Jakes's 2016 album Mojo Suicide is based on the story of Vázquez de Coronado's expedition.

The song Coronado And The Turk from singer-songwriter Steve Tilston's 1992 album Of Moor And Mesa is based on the story of Vázquez de Coronado's expedition.

There is a large hill just northwest of Lindsborg, Kansas, that is called Coronado Heights. The former owner of the land built a small castle atop the hill to commemorate Vázquez de Coronado's 1541 visit to the area. The castle and the area around it is now a public camping and recreation area. The soft sandstone rocks at the peak of the hill are covered in the names of past visitors to the area.

Coronado High Schools in Lubbock, Texas, El Paso, Texas, Colorado Springs, Colorado, and Scottsdale, Arizona, were named for Vázquez de Coronado. Because a don is a name for a Spanish nobleman, the Coronado Don became the school mascot in Scottsdale.

Bernalillo, New Mexico, calls itself the "City of Coronado" because he stayed there for two winters.

Coronado Center, a two-story indoor shopping mall in Albuquerque, New Mexico is named after Vázquez de Coronado.

Coronado Road in Phoenix, Arizona, was named after Vázquez de Coronado. Similarly, Interstate 40 through Albuquerque has been named the Coronado Freeway.

Coronado, California is not named after Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, but is named after Coronado Islands, which were named in 1602 by Sebastián Vizcaíno who called them Los Cuatro Coronados (the four crowned ones) to honor four martyrs.[33]

Family

Within a year of arriving in New Spain, he married Beatriz de Estrada, called "the saint".

Beatriz was the second daughter of Alonso de Estrada and Marina de la Caballería; niece of Diego de Caballeria. The Estrada-Coronado union was a carefully calculated political union that Francisco and Marina orchestrated. Through this marriage, Francisco became a wealthy man. Beatriz brought to the marriage the encomienda of Tlapa, the third largest encomienda in New Spain. This marriage was an important source of funding for Francisco´s expedition.[34]

Beatriz and Francisco have been reported, through different sources, to have had at least four sons( Gerónimo, Salvador, Juan, and Alonso ) and five daughters ( Isabel, María, Luisa, Mariana and Mayor ). [35][36]

After Alonso´s death, Beatriz ensured that three of their daughters were married into prominent families of New Spain. She never remarried.[37]

Beatriz reported that her husband had died in great poverty, since their encomiendas had been taken away from them due to the New Laws, and that she and her daughters lived in misery too, a shame for the widow of a conqueror that had provided such valuable service to his majesty. This, as most reports from the early days of New Spain, both positive and negative and regarding all things, have been proven to be false, part of the power struggles among settlers and attempts to exploit the budding new system that tried to find a way to administer justice in land the king could not see nor the army reach. Francisco, Beatriz and their children actually ended their days comfortably.[38]

