Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor

Francis II (German: Franz; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria, ruling from 1804 to 1835, so later he was named the one and only Doppelkaiser (double emperor) in history.[1] For the two years between 1804 and 1806, Francis used the title and style by the Grace of God elected Roman Emperor, ever Augustus, hereditary Emperor of Austria and he was called the Emperor of both the Holy Roman Empire and Austria. He was also Apostolic King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia as Francis I. He also served as the first president of the German Confederation following its establishment in 1815.

Francis II continued his leading role as an opponent of Napoleonic France in the Napoleonic Wars, and suffered several more defeats after Austerlitz. The proxy marriage of state of his daughter Marie Louise of Austria to Napoleon on 10 March 1810 was arguably his severest personal defeat. After the abdication of Napoleon following the War of the Sixth Coalition, Austria participated as a leading member of the Holy Alliance at the Congress of Vienna, which was largely dominated by Francis's chancellor Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternich culminating in a new European map and the restoration of Francis's ancient dominions (except the Holy Roman Empire which was dissolved). Due to the establishment of the Concert of Europe, which largely resisted popular nationalist and liberal tendencies, Francis became viewed as a reactionary later in his reign.

Francis II & I
HGM Kupelwieser Porträt Kaiser Franz I
Francis II by Leopold Kupelwieser (1830)
Holy Roman Emperor
King in Germany
Reign5 July 1792 – 6 August 1806
Coronation14 July 1792, Frankfurt
PredecessorLeopold II
SuccessorMonarchy abolished
Emperor of Austria
Reign11 August 1804 – 2 March 1835
PredecessorMonarchy established
(partly himself as Archduke of Austria and Holy Roman Emperor)
SuccessorFerdinand I
ChancellorKlemens von Metternich
Head of the Präsidialmacht Austria
In office20 June 1815 – 2 March 1835
PredecessorOffice established
SuccessorFerdinand I
King of Hungary and Croatia
King of Bohemia
Reign1 March 1792 – 2 March 1835
Coronations
PredecessorLeopold II
SuccessorFerdinand V
King of Lombardy–Venetia
Reign9 June 1815 – 2 March 1835
PredecessorMonarchy established
SuccessorFerdinand I
Born12 February 1768
Florence, Tuscany
Died2 March 1835 (aged 67)
Vienna, Austria
Burial
Spouses
Elisabeth of Württemberg
(m. 1788; died 1790)

Maria Teresa of Naples and Sicily
(m. 1790; died 1807)

Maria Ludovika Beatrix of Modena
(m. 1808; died 1816)

Caroline Augusta of Bavaria
(m. 1816; died 1835)
Issue
Detail
Full name
Franz Joseph Karl
HouseHabsburg-Lorraine
FatherLeopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
MotherMaria Luisa of Spain
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Signature
Francis II & I's signature

Early life

Archduke Franz Joseph Karl (1770)
Archduke Francis at the age of 2, 1770. by Anton Raphael Mengs

Francis was a son of Emperor Leopold II (1747–1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792), daughter of Charles III of Spain. Francis was born in Florence, the capital of Tuscany, where his father reigned as Grand Duke from 1765 to 1790. Though he had a happy childhood surrounded by his many siblings,[2] his family knew Francis was likely to be a future Emperor (his uncle Joseph had no surviving issue from either of his two marriages), and so in 1784 the young Archduke was sent to the Imperial Court in Vienna to educate and prepare him for his future role.[3]

Emperor Joseph II himself took charge of Francis's development. His disciplinarian regime was a stark contrast to the indulgent Florentine Court of Leopold. The Emperor wrote that Francis was "stunted in growth", "backward in bodily dexterity and deportment", and "neither more nor less than a spoiled mother's child." Joseph concluded that "the manner in which he was treated for upwards of sixteen years could not but have confirmed him in the delusion that the preservation of his own person was the only thing of importance."[3]

Joseph's martinet method of improving the young Francis were "fear and unpleasantness."[4] The young Archduke was isolated, the reasoning being that this would make him more self-sufficient as it was felt by Joseph that Francis "failed to lead himself, to do his own thinking." Nonetheless, Francis greatly admired his uncle, if rather feared him. To complete his training, Francis was sent to join an army regiment in Hungary and he settled easily into the routine of military life.[5]

After the death of Joseph II in 1790, Francis's father became Emperor. He had an early taste of power while acting as Leopold's deputy in Vienna while the incoming Emperor traversed the Empire attempting to win back those alienated by his brother's policies.[6] The strain tolled on Leopold and by the winter of 1791, he became ill. He gradually worsened throughout early 1792; on the afternoon of 1 March Leopold died, at the relatively young age of 44. Francis, just past his 24th birthday, was now Emperor, much sooner than he had expected.

