Francisco Giner de los Ríos

Francisco Giner de los Ríos (10 October 1839 in Ronda, Spain – 18 February 1915 in Madrid) was a philosopher, educator and one of the most influential Spanish intellectuals at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.

Francisco Giner de los Ríos (1881)
Francisco Giner de los Ríos (1881)


He studied philosophy in Barcelona and Granada and eventually became professor of the philosophy of law and of international law at the University of Madrid. He was strongly influenced by the ideas of the Kantian German philosopher Karl Christian Friedrich Krause (as imported into Spain by Julián Sanz del Río and became an important exponent of "Krausismo" in Spain.

He openly criticized the government for its attempts to stifle academic freedom. As a consequence, in 1875, he lost his chair at the university, which led to what can be seen as his major achievement: the 1876 foundation of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza (Institute of Free Teaching), a private school of higher learning. He dedicated his life to the formation of human beings along coeducation; rationalism; and freedom of teaching, research, and literary communication. The goal was a society in which free citizens would be governed by free citizens on the basis of an adequate education. Because of his "rational realist" approach to law, he can also be seen as one of the forerunners of the sociology of law.

Giner continued his work outside the university, even after he was reinstated in his university chair in 1881. Among the many important people who were at one time or another associated with the Institución Libre de Enseñanza and the related Residencia de Estudiantes were José Ortega y Gasset, Federico García Lorca, Salvador Dalí, Antonio Machado, Luis Buñuel and Miguel de Unamuno.

Further reading

  • Solomon Lipp: Francisco Giner de los Ríos. A Spanish Socrates. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfried Laurier 1985 ISBN 978-08-89201-59-0
  • J.B. Trend: The Origins of Modern Spain. New York: The Macmillan Company 1934.

External links

Bernardo Giner de los Ríos

Bernardo Giner de los Ríos (1888, Málaga - 1970) was a Spanish architect, politician, and writer of architectural books. He built a number of buildings in and around Madrid, including many schools.

Generation of '98

The Generation of '98 (also called Generation of 1898 or (in Spanish) Generación del 98 or Generación de 1898) was a group of novelists, poets, essayists, and philosophers active in Spain at the time of the Spanish–American War (1898), committed to cultural and aesthetic renewal, and associated with modernism.

The name Generación del 98 was coined by José Martínez Ruiz, commonly known as Azorín, in his 1913 essays titled "La generación de 1898", alluding to the moral, political and social crisis in Spain produced by the loss of the colonies of Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam after defeat in the Spanish–American War that same year. In his work Spain, 1808–1939, Raymond Carr defines the Generation of '98 as the "group of creative writers who were born in the seventies, whose major works fall in the two decades after 1898".

The intellectuals included in this group are known for their criticism of the Spanish literary and educational establishments, which they saw as having characteristics of conformism, ignorance, and a lack of any true spirit. Their criticism was coupled with and heavily connected to the group's dislike for the Restoration Movement that was occurring in Spanish government.


Giner is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Fernando Giner (born 1964), Spanish footballer

Ferrán Giner Peris (born 1988), Spanish footballer

Francisco Giner de los Ríos (1839–1915), Spanish philosopher and educator

Isabel Ferrer Giner (1736-1794), Spanish noblewoman and philanthropist

Juan Giner (born 1978), Spanish tennis player

Manuel Giner Miralles (born 1926), Spanish doctor, entrepreneur and politician

Oka Giner (born 1992), Mexican actress

Práxedes Giner Durán (1893-1978), Mexican politician

Salvador Giner (born 1934), Spanish sociologist

Silvia Giner (born 1980), Spanish actress

Vicente Giner (c. 1636-1681), Spanish canon and painter

Yevgeni Giner (born 1960), Russian businessman

Gumersindo de Azcárate

Gumersindo de Azcárate (1840, León - 1917, Madrid) was a Spanish philosopher, jurist and politician.

After law studies in Oviedo, he taught comparative law in Madrid since 1864 and represented León in the Cortes. In the 1870s, he joined Francisco Giner de los Ríos and Julián Sanz del Río to teach at the Institución Libre de Enseñanza (Institute of Free Teaching).

De Azcárate was a leading representative of Krausismo, a philosophy based on the teachings of Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, in law. In his works, which include Estudios económicos y sociales (1876), El self-government y la Monarquía doctrinaria (1877), Estudios filosóficos y políticos (1877) and Concepto de la Sociología (1876), he opposed excessive political centralism, proposed privatisation of nonessential governmental functions and studied models of parliamentary and decentralised government.

In 1912, he was the co-founder of the Reformist Republican Party.