References

  1. ^ a b Flint, Richard; Flint, Shirley Cushing. "Francisco Vázquez de Coronado". New Mexico Office of the State Historian. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
  2. ^ estrada1 Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Winship. pp. 39–40
  4. ^ a b c Winship. p. 38
  5. ^ Winship. pp. 32–4, 37
  6. ^ Flint, R. (Winter 2005). "What They Never Told You about the Coronado Expedition". Kiva. 71 (2): 203–217. doi:10.2307/30246725 (inactive 2018-09-22). JSTOR 30246725.
  7. ^ Winship. pp. 38, 40
  8. ^ Winship. p. 60
  9. ^ Winship. pp. 40–41
  10. ^ Winship. p. 143
  11. ^ Flint, Richard and Flint, Shirley Cushing, eds. The Latest Word from 1540. Albuquerque: U New Mexico Press, 2011, 229–261
  12. ^ Flint and Flint, Documents of the Coronado Expedition. Albuquerque: U New Mexico Press, 2012, p. 602
  13. ^ Herrick, Dennis. Winter of the Metal People: The Untold Story of America's First Indian War. Mechanicsburg, PA: Sunbury Press, 2013.
  14. ^ Flint, Richard, Shirley Cushing Flint. "Coofor and Juan Aleman". New Mexico Office of the State Historian. Archived from the original on 15 April 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
  15. ^ Winship, George Parker (Ed. and Translator) The Journey of Coronado, 1540–1542, from the City of Mexico to the Grand Canyon of the Colorado and the Buffalo Plains of Texas, Kansas, and Nebraska, As Told by Himself and his Followers. New York: A.S. Barnes & Co, 1904, 142–215
  16. ^ Winship, 214
  17. ^ Winship, 65
  18. ^ Riley, Carroll L., Rio del Norte, Salt Lake City: U of Utah Press, 1995, 190
  19. ^ Winship, 70
  20. ^ Winship, 232
  21. ^ Flint, Richard. No Settlement, No Conquest, Albuquerque: U of NM Press, 2008, 157. For a contrary view, see Riley, 191–192
  22. ^ Winship, 69–70
  23. ^ Flint, Richard and Flint, Shirley Cushing, eds. The Coronado Expedition to Tierra Nueva. Niwot, CO: U Press of CO, 1997, 372–375
  24. ^ Winship, 113, 209, 215, 234–237
  25. ^ Bolton, 293 and many subsequent scholars
  26. ^ Winship, 235
  27. ^ Winship, 235; Wedel, Waldo R., "Archeological Remains in Central Kansas and their Possible Bearing on the Location of Quivira". Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 101, No. 7, 1942, 1–24. Wedel lays the foundation for the location of Quivira, built on by many subsequent investigators.
  28. ^ Bolton, Herbert E. Coronado: Knight of Pueblo and Plains, Albuquerque: U of NM Press, 1949, 330–334
  29. ^ Bolton, 406
  30. ^ Blue, Rose; Naden, Corinne J. (2003). Exploring the Southwestern United States. Mankato, MN: Capstone Publishers. p. 23.
  31. ^ https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0105037/
  32. ^ "Hitchin' To Quivira by Tyler Jakes". Https:. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  33. ^ Chauncey Adams, History of Coronado
  34. ^ Dorantes de Carranza, Baltasar, and Ernesto de la Torre Villar. 1987. Sumaria relación de las cosas de la Nueva España: con noticia individual de los conquistadores y primeros pobladores españoles. México: Editorial Porrúa.
  35. ^ Shirley Cushing Flint "No Mere Shadows: Faces of Widowhood in Early Colonial Mexico" University of New Mexico Press 2013 pp 40
  36. ^ Aiton, Arthur Scott. Antonio de Mendoza, First Viceroy of New Spain. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1927
  37. ^ Aiton, Arthur Scott. Antonio de Mendoza, First Viceroy of New Spain. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1927.
  38. ^ Shirley Cushing Flint "No Mere Shadows: Faces of Widowhood in Early Colonial Mexico" University of New Mexico Press 2013 pp 40
  • Winship, George Parker, translator and editor. The Journey of Coronado 1540–1542. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 1990. Introduction by Donald C. Cutter. ISBN 1-55591-066-1

