Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds

Francis Godolphin Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds, KG, PC (29 January 1751 – 31 January 1799), styled Marquess of Carmarthen until 1789, was a British politician. He notably served as Foreign Secretary under William Pitt the Younger from 1783 to 1791. He also was Governor of Scilly. As a statesman he is generally regarded as a failure, and his deep hostility to the newly independent United States of America damaged relations between the two countries.


The Duke of Leeds

Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds by Benjamin West
Portrait by Benjamin West, circa 1769
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office
23 December 1783 – May 1791
MonarchGeorge III
Prime MinisterThe Right Hon. William Pitt
Preceded byThe Earl Temple
Succeeded byThe Lord Grenville
Leader of the House of Lords
In office
1789–1790
Preceded byThe Lord Sydney
Succeeded byThe Lord Grenville
Personal details
Born29 January 1751
Died31 January 1799 (aged 48)
London, Great Britain
NationalityBritish
Political partyTory
Spouse(s)(1) Lady Amelia Darcy
(1754–1784)
Catherine Anguish
(1764–1837)
Alma materChrist Church, Oxford

Background and education

Carmarthen was the only surviving son of Thomas Osborne, 4th Duke of Leeds, by his wife Lady Mary, daughter of Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin, and Henrietta Godolphin, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough. He was educated at Westminster School and at Christ Church, Oxford.

Political career

Carmarthen was a Member of Parliament for Eye in 1774 and for Helston from 1774 to 1775; in 1776 having received a writ of acceleration as Baron Osborne, he entered the House of Lords, and in 1777 Lord Chamberlain of the Queen's Household and Captain of Deal Castle. In the House of Lords he was prominent as a determined foe of the prime minister, Lord North, who, after he had resigned his position as chamberlain, deprived him of the office of Lord Lieutenant of the East Riding of Yorkshire in 1780. He regained this, however, two years later.

Early in 1783 Carmarthen was selected as ambassador to France, but he did not take up this appointment, becoming instead Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs under William Pitt the Younger in December of the same year. Historian Jeremy Black says that in terms of foreign policy, Pitt and other leaders were disappointed with his performance as a minister. Leeds, as he became upon his father's death in 1789, was anti-French but did not develop an active and aggressive foreign policy. Instead, King George III himself set the main lines of foreign policy before he became mentally disabled.[1] Pitt's rejection of Leeds' anti-Russian policy was the final blow and he left office in April 1791.[2]

Leeds had done nothing to foster good relations with the newly independent United States of America: two future Presidents, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, as envoys from the United States, both complained of his obstructive attitude and "aversion to having anything to do with us".[3] While Adams, who was rather Anglophile by inclination, was prepared to forgive and forget, Jefferson was not, and it can be argued that Leeds's only lasting achievement was to foster Jefferson's implacable hostility as President to Great Britain and its rulers.[4]

Subsequently Leeds took little part in politics: in 1792, hearing rumours that a new coalition might be formed, he unwisely offered himself as its head and met with a firm rebuff from both Pitt and the King.[5]

Family

Coat of arms of Osborne
Ancestral arms of the Osborne family, Dukes of Leeds

Leeds married firstly in 1773 Lady Amelia Darcy, daughter of Robert Darcy, 4th Earl of Holderness on 29 November 1773. Lady Amelia became Baroness Darcy de Knayth and Baroness Conyers in her own right in 1778. They were divorced in 1779. Their marriage produced three children:

He married secondly Catherine, daughter of Thomas Anguish, in 1788 and had two more children:

  • Lord Sidney Godolphin Osborne (1789–1861); unmarried.
  • Lady Catherine Anne Sarah Osborne (1791–1878); married Major John Whyte-Melville on 1 June 1819 and had issue. .