Emperor

Ludwig Streitenfeld 001
Francis II – the last Holy Roman Emperor, by Ludwig Streitenfel (1874)

As the leader of the large multi-ethnic Habsburg Empire, Francis felt threatened by Napoleon's social and political reforms, which were being exported throughout Europe with the expansion of the first French Empire. Francis had a fraught relationship with France. His aunt Marie Antoinette, the wife of Louis XVI and Queen consort of France, was guillotined by the revolutionaries in 1793, at the beginning of his reign. Francis, on the whole, was indifferent to her fate (she was not close to his father, Leopold, and although Francis had met her, he had been too young at the time to have any memory of his aunt). Georges Danton attempted to negotiate with the Emperor for Marie Antoinette's release, but Francis was unwilling to make any concessions in return.[7]

Later, he led Austria into the French Revolutionary Wars. He briefly commanded the Allied forces during the Flanders Campaign of 1794 before handing over command to his brother Archduke Charles. He was later defeated by Napoleon. By the Treaty of Campo Formio, he ceded the left bank of the Rhine to France in exchange for Venice and Dalmatia. He again fought against France during the Second and Third Coalition, when after meeting a crushing defeat at Austerlitz, he had to agree to the Treaty of Pressburg, weakening the Austrian Empire and reorganizing Holy Roman Empire (Germany) under a Napoleonic imprint that would be called the Confederation of the Rhine.

Pörträt Kaiser Franz I von Österreich
Francis I as Austrian Emperor, undated, Salzburg Museum.

At this point, he believed his position as Holy Roman Emperor to be untenable, so on 6 August 1806, he abdicated the throne, declaring the empire to be already dissolved in the same declaration. This was a political move to impair the legitimacy of the Confederation of the Rhine.[8] He had anticipated losing the Holy Roman crown, however. Two years earlier, as a reaction to Napoleon making himself an emperor, he had raised Austria to the status of an empire. Hence, after 1806, he reigned as Francis I, Emperor of Austria.[9]

In 1809, Francis attacked France again, hoping to take advantage of the Peninsular War embroiling Napoleon in Spain. He was again defeated, and this time forced to ally himself with Napoleon, ceding territory to the Empire, joining the Continental System, and wedding his daughter Marie-Louise to the Emperor. The Napoleonic wars drastically weakened Austria, making it entirely landlocked and threatened its preeminence among the states of Germany, a position that it would eventually cede to the Kingdom of Prussia.

In 1813, for the fourth and final time, Austria turned against France and joined Great Britain, Russia, Prussia and Sweden in their war against Napoleon. Austria played a major role in the final defeat of France—in recognition of this, Francis, represented by Clemens von Metternich, presided over the Congress of Vienna, helping to form the Concert of Europe and the Holy Alliance, ushering in an era of conservatism in Europe. The German Confederation, a loose association of Central European states was created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire. The Congress was a personal triumph for Francis, who hosted the assorted dignitaries in comfort,[10] though Francis undermined his allies Tsar Alexander and Frederick William III of Prussia by negotiating a secret treaty with the restored French king Louis XVIII.[11]

Domestic policy

Basel, Switzerland, Napoleonic Wars Medal of Francis II by P. J. Treu (better version)
Medallion of Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria, designed by Philipp Jakob Treu in Basel, Switzerland on 13 January 1814. This was the date in the War of the Sixth Coalition when the allied monarchs of Russia, Austria and Prussia crossed the Rhine at Basel on their way to fight Napoleon in France.