Further reading

  • Blakeslee, D. J., R. Flint, and J. T. Hughes 1997. "Una Barranca Grande: Recent Archaeological Evidence and a Discussion of its Place in the Coronado Route". In The Coronado Expedition to Terra Nueva. Eds. R. and S. Flint, University of Colorado Press, Niwot.
  • Bolton, Herbert Eugene. (1949) Coronado: Knight of Pueblos and Plains (New York: Whittlesey; Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press).
    Ebook at questia.com
  • Bolton, Herbert E. (1949) Coronado on the Turquoise Trail: Knight of Pueblos and Plains. Coronado Cuarto Centennial Publications, 1540–1940, vol. 1. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. Reprinted in 1949 jointly with Whittlesey House, New York, under the title Coronado, Knight of Pueblos and Plains.
  • Bolton, H. E. (1960) Rim of Christendom. Russell and Russell, New York.
  • Bolton, Herbert E. (1921) The Spanish Borderlands: A Chronicle of Old Florida and the Southwest. Chronicles of America Series, vol. 23. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Castañeda, Pedro de. (1990) The Journey of Coronado. Translated with an extensive introduction by George Parker Winship, modern introduction, Donald C. Cutter, The Journey of Coronado, Fulcrum Publishing, hardcover, 233 pages, ISBN 1-55591-066-1 On-line at PBS - The West
  • Chavez, Fr. Angelico, O.F.M. (1968) Coronado's Friars.. Academy of American Franciscan History, Washington D.C.
  • Day, Arthur Grove. (1981) Coronado's Quest: The Discovery of the Southwestern States (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1940; rpt., Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1981, ISBN 0-313-23207-5). Ebook at questia.com
  • De Voto, Bernard. (1952) The Course of Empire. Houghton, Mifflin, Boston.
  • Duffen, W., and Hartmann, W. K. (1997) "The 76 Ranch Ruin and the Location of Chichilticale". In The Coronado Expedition to Tierra Nueva: The 1540–1542 Route Across the Southwest. Eds. Richard Flint and Shirley Cushing Flint. University Press of Colorado, Niwot.
    • (1997) The Coronado Expedition to Tierra Nueva: The 1540–1542 Route Across the Southwest, edited by Richard Flint and Shirley Cushing Flint. University Press of Colorado, Niwot.
  • Flint, Richard and Shirley Cushing Flint. (1993) "Coronado's Crosses, Route Markers Used by the Coronado Expedition". Journal of the Southwest 35(2) (1993):207–216.
    • (2003) The Coronado Expedition from the Distance of 460 Years. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
    • (2005) Documents of the Coronado Expedition, 1539–1541: They Were Not Familiar with His Majesty nor Did They Wish to Be His Subjects. Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas.
  • Forbes, Jack D. (1960) Apache, Navaho, and Spaniard. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
  • Hammond, George P. (1940) Coronado's Seven Cities. United States Coronado Exposition Commission, Albuquerque.
  • Hammond, George P., and Edgar R. Goad. (1938) The Adventure of Don Francisco Vásquez de Coronado. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
  • Hammond, George P. and Agapito Rey. (1920) Narratives of the Coronado Expedition 1540–1542. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque (reprint by AMS Press, New York, 1977).
  • Hammond, George P., and Agapito Rey, eds. (1940) Narratives of the Coronado Expedition, 1540–1542. Coronado Centennial Publications, 1540–1940, vol. 2. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
  • Haury, Emil W. (1984) "The Search for Chichilticale". Arizona Highways 60(4):14–19.
  • Hedrick, Basil C. (1978) "The Location of Corazones". In Across the Chichimec Sea. Ed. C. Riley, Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Herrick, Dennis (2013) "Winter of the Metal People: The Untold Story of America's First Indian War, Sunbury Press, Mechanicsburg, PA.
  • Hodge, Frederick W. and Theodore H. Lewis, ed. (1907) Spanish Explorers in the Southern United States, Vol. II (1907, xiii, 413 p.; rpt., Texas State Historical Association, 1985, 411 pages, ISBN 0-87611-066-9, ISBN 0-87611-067-7 pbk.)
  • Lee, Betty Graham. (1966) The Eagle Pass Site: An Integral Part of the Province of Chichilticale. Thatcher: Eastern Arizona College Museum of Anthropology Publication No. 5.
  • Mill, J. P., and V. M. Mills (1969) The Kuykendall Site: A Prehistoric Salado Village in Southeastern Arizona. El Paso Arch. Soc. Spec. Report for 1967, No. 6, El Paso.
  • Reff, Daniel T. (1991) Disease, Depopulation and Culture Change in Northwestern New Spain, 1518–1764. (University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
    • Reff, Daniel T. (1997) "The Relevance of Ethnology to the Routing of the Coronado Expedition in Sonora". In The Coronado Expedition to Tierra Nueva: The 1540–1542 Route Across the Southwest. pp. 165–176, Eds. Richard Flint and Shirley Cushing Flint. University Press of Colorado, Niwot.
  • Sauer, Carl O. (1932) The Road to Cibola. Ibero-Americana III. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Schroeder, Albert E. (1955) "Fray Marcos de Niza, Coronado and the Yavapai". New Mex. Hist. Rev. 30:265–296; see also 31:24–37.
  • Seymour, Deni J., (2007) "An Archaeological Perspective on the Hohokam-Pima Continuum". Old Pueblo Archaeology Bulletin No. 51, December 2007:1–7.
  • Seymour, Deni J. (2008) "Despoblado or Athapaskan Heartland: A Methodological Perspective on Ancestral Apache Landscape Use in the Safford Area". Chapter 5 in Crossroads of the Southwest: Culture, Ethnicity, and Migration in Arizona's Safford Basin, pp. 121–162, edited by David E. Purcell, Cambridge Scholars Press, New York.
  • Seymour, Deni J. (2009) "Evaluating Eyewitness Accounts of Native Peoples Along the Coronado Trail From the International Border to Cibola". New Mexico Historical Review 84(3):399–435.
  • Seymour, Deni J. (2009) Where the Earth and Sky are Stitched Together: Sobaípuri-O'odham Contexts of Contact and Colonialism. Book manuscript.
  • Udall, Steward S. (1984) "In Coronado's Footsteps". Arizona Highways 60(4):3.