Leeds died in London in January 1799, aged 48, and was buried in the Osborne family chapel at All Hallows Church, Harthill, South Yorkshire. He was succeeded in the dukedom by his eldest son from his first marriage, George Osborne, 6th Duke of Leeds. His second son from his first marriage, Lord Francis Osborne, was created Baron Godolphin in 1832. The dowager Duchess of Leeds died in October 1837, aged 73. Leeds's Political Memoranda were edited by Oscar Browning for the Camden Society in 1884, and there are eight volumes of his official correspondence in the British Museum.

References

  1. ^ Jeremy Black, British Foreign Policy in an Age of Revolutions, 1783-1793 (1994) p 55-56
  2. ^ William Hague William Pitt the Younger
  3. ^ McCullough, David John Adams Simon and Schuster New York 2001
  4. ^ McCullough John Adams
  5. ^ Hague, William William Pitt the Younger Harper Collins 2004
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Leeds, Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 366–368.
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Richard Burton Phillipson
William Cornwallis
Member of Parliament for Eye
1774
With: Richard Burton Phillipson
Succeeded by
Richard Burton Phillipson
John St John
Preceded by
William Evelyn
The Earl of Clanbrassil
Member of Parliament for Helston
1774–1775
With: Francis Owen
Succeeded by
Francis Cockayne Cust
Philip Yorke
Court offices
Preceded by
The Earl De La Warr
Lord Chamberlain to The Queen
1777–1780
Succeeded by
The Earl of Ailesbury
Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl Temple
Foreign Secretary
1783–1791
Succeeded by
The Lord Grenville
Preceded by
The Lord Sydney
Leader of the House of Lords
1789–1790
Honorary titles
Vacant
Title last held by
The Viscount of Irvine
Lord Lieutenant of the East Riding of Yorkshire
1778–1780
Succeeded by
The Earl of Carlisle
Preceded by
The Earl of Carlisle
Lord Lieutenant of the East Riding of Yorkshire
1782–1799
Succeeded by
The Earl of Carlisle
Vacant
Title last held by
The Marquess of Rockingham
Vice-Admiral of Yorkshire
1795–1799
Vacant
Title next held by
The Lord Mulgrave
Preceded by
The Lord Godolphin
Governor of the Isles of Scilly
1785−1799
Succeeded by
The Duke of Leeds
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Thomas Osborne
Duke of Leeds
1789–1799
Succeeded by
George Osborne
Baron Osborne
(writ in acceleration)

1776–1799
All Hallows' Church, Harthill

All Hallows Church in Harthill, South Yorkshire, England, is an Anglican parish church in the Diocese of Sheffield. It is a Grade I listed building.

Baron Godolphin

Baron Godolphin is a title that was created three times: first in the Peerage of England, next in the Peerage of Great Britain, and in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, and recently in the modern Peerage of England, Through family relations, the barons from all Three creations were also Governors of the Isles of Scilly until 1834 when the lease was sold. 2018 the ninth great nephew of Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin came forward and was created by Queen Elizabeth II, Baron of Helston being he was not of the Surname of the House of Godolphin but Harmon a connected family branch he received the title without the surname a new creation His right came through a legitimate One, so received the title through provided verified heritage.

The first creation, as Baron Godolphin, of Rialton in the County of Cornwall, was in the Peerage of England in September 1684 for Sidney Godolphin, a leading politician of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries and former MP for Helston in Cornwall. In 1704 he was made a Knight of the Garter, and in December 1706 he was created Viscount Rialton and Earl of Godolphin. Upon his death in 1712, all these titles passed to his son Francis.

The second creation, as Baron Godolphin, of Helston in the County of Cornwall, was in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1735 for Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin, with remainder, in default of male issue of his own, to the male issue of his deceased uncle Henry Godolphin, the Dean of St Paul's. The 2nd Earl died on 17 January 1766. The Godolphin earldom, the Rialton viscounty, and Godolphin barony of 1684 became extinct; but the Godolphin barony of 1735 devolved according to the special remainder upon his cousin Francis Godolphin, 2nd Baron Godolphin. He had previously represented Helston in the House of Commons. On his death in 1785 this title became extinct as well.