The violent events of the French Revolution impressed themselves deeply into the mind of Francis (as well as all other European monarchs), and he came to distrust radicalism in any form. In 1794, a "Jacobin" conspiracy was discovered in the Austrian and Hungarian armies.[12] The leaders were put on trial, but the verdicts only skirted the perimeter of the conspiracy. Francis's brother Alexander Leopold (at that time Palatine of Hungary) wrote to the Emperor admitting "Although we have caught a lot of the culprits, we have not really got to the bottom of this business yet." Nonetheless, two officers heavily implicated in the conspiracy were hanged and gibbeted, while numerous others were sentenced to imprisonment (many of whom died from the conditions).[13]

Francis was from his experiences suspicious and set up an extensive network of police spies and censors to monitor dissent[13] (in this he was following his father's lead, as the Grand Duchy of Tuscany had the most effective secret police in Europe).[3] Even his family did not escape attention. His brothers, the Archdukes Charles and Johann had their meetings and activities spied upon.[14] Censorship was also prevalent. The author Franz Grillparzer, a Habsburg patriot, had one play suppressed solely as a "precautionary" measure. When Grillparzer met the censor responsible, he asked him what was objectionable about the work. The censor replied, "Oh, nothing at all. But I thought to myself, 'One can never tell'."[15]

Kaiser Franz I von Österreich in Feldmarschallsuniform c1820
Emperor Francis I of Austria in Field Marshal's uniform, decorated with the Order of the House of Austria, c.1820.

In military affairs Francis had allowed his brother, the Archduke Charles, extensive control over the army during the Napoleonic wars. Yet, distrustful of allowing any individual too much power, he otherwise maintained the separation of command functions between the Hofkriegsrat and his field commanders.[16] In the later years of his reign he limited military spending, requiring it not exceed forty million florins per year; because of inflation this resulted in inadequate funding, with the army's share of the budget shrinking from half in 1817 to only twenty-three percent in 1830.[17]

Francis presented himself as an open and approachable monarch (he regularly set aside two mornings each week to meet his imperial subjects, regardless of status, by appointment in his office, even speaking to them in their own language),[18] but his will was sovereign. In 1804, he had no compunction about announcing that through his authority as Holy Roman Emperor, he declared he was now Emperor of Austria (at the time a geographical term that had little resonance). Two years later, Francis personally wound up the moribund Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. Both actions were of dubious constitutional legality.[19]

Later years

Sarcophagus Emperor Franz II.(I.) Vienna Austria
His sarcophagus in the Imperial Crypt, Vienna

On 2 March 1835, 43 years and a day after his father's death, Francis died in Vienna of a sudden fever aged 67, in the presence of many of his family and with all the religious comforts.[20] His funeral was magnificent, with his Viennese subjects respectfully filing past his coffin in the chapel of Hofburg Palace[21] for three days.[22] Francis was interred in the traditional resting place of Habsburg monarchs, the Kapuziner Imperial Crypt in Vienna's Neue Markt Square. He is buried in tomb number 57, surrounded by his four wives.

Francis passed on a main point in the political testament he left for his son and heir Ferdinand to; "preserve unity in the family and regard it as one of the highest goods." In many portraits (particularly those painted by Peter Fendi) he was portrayed as the patriarch of a loving family, surrounded by his children and grandchildren.[20]

After 1806 he used the titles: "We, Francis the First, by the Grace of God Emperor of Austria; King of Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria; Archduke of Austria; Duke of Lorraine, Salzburg, Würzburg, Franconia, Styria, Carinthia and Carniola; Grand Duke of Cracow; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Sandomir, Masovia, Lublin, Upper and Lower Silesia, Auschwitz and Zator, Teschen and Friule; Prince of Berchtesgaden and Mergentheim; Princely Count of Habsburg, Gorizia and Gradisca and of the Tirol; and Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and in Istria".

Marriages

Francis II married four times:

  1. On 6 January 1788, to Elisabeth of Württemberg (21 April 1767 – 18 February 1790).
  2. On 15 September 1790, to his double first cousin Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies (6 June 1772 – 13 April 1807), daughter of King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (both were grandchildren of Empress Maria Theresa and shared all of their other grandparents in common), with whom he had twelve children, of whom only seven reached adulthood.
  3. On 6 January 1808, he married again to another first cousin, Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este (14 December 1787 – 7 April 1816) with no issue. She was the daughter of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and Maria Beatrice d'Este, Princess of Modena.
  4. On 29 October 1816, to Karoline Charlotte Auguste of Bavaria (8 February 1792 – 9 February 1873) with no issue. She was daughter of Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria and had been previously married to William I of Württemberg.