External links

1510

Year 1510 (MDX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1554

Year 1554 (MDLIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Carson County, Texas

Carson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 6,182. The county seat is Panhandle. The county was founded in 1876 and later organized in 1888. It is named for Samuel Price Carson, the first secretary of state of the Republic of Texas.Carson County is included in the Amarillo, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Colonial Argentina

Colonial Argentina is designated as the period of the History of Argentina when it was an overseas colony of the Spanish Empire. It begins in the precolumbian age of the indigenous peoples of Argentina, with the arrival of the first Spanish conqueror.

Coronado High School (El Paso, Texas)

Coronado High School in El Paso, Texas, United States is located on the west side of El Paso near the intersection of North Mesa Street and Resler Drive. It serves the southern part of west El Paso: east of Interstate 10, from the vicinity of Executive Center Boulevard north approximately three miles to around Coronado Arroyo, a normally dry stream bed running west down from the Franklin Mountains just north of Escondido Drive; and the portion of the Upper Valley (the part of El Paso County beside the Rio Grande west of Interstate 10) which lies south of Country Club Road. Most of the Coronado attendance zone is zoned to Morehead Middle School for grades six to eight. The elementary schools in the Coronado feeder pattern include Dr. Green, L.B Johnson, Putnam, Carlos Rivera, Western Hills, and Zach White. The Upper Valley portion of the Coronado attendance area is zoned to Zach White Elementary and Lincoln Middle School, except for the Buena Vista neighborhood around Interstate 10 and West Paisano Drive, which is zoned to Johnson and Morehead. Dr. Green, L.B Johnson, Putnam, Carlos Rivera and Western Hills elementary schools all graduate into Morehead Middle School.Coronado High is named for Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, whose expeditions in what is now the southwestern United States took him through what is now El Paso.

Duncan, Arizona

Duncan is a town in Greenlee County, Arizona, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of the town was 696. In 2015 the estimated population was 799.Duncan is in the Gila River valley, 4 miles (6 km) west of the Arizona-New Mexico border. The town limits are on both sides of the Gila, but the primary portion of the town and the entire downtown area lie on the south side of the river. Duncan was founded in the mid 19th century, and the land was added to the United States as a part of the Mexican Cession. The town of Duncan has been destroyed twice by flood and once by fire.

The town and area are primarily populated by ranchers and miners (especially from the Freeport-McMoran copper mines in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico). Surrounding smaller towns such as Franklin and York in Arizona and Virden, New Mexico, use Duncan public works and public schools. The Duncan area along the Gila River is renowned for Native American artifacts such as arrow heads, pottery, burial sites, cave paintings and other remnants of the Anasazi and other pre-historic cultures, as well as artifacts from garrison camps of the expedition of Francisco Vázquez de Coronado.

Duncan High School (mascot: Wildkats; school colors: red, grey, and white) competes in many sports, but is renowned for their football team.

U.S. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor was born in El Paso, Texas, but grew up near Duncan on the Lazy B ranch, which straddles the border between Arizona and New Mexico. The Day family ran the ranch for many years until selling it; it continues to be run as a ranch. O'Connor later wrote a book titled Lazy B: Growing up on a Cattle Ranch in the American Southwest about her childhood experiences on the ranch with her brother H. Alan Day.

European colonization of the Americas

The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Western Europe.