Institución Libre de Enseñanza

La Institución Libre de Enseñanza (ILE) or The Free Institution of Education was an educational project developed in Spain for over half a century (1876–1936). The institute was inspired by the philosophy of Krausism, first introduced to the Complutense University of Madrid by Julián Sanz del Río, and which, despite being subsequently ejected from that university, was to have a significant impact on intellectual life in Restoration Spain.

The institution was founded in 1876 by a group of disaffected university professors, including Francisco Giner de los Ríos, Gumersindo Azcarate, Teodoro Sainz Rueda and Nicolás Salmerón, among others, who distanced themselves from the main university campus of Madrid to achieve academic freedom. They declined to adjust their teaching to any official religious dogma or the moral and political imposition of the time. Consequently, they had to continue their educational work outside the state sector by creating a secular private educational institution, starting with university level instruction and later extending their activities to primary and secondary education.

They supported and seconded the intellectual ideas of Joaquín Costa, Leopoldo Alas (Clarín), José Ortega y Gasset, Gregorio Marañón, Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Antonio Machado, Joaquín Sorolla, Augusto González Linares, Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Federico Rubio, among others involved in educational, cultural and social renewal.

International Institute for the Sociology of Law

The International Institute for the Sociology of Law (IISL) in Oñati is the only international establishment which is entirely devoted to teaching and promoting the sociology of law, socio-legal studies, and law and society research.

The IISL is a joint venture of the Research Committee on Sociology of Law (also known as RC12 of the International Sociological Association) and the government of the Basque autonomous region in Spain. It is situated (since 1989) in the University of Oñati (the Ancient University of the Basque Country) in Oñati. The founding director of the IISL, André-Jean Arnaud, had bronze plaques put on the walls of the renaissance building with the names of some of the forefathers of modern sociology of law: Montesquieu, Henry James Sumner Maine, Francisco Giner de los Ríos, Henri Lévy-Bruhl, Achille Loria, Leon Petrażycki, Émile Durkheim, Max Weber, Eugen Ehrlich, Karl Renner, Karl N. Llewellyn, Theodor Geiger, Georges Gurvitch, Nicholas S. Timasheff.

The IISL has four "official languages": English, French, Spanish and Basque. It houses a famous library/documentation centre covering socio-legal literature in all major and many minor languages. The Institute organises socio-legal workshops and an international Master's Program in the Sociology of Law, including student scholarships. Publications from the workshops are regularly produced in both an English- and Spanish language series, including the Institute's own online peer-reviewed journal (Onati Socio-Legal Series). The IISL is also the host of the World Consortium of Law and Society associations. Applications to host a workshop, residence grants for visitors wishing to use the library, and to study on the Masters programmes are usually due mid-February.

Karl Christian Friedrich Krause

Karl Christian Friedrich Krause (German: [ˈkʁaʊzə]; 6 May 1781 – 27 September 1832) was a German philosopher, born at Eisenberg, in Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. His philosophy, known as "Krausism", was very influential in Restoration Spain.


Krausism is a doctrine named after the German philosopher Karl Christian Friedrich Krause (1781–1832) that advocates doctrinal tolerance and academic freedom from dogma.

This philosophy was widespread in Restoration Spain, where it reached its maximum practical development thanks to the work of his promotor, Julián Sanz del Rio, and the Free Institution of Education led by Francisco Giner de los Ríos, and the contribution of a great jurist Federico Castro.

One of the philosophers of identity, Krause endeavoured to reconcile the ideas of a monotheistic singular God understood by faith with a pantheistic or empirical understanding of the world.

Divinity, which is intuitively known by conscience is not a personality (which implies limitations), but an all-inclusive essence (Wesen), which contains the universe within itself.

This system he called panentheism, a combination of monotheism and pantheism. His theory of the world and of humanity is universal and idealistic.

Laureano Figuerola

Laureano Figuerola y Ballester (4 July 1816, Calaf - 28 February 1903, Madrid) was a Spanish lawyer, economist and politician who served as the Ministro de Hacienda y Administraciones Públicas (now the Ministro de Economía, Industria y Competitividad) during the Sexenio Democrático. He is best known for officially establishing the peseta as Spain's currency.

Manuel Bartolomé Cossío

Manuel Bartolomé Cossío (22 February 1857 - 2 September 1935) was a Spanish art historian and Krausist teacher. Born in Haro, La Rioja, he entered the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, where he was godson and favourite pupil of Francisco Giner de los Ríos as well as his inseparable companion and successor. He also wrote a monumental study of El Greco. He was director of the Museo Pedagógico Nacional and president of the Misiones Pedagógicas, becoming "the most eminent figure in Spanish pedagogy in the period 1882 to 1935", two years after his death. He died at Collado Mediano in Madrid.

Manuel Machado (poet)

Manuel Machado y Ruiz (29 August 1874 in Seville – 19 January 1947 in Madrid) was a Spanish poet and a prominent member of the Generation of 98.

