Francis Christopher Rowland Robinson CBE, DL (born 23 November 1944 in Barnet) is a British historian and academic who specialises in the history of South Asia and Islam. Since 1990, he has been Professor of History of South Asia at the University of London. He has twice been president of the Royal Asiatic Society: from 1997 to 2000, and from 2003 to 2006.
Robinson's research interests have focused on the Muslim world, with particular emphasis the Muslims of South Asia, Muslim responses to modernity, learned and holy families, and religious and political change. He has written several books on the Islamic World, including Atlas of the Islamic World Since 1500 (1982), Islam and Muslim History in South Asia (2000), The Ulama of Farangi Mahall and Islamic Culture in South Asia (2001), The Mughal Emperors (2007), and Islam, South Asia, and the West (2007).
Robinson served as president of the Royal Asiatic Society from 1997–2000 and 2003–06.
Robinson was the vice-principal of Royal Holloway, University of London, from 1997–2004. He had previously served as the head of the History Department at the college from 1990–96.
Events from the year 1873 in Canada.1874 in Canada
Events from the year 1874 in Canada.1884 in Australia
The following lists events that happened during 1884 in Australia.All-India Muslim League
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire. Its strong advocacy for the establishment of a separate Muslim-majority nation-state, Pakistan, successfully led to the partition of British India in 1947 by the British Empire.The party arose out of a literary movement begun at The Aligarh Muslim University in which Syed Ahmad Khan was a central figure. It remained an elitist organisation until 1937 when the leadership began mobilising the Muslim masses and the league then became a popular organisation.In the 1930s, the idea of a separate nation-state and influential philosopher Sir Muhammad Iqbal's vision of uniting the four provinces in North-West British India further supported the rationale of the two-nation theory. With global events leading up to World War II and the Congress party's effective protest against the United Kingdom unilaterally involving India in the war without consulting the Indian people, the Muslim League went on to support the British war efforts. The Muslim League played a decisive role in the 1940s, becoming a driving force behind the division of India along religious lines and the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state in 1947.After the partition and subsequent establishment of Pakistan, the Muslim League continued as a minor party in India where it was often part of the government. In Bangladesh, the Muslim League was revived in 1976 but it was reduced in size, rendering it insignificant in the political arena. In India, the Indian Union Muslim League and in Pakistan the Pakistan Muslim League became the original successors of the All-India Muslim League.Aylmer Francis Robinson
Aylmer Francis Robinson (1888–1967) was an owner of a large ranch that encompassed an island in the Hawaiian Islands.Baron Rosmead
Baron Rosmead, of Rosmead in the County of Westmeath and of Tafelberg in South Africa, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 11 August 1896 for the colonial administrator Sir Hercules Robinson, 1st Baronet. He had already been created a Baronet, of Ennismore Gardens in the Parish of St Margaret, Westminster, in the County of London, in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom on 6 February 1891. The titles became extinct on the death of his son, the second Baron, in 1933.
Several other members of the Robinson family also gained distinction. Hercules Robinson, father of the first Baron, was an admiral in the Royal Navy. Sir Henry Robinson, brother of the first Baron, was vice-president of the Local Government Board in Ireland between 1879 and 1891. Sir William Cleaver Francis Robinson, brother of the first Baron, was also a prominent colonial administrator. Frederick Charles Robinson, brother of the first Baron, was a vice-admiral in the Royal Navy. Loftus Christopher Hawker Robinson, brother of the first Baron, was a captain in the Royal Navy. Sir Bryan Robinson, uncle of the first Baron, was a judge of the Supreme Court of Newfoundland between 1858 and 1877. Christopher Robinson, grandfather of the first Baron, was a judge of the King's Bench of Ireland. Bryan Robinson, great-grandfather of the first Baron, was Regius Professor of Physic at Trinity College, Dublin.Bishop of Grahamstown
The Bishop of Grahamstown is the Ordinary of the Diocese of Grahamstown in the Anglican Church of Southern Africa.