Systematic European colonization began in 1492, when a Spanish expedition headed by the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sailed west to find a new trade route to the Far East but inadvertently landed in what came to be known to Europeans as the "New World". He ran aground on the northern part of Hispaniola on 5 December 1492, which the Taino people had inhabited since the 9th century; the site became the first permanent European settlement in the Americas. Western European conquest, large-scale exploration and colonization soon followed. Columbus's first two voyages (1492–93) reached the Bahamas and various Caribbean islands, including Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Cuba. In 1497, Italian explorer John Cabot, on behalf of England, landed on the North American coast, and a year later, Columbus's third voyage reached the South American coast. As the sponsor of Christopher Columbus's voyages, Spain was the first European power to settle and colonize the largest areas, from North America and the Caribbean to the southern tip of South America.

The Spaniards began building their American empire in the Caribbean, using islands such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Hispaniola as bases. The North and South American mainland fell to the conquistadors, with an estimated 8,000,000 deaths of indigenous populations, which has been argued to be the first large-scale act of genocide in the modern era. Florida fell to Juan Ponce de León after 1513. From 1519 to 1521, Hernán Cortés waged a campaign against the Aztec Empire, ruled by Moctezuma II. The Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, became Mexico City, the chief city of what the Spanish were now calling "New Spain". More than 240,000 Aztecs died during the siege of Tenochtitlan. Of these, 100,000 died in combat. Between 500 and 1,000 of the Spaniards engaged in the conquest died. Later, the areas that are today California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Texas, Missouri, Louisiana, and Alabama were taken over by other conquistadors, such as Hernando de Soto, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, and Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. Farther to the south, Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire during the 1530s. The de Soto expedition was the first major encounter of Europeans with North American Indians in the eastern half of the United States. The expedition journeyed from Florida through present-day Georgia and the Carolinas, then west across the Mississippi and into Texas. De Soto fought his biggest battle at the walled town of Mabila in present-day Alabama on October 18, 1540. Spanish losses were 22 killed and 148 wounded. The Spaniards claimed that 2,500 Indians died. If true, Mabila was the bloodiest battle ever fought between red men and white in the present-day United States. The centuries of continuous conflicts between the North American Indians and the Anglo-Americans were secondary to the devastation wrought on the densely populated Meso-American, Andean, and Caribbean heartlands.Other powers such as France also founded colonies in the Americas: in eastern North America, a number of Caribbean islands and small coastal parts of South America. Portugal colonized Brazil, tried colonizing the eastern coasts of present-day Canada and settled for extended periods northwest (on the east bank) of the River Plate. The Age of Exploration was the beginning of territorial expansion for several European countries. Europe had been preoccupied with internal wars and was slowly recovering from the loss of population caused by the Black Death; thus the rapid rate at which it grew in wealth and power was unforeseeable in the early 15th century.Eventually, most of the Western Hemisphere came under the control of Western European governments, leading to changes to its landscape, population, and plant and animal life. In the 19th century over 50 million people left Western Europe for the Americas. The post-1492 era is known as the period of the Columbian Exchange, a dramatically widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations (including slaves), ideas, and communicable disease between the American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres following Columbus's voyages to the Americas.

Henry F. Dobyns estimates that immediately before European colonization of the Americas there were between 90 and 112 million people in the Americas; a larger population than Europe at the same time.

García López de Cárdenas

García López de Cárdenas y Figueroa was a Spanish conquistador who was the first European to see the Grand Canyon.

Hernando de Alarcón

Hernando de Alarcón (born c. 1500) was a Spanish explorer and navigator of the 16th century, noted for having led an early expedition to the Baja California Peninsula, during which he became one of the first Europeans to ascend the Colorado River from its mouth and perhaps the first to reach Alta California.Little is known about Alarcón's life outside of his exploits in New Spain. He was probably born in the town of Trujillo, in present-day Extremadura, Spain, in the first years of the 16th century and traveled to the Spanish colonies in the Americas as a young man.