Manuel Machado was the son of Antonio Machado Álvarez, known folklorist Seville nicknamed "Demófilo", and Ana Ruiz. His brothers were also a poet Antonio Machado and José Machado.

Inherited his father's love of popular Andalusian character. Born in San Pedro Martir Street No. 20, his childhood was spent in the Palacio de las Dueñas, where his family had rented one of the zones reserved for individuals. When Manuel was 9, the whole family moved to Madrid, because the paternal grandfather had obtained a professorship at the Universidad Central. The desire of all the three brothers was studying in the Free Institution of Teaching, led by Francisco Giner de los Ríos, a great friend of the grandfather Manuel.

The family moved to Madrid, where he developed his studies, culminating with a Bachelor of Arts. Since then, his family returned to Seville in few occasions, but Seville and Andalusia remained for him a living reference, though distant, for the love of his parents towards their land.

In Madrid, Manuel began to publicize his first poetry and contributed to several literary life in Madrid along with writers like Francis and Juan Ramón Jiménez Villaespesa.

He was co-founder, on February 11, 1933 of the Association of Friends of the Soviet Union.

Over the years, he became director of Madrid's Municipal Library (now the Municipal Historical Library) and Municipal Museum. He created several short-lived literary magazines and worked in daily newspapers in Europe and America.

Contributed strongly to the modernist poetry, understood in its most colorful, decadent, cosmopolitan, giving a hint of Andalusian poetry makes something unique.

It has often been opposed to the modernist side of the 98 Generation.

In 1936-during the civil war, was appointed to a seat in the Royal Spanish Academy.

Brothers Manuel and Antonio wrote together several dramatic works of Andalusian. Manuel's most notable work is La Lola se va a los puertos, filmed twice.

Other dramatic works of Machado were the La duquesa de Benamejí, La prima Fernanda, Juan de Mañara, El hombre que murió en la guerra and Desdichas de la fortuna o Julianillo Valcárcel.

Although the poetry of both is very different, we can see certain parallels. Thus, both paths composed autobiographical poems ("Adelfos" Manuel, and "Portrait", by Antonio) using Alexandrine verses organized in serventesios. The civil war separated the brothers, placing them on opposite sides.

Upon arrival in Madrid after the Spanish coup of July 1936, Manuel gave the military an encomiastic poetry, "The sword of the Caudillo." This earned him the recognition of the Nationalists. After the war he returned to his post as director of the Newspaper Library and the Municipal Museum of Madrid, who retired shortly thereafter. He continued to write poetry, mostly religious in nature. His Catholic faith was rekindled during your stay in Burgos thanks to the devotion of his wife and the influence of certain priests, as Bonifacio Zamora. The poet continued to write eulogies to various figures and symbols of Francoist Spain, which earned him the scorn of critics and later poets, who considered him a traitor to the Spanish Second Republic.

On January 19, 1947 died in Madrid. After the poet's death, his widow entered a religious order dedicated to caring for abandoned and sick children.

Then came the Spanish openness of the 60 and 70, Francisco Franco gave the youth side to the poets covered by Spain and embraced those who died, or still living-in-exile. Thus, the work and the figure of Manuel Machado were eclipsed by those of Antonio Machado, more akin to the taste of time.

Some of Manuel Machado poems are as famous as these ones:

CANTARESVino, sentimiento, guitarra y poesía

hacen los cantares de la patria mía.

Quien dice cantares dice Andalucía.

A la sombra fresca de la vieja parra,

un mozo moreno rasguea la guitarra...


Algo que acaricia y algo que desgarra.La prima que canta y el bordón que llora...

Y el tiempo callado se va hora tras hora.


Son dejos fatales de la raza mora.No importa la vida, que ya está perdida,

y, después de todo, ¿qué es eso, la vida?...


Cantando la pena, la pena se olvida.Madre, pena, suerte, pena, madre, muerte,

ojos negros, negros, y negra la suerte...


En ellos el alma del alma se vierte.Cantares. Cantares de la patria mía,

quien dice cantares dice Andalucía.


No tiene más notas la guitarra mía.CASTILLAEl ciego sol se estrella

en las duras aristas de las armas,

llaga de luz los petos y espaldares

y flamea en las puntas de las lanzas.

El ciego sol, la sed y la fatiga.

Por la terrible estepa castellana,

al destierro, con doce de los suyos

—polvo, sudor y hierro—, el Cid cabalga.

Cerrado está el mesón a piedra y lodo.

Nadie responde. Al pomo de la espada

y al cuento de las picas el postigo

va a ceder... ¡Quema el sol, el aire abrasa!

A los terribles golpes,

de eco ronco, una voz pura, de plata

y de cristal responde... Hay una niña

muy débil y muy blanca

en el umbral. Es toda

ojos azules y en los ojos lágrimas.