Children

From his first wife Elisabeth of Württemberg, one daughter, and his second wife Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies, eight daughters and four sons: Children of Francis II

Name Picture Birth Death Notes
By Elisabeth of Württemberg
Archduchess Ludovika Elisabeth 18 February 1790 24 June 1791 (aged 1) Died in infancy and buried in the Imperial Crypt, Vienna, Austria.
By Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies
Archduchess Maria Ludovika Maria Luigia of Austria, duchess of Parma 12 December 1791 17 December 1847 (aged 56) Married first Napoleon Bonaparte, had issue, married second Adam, count of Neipperg, had issue, married third to Charles, Count of Bombelles, no issue.
Emperor Ferdinand I Kaiser Ferdinand I von Österreich in ungarischer Adjustierung mit Ordensschmuck c1830 19 April 1793 29 June 1875 (aged 82) Married Maria Anna of Savoy, Princess of Sardinia, no issue.
Archduchess Marie Caroline 8 June 1794 16 March 1795 (aged 0) Died in childhood, no issue.
Archduchess Caroline Ludovika 22 December 1795 30 June 1797 (aged 1) Died in childhood, no issue.
Archduchess Caroline Josepha Leopoldine Maria Leopoldina 1815 22 January 1797 11 December 1826 (aged 29) Renamed Maria Leopoldina upon her marriage; married Pedro I of Brazil (a.k.a. Pedro IV of Portugal); issue included Maria II of Portugal and Pedro II of Brazil.
Archduchess Maria Klementina Princesse de Salerne.jpeg 1 March 1798 3 September 1881 (aged 83) Married her maternal uncle Leopold, Prince of Salerno, had issue.
Archduke Joseph Franz Leopold JosephFranzofAustria 9 April 1799 30 June 1807 (aged 8) Died some weeks after his mother in childhood, no issue.
Archduchess Maria Karolina Peter Krafft Bildnis einer Maria Karolina 8 April 1801 22 May 1832 (aged 31) Married Crown Prince (later King) Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, no issue.
Archduke Franz Karl Waldmüller Erzherzog Franz Carl 1839 17 December 1802 8 March 1878 (aged 75) married Princess Sophie of Bavaria; issue included Franz Joseph I of Austria and Maximilian I of Mexico.
Archduchess Marie Anne Maria Anna 1804 8 June 1804 28 December 1858 (aged 54) Born intellectually disabled (like her eldest brother, Emperor Ferdinand I) and to have suffered from a severe facial deformity. Died unmarried.
Archduke Johann Nepomuk 30 August 1805 19 February 1809 (aged 3) Died in childhood, no issue.
Archduchess Amalie Theresa 6 April 1807 9 April 1807 (aged 0) Died in childhood, no issue.

See also

Wien - Denkmal Kaiser Franz I. (1)
Monument in the inner courtyard of the Hofburg in Vienna

References

Notes

  1. ^ Posse & 1909–13, pp. 256ff
  2. ^ Wheatcroft 2009, p. 233
  3. ^ a b c Wheatcroft 2009, p. 234
  4. ^ Wheatcroft 2009, p. 235
  5. ^ Wheatcroft 2009, p. 236
  6. ^ Wheatcroft 2009, p. 238
  7. ^ Fraser 2002, p. 492
  8. ^ Peter H. Wilson (29 February 2016). Heart of Europe: A History of the Holy Roman Empire. Harvard University Press. pp. 994–. ISBN 978-0-674-91592-3.
  9. ^ Reich 1905, p. 622
  10. ^ Wheatcroft 2009, p. 249
  11. ^ Wheatcroft 2009, p. 250
  12. ^ Wheatcroft 2009, p. 239
  13. ^ a b Wheatcroft 2009, p. 240
  14. ^ Wheatcroft 2009, p. 248
  15. ^ Wheatcroft 2009, p. 241
  16. ^ Rothenburg 1976, p. 6
  17. ^ Rothenburg 1976, p. 10.
  18. ^ Wheatcroft 2009, p. 245
  19. ^ Wheatcroft 2009, p. 246
  20. ^ a b Wheatcroft 2009, p. 254
  21. ^ "Wien". Wiener Zeitung. 5 March 1835. p. 1, col. 2.
  22. ^ Wheatcroft 2009, p. 255
  23. ^ Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 109.