History of Albuquerque, New Mexico

The history of Albuquerque, New Mexico dates back up to 12,000 years, beginning with the presence of Paleo-Indian hunter-gatherers in the region. Gradually, these nomadic people adopted a more settled, agricultural lifestyle and began to build multi-story stone or adobe dwellings now known as pueblos by 750 CE. The Albuquerque area was settled the Tiwa people beginning around 1250. By the 1500s, there were around 20 Tiwa pueblos along a 60-mile (97 km) stretch of the middle Rio Grande valley. The region was visited by Spanish conquistadores beginning with the expedition of Francisco Vázquez de Coronado in 1540–41, and began to be settled by Spanish colonists after the expedition of Juan de Oñate in 1598. By 1680, 17 Spanish estancias were reported along the Camino Real in the Albuquerque area.

The settlers were driven out by the Pueblo Revolt in 1680. When they returned in 1692, they were able to re-settle the abandoned estancias. In 1706, the recently appointed governor of New Mexico, Francisco Cuervo y Valdés, officially designated the community as a royally chartered town and named it Alburquerque. The settlement remained small and dispersed throughout the 1700s, eventually coalescing into a series of plazas of which the largest was today's Old Town. Possession of the town, along with the rest of New Mexico, passed to Mexico in 1821 and then to the United States in 1846. These developments brought increased commerce and Albuquerque prospered as a trading hub and U.S. Army post.

In 1880 the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway reached Albuquerque, but the establishment of the depot some distance from the plaza led to the creation of a rival "New Town" that quickly outstripped the older community. New Town was dominated by recently arrived Anglo-Americans and European immigrants who modeled its buildings and institutions on those they remembered back home. Albuquerque soon resembled a typical small American city, and was incorporated in 1891. The city grew rapidly in the early 20th century, spurred in part by the tuberculosis treatment industry, and then even faster after World War II when it became a major scientific and military hub. Since the 1940s, the city has seen major urban sprawl with a focus on decentralized, auto-oriented development. As the city has continued to grow, officials have tried to encourage denser development, revitalization of the Downtown area, and improved transportation.

Juan Vázquez de Coronado

Juan Vázquez de Coronado y Anaya (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxwam ˈbaθkeθ ðe koɾoˈnaðo]; Salamanca, 1523 – Sanlúcar de Barrameda, 1565) was a Spanish conquistador, remembered especially for his role in the colonization of Costa Rica, in Central America, where he gained a reputation for fairness, effective administration, and good relationships with the native population. He was a nephew of Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján, who explored the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.

By a decree given at Aranjuez by King Philip II of Spain on April 8, 1565, Juan Vásquez de Coronado was appointed as the first royal governor and first Adelantado (a hereditary title) of the province of Costa Rica, but his ship disappeared in a storm off the coast of southern Spain while he was on his way to receive his appointments from the monarch. He was married to Isabel, a daughter of Pedro Arias Dávila, the principal conqueror of Panamá. The Vázquez de Coronado Canton, one of the administrative divisions of the Province of San José, in the Republic Costa Rica, was named in his honor.

Juan de Zaldívar

Juan de Zaldívar (1514–1570) was a Spanish official and explorer in New Spain. He served as a city councillor of Guadalajara from 1539 to 1570. He explored Northern New Spain (the modern-day Mexican states of Sinaloa and Sonora as well as southeastern Arizona) in search of the mythical towns of Cíbola and Quivira. By the 1560s, he was the owner of mines, farms and slaves, and one of the richest men in New Spain.

List of conquistadors

The following is a list of conquistadors.

Marcos de Niza

For the High School in Tempe, Arizona, see Marcos de Niza High School.

Fray Marcos de Niza (c. 1495 – March 25, 1558) was a Spanish missionary and Franciscan friar. He is credited with being the first European in what is now the State of Arizona in the United States.

Painted Desert (Arizona)

The Painted Desert is a United States desert of badlands in the Four Corners area running from near the east end of Grand Canyon National Park and southeast into Petrified Forest National Park. It is most easily accessed in the north portion of Petrified Forest National Park. The Painted Desert is known for its brilliant and varied colors, that not only include the more common red rock, but even shades of lavender.