The Bishop's residence is Bishopsbourne, GrahamstownDouglas Robinson (athlete)
Douglas Robinson (12 August 1864 – 19 January 1937) was a member of the silver medal winning French cricket team at the 1900 Summer Olympics, the only time to date that cricket has featured in the Olympics. In the only match against Great Britain, he took two wickets in Great Britain's first innings, and was dismissed for a duck in both French innings. Born of Irish parents in Montserrat, he was the son of the colonial administrator William Cleaver Francis Robinson.Faculty of History, University of Oxford
The Faculty of History at the University of Oxford organises that institution's teaching and research in modern history. Medieval and Modern History has been taught at Oxford for longer than at virtually any other University, and the first Regius Professor of Modern History was appointed in 1724. The Faculty is part of the Humanities Division, and has been based at the former City of Oxford High School for Boys on George Street, Oxford since the summer of 2007, while the department's Library was removed from the former Indian Institute on Catte Street to the main Bodleian buildings at the start of 2013.Francis Phelps
Francis Robinson Phelps was an Anglican bishop in the first half of the 20th century.Francis Robinson (disambiguation)
Francis Robinson (born 1944) is an academic.
Francis Robinson may also refer to:
Francis P. Robinson (1906–1983), educational psychologist
Francis Robinson (1910–1980), one-time assistant manager and television host for the Metropolitan Opera
Francis Robinson, character in Swiss Family RobinsonHalulu Lake
Halulu Lake is a lake in the south central region of the island of Niʻihau (the smallest inhabited island in the chain). It is the largest (non-intermittent) natural lake in the Hawaiian Islands and ranks third in size after Hālaliʻi Lake (also on Niʻihau) and Keālia Pond (on Maui) which are intermittent bodies of water.The lake measures around 182 acres (74 ha) during the rainy seasons. During dry periods on the arid island, the shallow lake shrinks due to effect of evaporation. Other sources give it the measurement of 371 acres (150 ha).According to Hawaiian linguists Mary Kawena Pukui, Samuel H. Elbert, and Esther T. Mookini, the lake share its name with the land division of Halulu on the island and probably originated from the man-eating halulu bird of Hawaiian mythology. Hālaliʻi and Halulu were also the names of important Hawaiian high chiefs (aliʻi) of the island of Niʻihau.Prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor during World War II, Niʻihau owner and rancher Aylmer Francis Robinson plowed trenches using mules and tractors into the lakes and surrounding lands on Niʻihau to prevent Japanese planes from landing and using the island as a military airfield. These efforts led to the crash landing of Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service pilot Shigenori Nishikaichi during the Niihau incident. Many of the furrows are still visible today on the island.The lake provides natural wetland habitats for Hawaiian bird species including the ʻalae keʻokeʻo (Hawaiian coot), aeʻo (Hawaiian stilt) and koloa maoli (Hawaiian duck).