The third creation, as Baron Godolphin, of Farnham Royal in the County of Buckingham, was in the Peerage of the United Kingdom on 14 May 1832 for Lord Francis Osborne, the second son of Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds. His grandmother was Lady Mary Godolphin, daughter of 2nd Earl of Godolphin, who had married Thomas Osborne, 4th Duke of Leeds. On Lord Godolphin's death in 1850, the barony passed to his eldest son George, who also inherited the dukedom of Leeds from his cousin in 1859. The Godolphin barony of 1832 and the dukedom of Leeds remained united until the death of Sir D'Arcy Osborne, 12th Duke of Leeds in 1964, when both titles became extinct.

Catherine Osborne

Catherine Osborne may refer to:

Catherine Osborne, Duchess of Leeds (1764–1837), second wife of Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds

Catherine Isabella Osborne (1818–1880), Irish artist, writer and patron

Catherine Rowett, who published as Catherine Osborne from 1979 to 2011, professor of philosophy

Catherine Osborne, Duchess of Leeds

Catherine Osborne, Duchess of Leeds (21 January 1764 – October 1837), formerly Catherine Anguish, was the second wife of Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds.

She was the daughter of Thomas Anguish, Esq., a lawyer from Great Yarmouth, whose son Thomas heir to the estates of Sir Thomas Allin, 4th Baronet, of Somerleyton. Her beauty was praised by Lord Sheffield in the "Auckland Correspondence".She married Osborne in 1788, while he was still Marquess of Carmarthen. He had divorced his first wife, Amelia, in 1779. However, his son from his first marriage, George Osborne, would inherit the dukedom.

The duke and his second wife had two children:

Lord Sidney Godolphin Osborne (1789-1861), who died unmarried. In 1843, following the death of both his mother's brothers, he inherited the Allin estates.

Lady Catherine Anne Sarah Osborne (1791-1878), who married Major John Whyte-Melville and had children.The duchess was fond of music and an accomplished singer, particularly known for her interpretations of works by Handel. She was a patron of the novelist Ann Radcliffe, who dedicated an edition of The Romance of the Forest to her.In 1813, the duchess was appointed governess to Princess Charlotte of Wales, daughter of the Prince Regent and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick. It was claimed by Lady Charlotte Bury that Princess Charlotte despised the duchess. She was obliged to resign from her position, when the princess declined to marry the partner chosen for her, William, Prince of Orange.

Between 1830 and 1837, as Dowager Duchess, she was Mistress of the Robes to Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort of King William IV of the United Kingdom.

D'Arcy Osborne, 12th Duke of Leeds

Francis D'Arcy Godolphin Osborne, 12th Duke of Leeds, (16 September 1884 – 20 March 1964), known between 1943 and 1963 as Sir D'Arcy Osborne, was a British diplomat.

Francis Osborne, 1st Baron Godolphin

Francis Godolphin Osborne, 1st Baron Godolphin (18 October 1777 – 15 February 1850), styled Lord Francis Osborne from 1789 to 1832, was a British politician.

Francis Osborne (disambiguation)

Francis Osborne (1593–1659) was an English essayist.

Francis Osborne may also refer to:

Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds (1751–1799), British politician

Francis Osborne, 1st Baron Godolphin (1777–1850), British politician

Francis D'Arcy-Osborne, 7th Duke of Leeds (1798–1859), British politician

Francis D'Arcy Osborne, 12th Duke of Leeds (1884–1964), British diplomat

Francis Osborne (North Carolina politician) (1853–1920), Attorney General of North Carolina, 1893–1896

George Osborne, 6th Duke of Leeds

George William Frederick Osborne, 6th Duke of Leeds, (21 July 1775 – 10 July 1838), styled Earl of Danby until 1789 and Marquess of Carmarthen from 1789 to 1799, was a British peer and politician. He served as Master of the Horse between 1827 and 1830. He also was Governor of Scilly.

John Byron (British Army officer)

Captain John Byron (7 February 1756 – 2 August 1791) was a British Army officer and writer, best known as the father of poet Lord Byron.