The Painted Desert was named by an expedition under Francisco Vázquez de Coronado on his 1540 quest to find the Seven Cities of Cibola, which he located some 40 miles east of Petrified Forest National Park. Finding the cities were not made of gold, Coronado sent an expedition to find the Colorado River to resupply him. Passing through the wonderland of colors, they named the area El Desierto Pintado ("The Painted Desert").Much of the Painted Desert within Petrified Forest National Park is protected as Petrified Forest National Wilderness Area, where motorized travel is limited. Nonetheless, the park offers both easy and longer hikes into the colored hills. The Painted Desert continues north into the Navajo Nation, where off-road travel is allowed by permit.

Quito School

The Quito School (Escuela Quiteña) is a Latin American artistic tradition that constitutes essentially the whole of the professional artistic output developed in the territory of the Royal Audience of Quito — from Pasto and Popayán in the north to Piura and Cajamarca in the south — during the Spanish colonial period (1542-1824). It is especially associated with the 17th and 18th centuries and was almost exclusively focused on the religious art of the Catholic Church in the country. Characterized by a mastery of the realistic and by the degree to which indigenous beliefs and artistic traditions are evident, these productions were among of the most important activities in the economy of the Royal Audience of Quito. Such was the prestige of the movement even in Europe that it was said that King Carlos III of Spain (1716–1788), referring to one of its sculptors in particular, opined: "I am not concerned that Italy has Michelangelo; in my colonies of America I have the master Caspicara".

Ralls, Texas

Ralls is a city in Crosby County, Texas, United States. It was named after John Robinson Ralls, who with the help of W.E. McLaughlin, laid out the townsite in July 1911. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 1,944, down from 2,252 at the 2000 census. Ralls is surrounded by productive farm lands that primarily produce cotton and grains, with lesser amounts of soybean, sunflower seed, and vegetables.

Tiguex War

Although the DeSoto expedition fought numerous battles earlier, the Tiguex War was the first named war between Europeans and Native Americans in what is now the United States. It was fought in the winter of 1540-41 by the expedition of Francisco Vázquez de Coronado against the twelve or thirteen pueblos of Tiwa Indians as well as other Puebloan tribes along both sides of the Rio Grande, north and south of present-day Bernalillo, New Mexico, in what was called the Tiguex Province. The only book-length treatment of the Tiguex War is in the historical novel, Winter of the Metal People.

The virtually unknown Tiwa leader who opposed Coronado was Xauían, usually referred to in the chronicles by the Spanish nickname of Juan Alemán. Xauían was from the Tiwa pueblo of Ghufoor (also Coofor or Alcanfor), which Coronado commandeered for his headquarters in the winters of 1540-41 and 1541-42.The Coronado expedition had the primary motivation of finding the silk and spices of the Indies as well as gold, silver, and land for forced-labor encomienda estates. The Coronado expedition was huge in size, with about 350 Spaniard men-at-arms, a large number of spouses, slaves, and servants, and as many as 2,000 Mexican Indian allies, mostly warriors from Aztec, Purépecha, and other tribes from central and western Mexico. The expedition also brought thousands of livestock, including horses, mules, sheep, cattle, and perhaps pigs.

Tobias-Thompson Complex

The Tobias-Thompson Complex, also known as the Little River Archeological District, is a complex of archaeological sites on the banks of the Little Arkansas River near Geneseo, Kansas, United States. The complex is an important set of sites that is one of the few in the region bridging the periods of prehistory and European contact, with a period of significance between 1500 and 1700 CE. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966.

Ancestors of Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján
16. Pedro Vázquez de Cornado y Ulloa
8. Juan Vázquez de Coronado y Monroy
17. Berenguela Fernández de Monroy
4. Gonzalo Vázquez de Coronado y Rodríguez de Grado
18. Pedro Rodríguez Caballero
9. Marí Hernández
19. Mayor Álvarez de Grado
2. Juan Vázquez de Coronado y Sosa de Ulloa
20.
10. Gonzalo Ruíz de Ulloa
21.
5. Catalina de Sosa y Ulloa
22.
11. Catalina de Sosa
23.
1. Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján
24. Miguel Jiménez de Luján
12. Pedro de Luján
25. Catalina Alfonso
6. Juan de Luján, el Bueno
26. Juan de Aponte
13. Isabel de Aponte
27.
3. Isabel de Luján
28.
14. Pedro de Luzón
29.
7. María de Luzón
30.
15. María Palomeque
31.

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