Oro pálido nimba

su carita curiosa y asustada.

«¡Buen Cid, pasad...! El rey nos dará muerte,

arruinará la casa,

y sembrará de sal el pobre campo

que mi padre trabaja...

Idos. El cielo os colme de venturas...

¡En nuestro mal, oh Cid no ganáis nada!»

Calla la niña y llora sin gemido...

Un sollozo infantil cruza la escuadra

de feroces guerreros,

y una voz inflexible grita «¡En marcha!»

El ciego sol, la sed y la fatiga.

Por la terrible estepa castellana,

al destierro, con doce de los suyos

—polvo, sudor y hierro—, el Cid cabalga.

Marcos Jiménez de la Espada

Marcos Jiménez de la Espada (1831–1898) was a Spanish zoologist, herpetologist, explorer and writer, born in Cartagena, Spain, although he spent most of his life in Madrid, where he died. He is known for participating in the Pacific Scientific Commission, with whom he traveled America from 1862 to 1865. He also published several works on geography and history of the American continent.


Regenerationism (Spanish: Regeneracionismo) was an intellectual and political movement in late 19th century and early 20th century Spain. It sought to make objective and scientific study of the causes of Spain's decline as a nation and to propose remedies. It is largely seen as distinct from another movement of the same time and place, the Generation of '98. While both movements shared a similar negative judgment of the course of Spain as a nation in recent times, the regenerationists sought to be objective, documentary, and scientific, while the Generation of '98 inclined more to the literary, subjective and artistic.

The most prominent representative of Regenerationism was the Aragonese politician Joaquín Costa with his maxim "School, larder and double-lock the tomb of El Cid" ("Escuela, despensa y doble llave al sepulcro del Cid"): that is, look to the future and let go of the grand triumphal narrative that begins with El Cid.

Residencia de Estudiantes

The Residencia de Estudiantes, literally the "Student Residence", is a centre of Spanish cultural life in Madrid. The Residence was founded to provide accommodation for students along the lines of classic colleges at Bologna, Salamanca, Cambridge or Oxford. It became established as a cultural institution that helped foster and create the intellectual environment of Spain's brightest young thinkers, writers, and artists. The students there included Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel and Federico García Lorca. Distinguished guests and speakers included Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Juan Ramón Jiménez or Rafael Alberti.

It was one of the most vibrant and successful experiences of scientific and artistic creation and exchange of interwar Europe. Its activities were stopped during the Spanish Civil War. After the civil war the academic policies of the Franco regime created around the Residencia de Estudiantes the Spanish National Research Council, where it was integrated as the guest house. Since Spain's transition to democracy, efforts have been made a reinvigorate the institution.

Ricardo Martínez de Hoyos

Ricardo Martínez de Hoyos (October 28, 1918 – January 11, 2009) was a Mexican painter noted for his figurative work on unreal atmospheres. He was one of several children from a very large family to make a mark in his field, along with Oliverio in sculpture and Jorge in acting. His work was exhibited in various parts of the world, featured in collective tours of Mexican art. Individually, he exhibited mostly in Mexico including important venues such as the Museo de Arte Moderno and the Palacio de Bellas Artes, which held a tribute to the artist in 1994. Since his death, a cultural center named after him has been established in the historic center of Mexico City.


Rios or Ríos are Spanish, Portuguese, and Galician surnames. The name has numerous origins. In Germany, Italy, France, UK, and the Americas the Ríos surname can also be found in the surname history books. The name was derived from the Spanish word "Rio," which means "river" (pronounced: Ree-Oess).

The surname Ríos is a sign of ancestry which includes royals and nobles. Historians believe the Ríos family derived from the Royal House of Asturias. The original bearer of the name Ríos, which is a local surname, once lived, held land, or was born in the region of Northwestern Spain which is today's Galicia and Asturias. In the Middle Ages, names originally denoted the proprietorship of the village or estate. The Ríos Family originally lived near a river. As early as the 10th Century, the Riós family has been involved in political reform, business, military, athletics, education, science, law, medicine, arts, architecture, literature, technology, inventions, and economic investments.

Some of the Riós spelling variants are: Ríós, Ríos, Riós, Rios, de Ríos, de los Ríos, de Ríós, de los Ríós, de Rios, de los Rios, Río, Rio, del Ríó, del Río, del Rio.

Spanish Modernist literature

Spanish Modernist literature is the literature of Spain written during the Modernism (beginning of the 20th century) as the arts evolved and opposed the previous Realism.

Álvaro de Albornoz

Álvaro de Albornoz y Liminiana (June 13, 1879, Asturias – October 22, 1954, Mexico) was a Spanish lawyer, writer, and one of the founders of the Second Republic of Spain.

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