John Pelham (bishop)

John Thomas Pelham (21 June 1811 – 1 May 1894), styled The Honourable from birth, was a British Anglican clergyman.

Leeds County

Leeds County is a historic county in the Canadian province of Ontario. The county was first surveyed in 1792 as one of the nineteen counties created by Sir John Graves Simcoe in preparation for the United Empire Loyalists to settle here. The county took its name from Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds; the "Leeds" of the Dukedom referred to Leeds in West Yorkshire, England and not for Leeds, Kent, England. In 1850, Leeds County merged with Grenville County to create the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville. This county was home to several townships as well as the city of Brockville.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1773

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1773.

List of Governors of Scilly

The following persons served as Governor of the Isles of Scilly, off the coast of Cornwall. An early governor of Scilly was Thomas Godolphin, whose son Francis received a lease on the Isles in 1568. They were styled Governors of Scilly and the Godolphins and their Osborne relatives held this position until 1834. In 1834 Augustus John Smith acquired the lease from the Duchy for £20,000. Smith created the title Lord Proprietor of the Isles of Scilly for himself, and many of his actions were unpopular. The lease remained in his family until it expired for most of the Isles in 1920 when ownership reverted to the Duchy of Cornwall. Today, the Dorrien-Smith estate still holds the lease for the island of Tresco.

1568–1608 Sir Francis Godolphin (1540–1608)

1608–1613 Sir William Godolphin of Godolphin (1567–1613)

1613–1636 William Godolphin (1611–1636)

1636–1643 Sidney Godolphin (1610–1643)

1643–1646 Sir Francis Godolphin of Godolphin (1605–1647)

1647–1648 Anthony Buller (Parliamentarian)

1649–1651 Sir John Grenville (Royalist)

1651–1660 Joseph Hunkin (Parliamentary control)

1660–1667 Sir Francis Godolphin of Godolphin (1605–1667) (restored to office)

1667–1700 Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin (1645–1712)

1700–1732 Sidney Goldolphin (1652–1732)

1733–1766 Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin (1678–1766)

1766–1785 Francis Godolphin, 2nd Baron Godolphin (1706–1785)

1785–1799 Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds (1751–1799)

1799–1831 George Osborne, 6th Duke of Leeds (1775–1838)

1834–1872 Augustus John Smith (1804–1872)

1872–1918 Thomas Algernon Smith-Dorrien-Smith (1846–1918)

1918–1920 Arthur Algernon Dorrien-Smith (1876–1955)

List of Stewards of Kingston upon Hull

High Steward of Kingston upon Hull is a ceremonial title conferred by Hull City Council as a civic honour on prominent people associated with Kingston upon Hull. Hull has had a high steward since at least 1583. The position was abolished in 1974 and revived in 2013. Before 1974 the steward usually served for life; since 2013 the term of office is 10 years. The incumbent is Peter Mandelson.

List of Vice-Admirals of Yorkshire

This is a list of people who have served as Vice-Admiral of Yorkshire.

Reginald Beseley 1559–1563 (also Vice-Admiral of Northumberland 1559–, Vice-Admiral of Cumberland 1559-1563 and Vice-Admiral of Durham 1559–1563 and Vice-Admiral of Westmorland 1559–?)

William Eure, 2nd Baron Eure 1563–1564

Thomas Awchon 1564–1565

Anthony Bevercottes 1565–1569

Sir Henry Gates 1569–1573 (MP for Yorkshire)

Henry Clinton, Lord Clinton 1578–1583 (also Vice-Admiral of Lincolnshire bef. 1569 – aft. 1576)

Francis Cholmley 1583–1585

William Howard 1585

Sir John Stanhope 1585–1604

Edmund Sheffield, 1st Earl of Mulgrave 1604–1646

Edmund Sheffield, 2nd Earl of Mulgrave 1646–1651 (Parliamentary)

Luke Robinson 1651–1652 (Parliamentary)

Edmund Sheffield, 2nd Earl of Mulgrave 1652–1658 (Parliamentary)