Sources

External links

Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Cadet branch of the House of Lorraine
Born: 12 February 1768 Died: 2 March 1835
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Leopold II
Holy Roman Emperor
King in Germany

1792–1806
Dissolution
Duke of Brabant, Limburg and Luxembourg;
Count of Flanders, Hainaut and Namur

1792–1793
French Revolutionary Wars
Duke of Milan
1792–1796
King of Hungary
King of Bohemia
Archduke of Austria

1792–1835
Succeeded by
Ferdinand I & V
New title Emperor of Austria
1804–1835
King of Lombardy-Venetia
1815–1835
Political offices
New title Head of the Präsidialmacht Austria
1815–1835
Succeeded by
Ferdinand I of Austria
1792 Imperial election

The imperial election of 1792 was an imperial election held to select the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. It took place in Frankfurt on July 5.

1908 in Austria

The following lists events that happened during 1908 in Austria.

Archduchess Clementina of Austria

Clementina of Austria (German: Maria Clementina Franziska Josepha 1 March 1798 – 3 September 1881) was an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Salerno upon her marriage to Prince Leopold of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Prince of Salerno.

Archduchess Marie Anne of Austria

Marie Anne of Austria (Maria Anna Franziska Theresia Josepha Medarde; 8 June 1804 – 28 December 1858) was an Archduchess of Austria and the daughter of Franz II, Holy Roman Emperor and his second wife, Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily.

Archduchess Marie Caroline of Austria

Archduchess Maria Carolina Ferdinanda of Austria, Crown Princess of Saxony (8 April 1801 in Vienna, Austria – 22 May 1832 in Pillnitz, Germany).

Archduchess Marie of Austria

Archduchess Marie of Austria may refer to:

Archduchess Elisabeth Marie of Austria (1883-1963), only child of Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria and Princess Stéphanie

Archduchess Marie Amalie of Austria (1746-1804), Princess of Hungary

Archduchess Marie Astrid of Austria (born 1954), Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia

Archduchess Marie Caroline of Austria (1801-1832), Crown Princess of Saxony

Archduchess Marie Caroline of Austria (1794-1795), daughter of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies

Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria (1868-1924), fourth and last child of Franz Josef, Emperor of Austria-Hungary and Elisabeth, Duchess in Bavaria

Archduke Joseph Franz of Austria

Archduke Joseph Franz Leopold of Austria (9 April 1799 – 30 June 1807) was the second son and seventh child of Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor and his second wife, Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily, daughter of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and his wife Maria Carolina of Austria. He was their fourth child to die.

Archduke Ludwig Viktor of Austria

Archduke Ludwig Viktor of Austria (Ludwig Viktor Joseph Anton; 15 May 1842 – 18 January 1919) from the House of Habsburg was the youngest son born to Archduke Franz Karl of Austria and Princess Sophie of Bavaria and younger brother of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria.

Cluj-Napoca Bánffy Palace

Bánffy Castle is a baroque building of the 18th century in Cluj-Napoca, designed by the German architect Johann Eberhard Blaumann. Built between 1774 and 1775 it is considered the most representative for the baroque style of Transylvania. The first owner of the palace was the Hungarian duke György Bánffy (1746–1822), the governor of Transylvania.

Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife Caroline Augusta of Bavaria were hosted in the palace during their visit in Kolozsvár, between 18 and 27 August 1817. This was the first occasion when a ruler from the Habsburg family visited the city. Franz Joseph I of Austria was also the guest of the palace between 2-4. August 1852 and 22–24 September 1887. The palace (along with the Răscruci castle of the Bánffy family) features in the reminiscences of an English governess, Florence Tarring, who worked for one of the branches of the Bánffy family during the First World War (1914-1919). In February 1951 the council of the city decided to empty the palace to establish an Art Museum there; the works were finished in the summer of 1954. The museum was opened in the restored palace on 30. December 1965. The cinema occupying the inner yard of the palace was demolished in 1974.

The floor area of the palace is 66×48 m, its inner yard is 26×26 m. The wings on the sides include one row of rooms while the front and back wing includes two rows. The yard is surrounded by a portico at the second-floor level.

The facade is decorated with statues of Mars, Minerva, Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Perseus, and the coat of arms of the Bánffy family with gryphons, without crown. In the median risalit there is a gate, above this is a loggia with seven pillars.

Ferdinand I of Austria

Ferdinand I (19 April 1793 – 29 June 1875) was the Emperor of Austria from 1835 until his abdication in 1848. As ruler of Austria, he was also President of the German Confederation, King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia (as Ferdinand V), King of Lombardy–Venetia and holder of many other lesser titles (see grand title of the Emperor of Austria).