The lake is also home to mullets which naturally enter the lake from the sea through lava tubes when they are young. In ancient Hawaii, a kapu forbade Hawaiians from catching the fish in the lake except during harvest time. Modern day Niihauans use the lakes and ponds on the island for mullet farming, bringing the baby pua mullets from the sea in barrels. The grown fish are later sold at market on Kauaʻi and Oʻahu.Indian Councils Act 1909
The Indian Councils Act 1909 (9 Edw. 7 c. 4),commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms (or as the Minto-Morley Reforms), was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India.Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island
The Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island is the viceregal representative in Prince Edward Island of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, who operates distinctly within the province but is also shared equally with the ten other jurisdictions of Canada, as well as the other Commonwealth realms and any subdivisions thereof, and resides predominantly in her oldest realm, the United Kingdom. The Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island is appointed in the same manner as the other provincial viceroys in Canada and is similarly tasked with carrying out most of the monarch's constitutional and ceremonial duties.The present Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island is Antoinette Perry, who assumed the role on 20 October 2017.List of lieutenant governors of Prince Edward Island
The following is a list of the Governors and Lieutenant Governors of Prince Edward Island, known as St. John's Island until 1799. Though the present day office of the lieutenant governor in Prince Edward Island came into being only upon the province's entry into Canadian Confederation in 1873, the post is a continuation from the first governorship of St. John's Island in 1769.Partition of Bengal (1905)
The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গভঙ্গ) was announced on 19 July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Curzon. The partition took place on 16 October 1905 and separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas. The Hindus of West Bengal who dominated Bengal's business and rural life complained that the division would make them a minority in a province that would incorporate the province of Bihar and Orissa. Hindus were outraged at what they saw as a "divide and rule" policy (where the colonisers turned the native population against itself in order to rule), even though Curzon stressed it would produce administrative efficiency. The partition animated the Muslims to form their own national organization on communal lines. In order to appease Bengali sentiment, Bengal was reunited by Lord Hardinge in 1911, in response to the Swadeshi movement's riots in protest against the policy and the growing belief among Hindus that east Bengal would have its own courts and policies.Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii
Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii is a species of palm tree that is endemic to the island of Niʻihau, Hawaii, United States. It inhabits coastal dry forests at an elevation of 70–270 m (230–890 ft). P. aylmer-robinsonii reaches a height of 7–15 m (23–49 ft) and a trunk diameter of 20–30 cm (7.9–11.8 in). Harold St. John discovered this species in 1949, and the specific epithet refers to Aylmer Francis Robinson, a member of the family that owned the island. P. aylmer-robinsonii has been reintroduced to the Makauwahi Cave Reserve on Kauaʻi, where the species is believed to have previously ranged.Robinson Road, Singapore
Robinson Road (Chinese: 罗敏申路) is a major trunk road in Singapore's Central Area. The road is named after Sir William Cleaver Francis Robinson, the Governor of the Straits Settlements in 1877–1879. The land on which Robinson Road now stands was created through land reclamation work started in 1879. It was a sea-side thoroughfare until more land reclamation works in Telok Ayer Basin in the early 1900s (completed in 1932) shifted the shoreline further east to make room for the building of Shenton Way. This allowed for the road to be widened and converted into a one-way street to accommodate the rise in traffic flow pending massive urban development. Today, it is flanked on both sides by major skyscrapers and lends its name to several buildings, including Robinson Centre and Robinson Point.
In Hokkien, the road is known as heng liong koi, which means "heng long street". Chop Heng Long, belonging to Lok Yu who is a well known businessman whose office was located on this road.William C. F. Robinson
Sir William Cleaver Francis Robinson (14 January 1834 – 2 May 1897) was an Irish governor and musical composer, being the author of several well-known songs. He was born in County Westmeath, Ireland, and was educated at home and at the Royal Naval School. He joined the Colonial Office service in 1858 and became the president of Montserrat in 1862. He married Olivia Edith Deane in 1862. He began serving as governor of the Falkland Islands in May 1866 and governed Prince Edward Island from 1870–1873, helping the island join a union with Canada. He became the governor of the Leeward Islands in 1874 and served his first term as the Western Australia governor from 1875–1877. He was appointed governor of the Straits Settlements in 1877 and served as governor of Western Australia a second term from April 1880 to February 1883.
Robinson became the governor of South Australia in 1883 until 1889. Throughout this time, he was involved with music groups and composed many songs that became well-known across Australia, as well as a comic opera. He was also a writer and a public speaker. Robinson had little to do politically as governor in South Australia, due to few important political events occurring at the time and the fact that the Premier and legislative assembly had much of the political power. He was a temporary governor of Victoria, Australia in 1889, but was unable to be appointed permanently. He served his third term as governor of Western Australia from 1890–1895. He retired from his career in March 1895, at age 61. He then travelled to England and died on 2 May 1897, in South Kensington, London.