John Sheffield, 3rd Earl of Mulgrave 1659–1692 (also Vice-Admiral of Northumberland 1687–1689 and Vice-Admiral of Durham 1687–1689)

Arthur Ingram, 3rd Viscount of Irvine 1692–1702

Charles Boyle, 2nd Earl of Burlington 1702–1704

Henry Boyle, 1st Baron Carleton 1704–1715

Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington 1715–1753

vacant

Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham 1755–1763

Robert Darcy, 4th Earl of Holdernesse 1763–1776

Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham 1776–1782

vacant

Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds 1795–1799

vacant

Henry Phipps, 1st Earl of Mulgrave 1809–1831

vacant

Albert Denison, 1st Baron Londesborough 1853–1860

Lord Lieutenant of the East Riding of Yorkshire

This is a list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant for the East Riding of Yorkshire. The office was established after the English Restoration in 1660, when a Lord Lieutenant was appointed for each Riding of Yorkshire. Since 1721, all Lord Lieutenants have also been Custos Rotulorum of the East Riding of Yorkshire, and for part of the period also Lieutenatns of the Town and County of the Town of Kingston upon Hull. It was abolished on 31 March 1974 with the creation of the county of Humberside, but was re-created upon the abolition of Humberside on 1 April 1996.

Mary Pelham, Countess of Chichester

Mary Pelham, Countess of Chichester (7 September 1776 – 21 October 1862), formerly Lady Mary Henrietta Juliana Osborne, was the wife of Thomas Pelham, 2nd Earl of Chichester.

She was born in Grosvenor Square, London, the daughter of Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds, and his first wife Amelia, whom he divorced in 1779, following the scandal of her affair with Captain John Byron, whom she subsequently married. Amelia died in 1784, by which time Mary's father had remarried, his second wife being the former Catherine Anguish, who had two children, a half-brother and half-sister to Mary and her older brothers George and Francis. Through her mother's remarriage, she was a half-sister to Augusta Leigh.

Lady Mary married the future earl on 16 July 1801 at Lambeth Palace. They had four sons and six daughters, including:

Henry Pelham, 3rd Earl of Chichester (1804-1886)

Lady Amelia Rose Pelham (1806-1884), who married, as his second wife, Maj.-Gen. Sir Joshua Jebb

Rear-Admiral the Hon. Frederick Thomas Pelham (1808-1861), who married Ellen Kate Mitchell and had children

The Right Reverend John Thomas Pelham, Bishop of Norwich (1811-1894), who married Henrietta Tatton and had children

Lady Catherine Georgiana Pelham (1814-1885), who married Rev Hon Lowther John Barrington and had children

Lady Lucy Anne Pelham (1815-1901), who married Sir David Dundas and had one childOn 8 January 1805 Pelham succeeded to the earldom and Mary accordingly became Countess of Chichester. The earl died in July 1826, aged 70, and was succeeded in his titles by his eldest son, Henry. The countess died in October 1862 at her home in Grosvenor Square, aged 86.

Osborne (name)

Osborne , along with Osbourne, Osbern, Osborn and Ausburn, Sberna and Sberno (Italian spelling), is an English name influenced by the Old Norse Ásbjørn. The name means "God Bear". The English Os (see Ós) and the Norse Ás (see Aesir) mean God.

Triple Alliance (1788)

The Triple Alliance of 1788 was a military alliance between Great Britain, Prussia and the United Provinces. Great Britain saw it as necessary to maintain the balance of power, and Prussia was hoping for the territorial gains. The alliance was primarily aimed at the Russian Empire, which stood to increase its influence with its looming victory over the Ottoman Empire. Due to efforts of Russian diplomacy, particularly in fostering parliamentary dissent in Great Britain, where the main proponent of action against Russia, William Pitt the Younger, lost support, the Alliance fell apart before it was ready to engage in planned military action against Russia. The destruction of the Triple Alliance is considered a major success of the Russian diplomacy.

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