Ferdinand succeeded on the death of his father Francis II and I on 2 March 1835. He was incapable of ruling his empire because of his mental deficiency, so his father, before he died, made a will which promulgated that Ferdinand should consult Archduke Louis on all aspects of internal policy and urged him to be influenced by Prince Metternich, Austria's Foreign Minister.Following the Revolutions of 1848, Ferdinand abdicated on 2 December 1848. He was succeeded by his nephew, Franz Joseph. Following his abdication, he lived in Hradčany Palace, Prague, until his death in 1875.Ferdinand married Maria Anna of Savoy, the sixth child of Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia. They had no children.

Francis I

Francis I or Francis the First may refer to:

Francesco I Gonzaga (1366–1407)

Francis I, Duke of Brittany (1414–1450, reigned 1442–1450)

Francis I, Duke of Lorraine (1517–1545, reigned 1544–1545)

Francis I of France (1494–1547, reigned 1515–1547)

Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1541–1587, reigned 1574–1587)

Francis I of Beauharnais, leading noble of the French House of Beauharnais (died 1587)

Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena (1644–1658)

Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (1708–1765, reigned 1745–1765)

Francis I (Erbach-Erbach) (1754–1823), Count of Erbach

Francis I of the Two Sicilies (1777–1830, reigned 1825–1830)

Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, also known as Francis I, Emperor of Austria, (1768–1835, reigned 1804–1835)

Francis V, Duke of Modena (1819–1875), known to Jacobites as Francis I of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.

Franz I, Prince of Liechtenstein (1853–1938)

Pope Francis (born 1936), Pope since 2013

Francis the First, an opera composed by Edward Loder

Francis II

Francis II may refer to:

Francis II, Duke of Brittany (1433–1488)

Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua (1466–1519), ruler of the Italian city of Mantua

Francis II of France (1544–1560)

Francis II, Duke of Lorraine (1572–1632), son of Charles III, Duke of Lorraine and Claude of Valois

Francesco II d'Este, Duke of Modena (1662–1694)

Francis II Rákóczi (1676–1735), Prince of Transylvania

Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (1768–1835), last Holy Roman Emperor

Francis II of the Two Sicilies (1836–1894)

Franz, Duke of Bavaria (born 1933), called "Francis II" by supporters of the Jacobite claim to the thrones of England, Scotland, Ireland, and France

Francis II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1547–1619), third son of Francis I of Saxe-Lauenburg and Sybille of Saxe-Freiberg

Gerasim Zelić

Gerasim Zelić (Serbian: Герасим Зелић; 1752–1828) was a renowned Serbian Orthodox Church archimandrite, traveller and writer (a contemporary and compatriot of Dositej Obradović). His chief work is Žitije (Lives), in three volumes. They are memoirs of his travels throughout western Europe, Russia and Asia Minor from the latter half of the 18th century to the first decade of the 19th century and the famous personalities (Napoleon, Prince Eugène, Viceroy of Naples, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Semyon Zorich, Catherine the Great, Alexander I of Russia, Stanisław August Poniatowski, Dositej Obradović) he encountered. He left behind invaluable original notes on the people, religions, manners, customs and trade of his era.

As much as Dositej Obradović is an emblematic figure of the 18th century Habsburg Serbian Enlightenment so is Gerasim Zelić. In may ways the East-West travel itineraries of the two men are similar, covering the Levant, the German lands, France and Russia, though Zelić went first to Russia (rather than to the Levant). While both lament their people's plight under the Ottoman rule and promote similar solutions, their perspectives are different, Dositej's cosmopolitanism contrasting with Zelić's clericalism, though their intentions are the same: the emancipation of their people from under the tyrannical yoke of the two empires, the Habsburg and the Ottoman.

Zelić was one of the earliest members of the Serbian Learned Society, better known as Matica srpska, founded at Budapest in 1826.

Joseph Hormayr, Baron zu Hortenburg

Joseph Hormayr, Baron zu Hortenburg (German: Joseph Hormayr Freiherr zu Hortenburg, also known as Joseph Freiherr von Hormayr zu Hortenburg) (20 January 1781 or 1782 – 5 October 1848) was an Austrian and German statesman and historian.

He was born at Innsbruck. After studying law in his native town, and attaining the rank of captain in the Tirolese Landwehr, the young man, who had the advantage of being the grandson of Joseph von Hormayr (1705–1778), chancellor of Tirol, obtained a post in the foreign office at Vienna (1801), from which he rose in 1803 to be court secretary and, being a near friend of the Archduke Johann of Austria, director of the secret archives of the state and court for thirteen months. In 1803 he married Therese Anderler von Hohenwald.

