Francisco Javier Castaños, 1st Duke of Bailén

Francisco Javier Castaños Aragorri Urioste y Olavide, 1st Duke of Bailén (es: Francisco Javier Castaños Aragorri Urioste y Olavide, primer Duque de Bailén.; 22 April 1758 – 24 September 1852), was a Spanish general during the Peninsular War.

The Most Excellent
The Duke of Bailén
General Casta%C3%B1os anciano
An elderly Castaños, by Vicente Lopez
President of the Council of Regency
In office
1 February 1810 – 29 May 1810
Monarch Fernando VI
President of the Estamento of Próceres
Assumed office
10 April 1834 – 12 July 1835
Succeeded by The Duke of Ahumada
Personal details
Born Francisco Javier Castaños y Urioste
22 April 1758
Madrid, Spain
Died 22 April 1852 (aged 93)
Madrid, Spain
Nationality Spanish
La Rendici%C3%B3n de Bail%C3%A9n (Casado del Alisal)
The Surrender of Bailén, by José Casado del Alisal, Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain. Castaños is in the White uniform.


Castaños was born at Madrid.

Castaños is remembered for his victory over the French under Dupont, whom he surrounded and compelled to surrender at the decisive Battle of Bailen in 1808, being on that moment in command of the "Army of the South", the biggest Spanish military unit during the Napoleonic War; after this he served under Wellington in several engagements, and was commander of the Spanish army, if required, to invade France in 1815. Recent evidence suggests Castaños may have played a crucial role in the Allied army's success at the Battle of Albuera.[1]

Castaños died at Madrid in 1852.


  1. ^ "But for Castaños' efforts to get him to stand and fight, Beresford would have retreated behind the Guadiana" (Esdaile 2003, p. 343).


  • Esdaile, Charles J. (2003). The Peninsular War: A New History. MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-6231-7.

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