During the insurrection of 1809, by which the Tirolese sought to throw off the Bavarian supremacy confirmed by the treaty of Pressburg, Hormayr was the mainstay of the Austrian party, and assumed the administration of everything (especially the composition of proclamations and pamphlets); but, returning home without the prestige of success, he fell, in spite of the help of the Archduke John, into disfavour both with the emperor Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor and with Prince Metternich, and at length, when in 1813 he tried to stir up a new insurrection in Tirol, he was arrested and imprisoned at Mukachevo.

In 1816, some amends were made to him by his appointment as imperial historiographer; but so little was he satisfied with the general policy and conduct of the Austrian court that in 1828 he accepted an invitation of King Louis I to the Bavarian capital, where he became ministerial councilor in the department of foreign affairs.

In 1832 he was appointed Bavarian minister-resident at Hanover, and from 1837 to 1846 he held the same position at Bremen. Together with Count Johann Friedrich von der Decken (1769–1840) he founded the Historical Society of Lower Saxony (Historischer Verein für Niedersachsen). The last two years of his life were spent at Munich as superintendent of the national archives.

Karl Alexander, 5th Prince of Thurn and Taxis

Karl Alexander, 5th Prince of Thurn and Taxis, full German name: Karl Alexander Fürst von Thurn und Taxis (22 February 1770 – 15 July 1827) was the fifth Prince of Thurn and Taxis, head of the Thurn-und-Taxis-Post, and Head of the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis from 13 November 1805 until his death on 15 July 1827. With the death of his father on 13 November 1805, he became nominal Generalpostmeister of the Imperial Reichspost until the resignation of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor.

Karl Anselm, 4th Prince of Thurn and Taxis

Karl Anselm, 4th Prince of Thurn and Taxis, full German name: Karl Anselm Fürst von Thurn und Taxis (2 June 1733 – 13 November 1805) was the fourth Prince of Thurn and Taxis, Postmaster General of the Imperial Reichspost, and Head of the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis from 17 March 1773 until his death on 13 November 1805. Karl Anselm served as Prinzipalkommissar at the Perpetual Imperial Diet in Regensburg for Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor and Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1773 to 1797.

List of ambassadors of Turkey to Austria

The Turkish Ambassador to Austria has his residence in Vienna.

Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily

Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily (6 June 1772 – 13 April 1807) was the last Holy Roman Empress and the first Empress of Austria by marriage to Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. She was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand IV & III of Naples and Sicily (later Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies) (1751–1825) and Marie Caroline of Austria (1752–1814).

Order of Pedro I

The Imperial Order of Dom Pedro I (Portuguese: Imperial Ordem de Pedro Primeiro or Imperial Ordem de Pedro Primeiro, Fundador do Império do Brasil) is a Brazilian order of chivalry instituted by Emperor Pedro I of Brazil on 16 April 1826. It is considered by many numismatists as the rarest of the Brazilian imperial orders.

On 22 March 1890, the order was cancelled as national order by the interim government of United States of Brazil. Since the deposition in 1889 of the last Brazilian monarch, Emperor Pedro II, the order continues as a house order being awarded by the Heads of the House of Orleans-Braganza, pretenders to the defunct throne of Brazil. The current Brazilian Imperial Family is split into two branches Petrópolis and Vassouras, and the Grand Mastership of the Order is disputed between those two branches.

Heraldry of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Greater Coat of Arms of Leopold II and Francis II, Holy Roman Emperors
Middle Coat of Arms of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (1804-1806)
Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria (1815)
Coat of arms as Holy Roman Emperor
(1792–1804)
Coat of arms as Holy Roman Emperor and Emperor of Austria
(1804–1806)
Coat of arms as Emperor of Austria
(1815–1835)
Ancestors of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor[23]
8. Leopold, Duke of Lorraine
4. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
9. Élisabeth Charlotte of Orléans
2. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
10. Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
5. Maria Theresa of Austria
11. Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick
1. Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
12. Philip V of Spain
6. Charles III of Spain
13. Elisabeth Farnese
3. Maria Louisa of Spain
14. Augustus III of Poland
7. Maria Amalia of Saxony
15. Maria Josepha of Austria
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