Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor

Francis I (German: Franz Stefan, French: François Étienne; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765)[1] was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife Maria Theresa effectively executed the real powers of those positions. They were the founders of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. From 1728 until 1737 he was Duke of Lorraine. Francis traded the duchy to the ex-Polish king Stanisław Leszczyński in exchange for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany as one of the terms ending the War of the Polish Succession in November 1738. The duchy and the ducal title to Lorraine and Bar passed to King Louis XV of France upon Leszczynski's death in 1766, though Francis and his successors retained the right to style themselves as dukes of Lorraine and Bar.

Francis I
Martin van Meytens 006
Portrait by Martin van Meytens, 1745.
Holy Roman Emperor
King in Germany
Reign13 September 1745 – 18 August 1765
Coronation4 October 1745, Frankfurt
PredecessorCharles VII
SuccessorJoseph II
Archduke of Austria
Reign21 November 1740 – 18 August 1765
PredecessorMaria Theresa
SuccessorJoseph II
Co-monarchMaria Theresa
Grand Duke of Tuscany
Reign12 July 1737 – 18 August 1765
PredecessorGian Gastone
SuccessorLeopold I
Duke of Lorraine
Reign27 March 1729 – 9 July 1737/18 August 1765 (titular only)
SuccessorStanisław I
Born8 December 1708
Ducal Palace of Nancy, Lorraine, HRE
Died18 August 1765 (aged 56)
Palace of Innsbruck, Austria
Full name
Francis Stephen
FatherLeopold, Duke of Lorraine
MotherÉlisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Early life

Francis was born in Nancy, Lorraine (now in France), the oldest surviving son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine, and his wife Princess Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans. He was connected with the Habsburgs through his grandmother Eleonore, daughter of Emperor Ferdinand III. He was very close to his brother Charles and sister Anne Charlotte.

Emperor Charles VI favoured the family, who, besides being his cousins, had served the house of Austria with distinction. He had designed to marry his daughter Maria Theresa to Francis' older brother Leopold Clement. On Leopold Clement's death, Charles adopted the younger brother as his future son-in-law. Francis was brought up in Vienna with Maria Theresa with the understanding that they were to be married, and a real affection arose between them.

At the age of 15, when he was brought to Vienna, he was established in the Silesian Duchy of Teschen, which had been mediatised and granted to his father by the emperor in 1722. Francis succeeded his father as Duke of Lorraine in 1729. In 1731 he was initiated into freemasonry (Grand Lodge of England) by John Theophilus Desaguliers at a specially convened lodge in The Hague at the house of the British Ambassador, Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield.[2] During a subsequent visit to England, Francis was made a Master Mason at another specially convened lodge at Houghton Hall, the Norfolk estate of British Prime Minister Robert Walpole.[3]

Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor at the age of 15.jpeg
Francis at the age of 15 in his hunting attire

Maria Theresa arranged for Francis to become "Lord Lieutenant" (locumtenens) of Hungary in 1732. He was not excited about this position, but Maria Theresa wanted him closer to her. In June 1732 he agreed to go to Pressburg.

When the War of the Polish Succession broke out in 1733, France used it as an opportunity to seize Lorraine, since France's prime minister, Cardinal Fleury, was concerned that, as a Habsburg possession, it would bring Austrian power too close to France.

A preliminary peace was concluded in October 1735 and ratified in the Treaty of Vienna in November 1738. Under its terms, Stanisław I, the father-in-law of King Louis XV and the losing claimant to the Polish throne, received Lorraine, while Francis, in compensation for his loss, was made heir to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, which he would inherit in 1737.

Although fighting stopped after the preliminary peace, the final peace settlement had to wait until the death of the last Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany, Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737, to allow the territorial exchanges provided for by the peace settlement to go into effect.

In March 1736 the Emperor persuaded Francis, his future son-in-law, to secretly exchange Lorraine for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. France had demanded that Maria Theresa's fiancé surrender his ancestral Duchy of Lorraine to accommodate the deposed King of Poland. The Emperor considered other possibilities (such as marrying her to the future Charles III of Spain) before announcing the engagement of the couple. If something were to go wrong, Francis would become governor of the Austrian Netherlands.

Elisabeth of Parma had also wanted the Grand Duchy of Tuscany for her son Charles III of Spain; Gian Gastone de' Medici was childless and was related to Elisabeth via her great-grandmother Margherita de' Medici. As a result, Elisabeth's sons could claim by right of being a descendant of Margherita.

On 31 January 1736 Francis agreed to marry Maria Theresa. He hesitated three times (and laid down the feather before signing). Especially his mother Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans and his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine were against the loss of Lorraine. On 1 February, Maria Theresa sent Francis a letter: she would withdraw from her future reign, when a male successor for her father appeared.


Maria Theresia Familie
Francis I and his family (by Martin van Meytens)

They married on 12 February in the Augustinian Church, Vienna. The wedding was held on 14 February 1736. The (secret) treaty between the Emperor and Francis was signed on 4 May 1736. In January 1737, the Spanish troops withdrew from Tuscany, and were replaced by 6,000 Austrians.[4] On 24 January 1737 Francis received Tuscany from his father-in-law.[5] Until then, Maria Theresa was Duchess of Lorraine.

Gian Gastone de' Medici, who died on 9 July 1737, was the second cousin of Francis (Gian Gastone and Francis' father Leopold were both great-grandchildren of Francis II, Duke of Lorraine), who also had Medici blood through his maternal great-great-grandmother Marie de' Medici, Queen consort of France and Navarre. In June 1737 Francis went to Hungary again to fight against the Turks. In October 1738 he was back in Vienna. On 17 December 1738 the couple travelled south, accompanied by his brother Charles to visit Florence for three months. They arrived on 20 January 1739.

In 1744 Francis' brother Charles married a younger sister of Maria Theresa, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria. In 1744 Charles became governor of the Austrian Netherlands, a post he held until his death in 1780.


Maria Theresa secured in the Treaty of Füssen his election to the Empire on 13 September 1745, in succession to Charles VII, and she made him co-regent of her hereditary dominions.

Francis was well content to leave the wielding of power to his able wife. He had a natural fund of good sense and brilliant business capacity and was a useful assistant to Maria Theresa in the laborious task of governing the complicated Austrian dominions, but he was not active in politics or diplomacy. However, his wife left him in charge of the financial affairs, which he managed well until his death.[6] Heavily indebted and on the verge of bankruptcy at the end of the Seven Years' War, the Austrian Empire was in a better financial condition than France or England in the 1780s. He also took a great interest in the natural sciences. He was a member of the Freemasons.[7]

Francis was a serial adulterer, many of his affairs well-known and indiscreet, notably one with Maria Wilhelmina, Princess of Auersperg, who was thirty years his junior. This particular affair was remarked upon in the letters and journals of visitors to the court and in those of his children.[8]

He died suddenly in his carriage while returning from the opera at Innsbruck on 18 August 1765. He is buried in tomb number 55 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna.

Maria Theresa and Francis I had sixteen children, amongst them the last pre-revolutionary queen consort of France, their youngest daughter, Marie Antoinette (1755–1793). Francis was succeeded as Emperor by his eldest son, Joseph II, and as Grand Duke of Tuscany by his younger son, Peter Leopold (later Emperor Leopold II). Maria Theresa retained the government of her dominions until her own death in 1780.


Name Birth Death Notes
1 Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria 5 February 1737 6 June 1740 died in childhood, no issue
2 Archduchess Maria Anna 6 October 1738 19 November 1789 died unmarried, no issue
3 Archduchess Maria Carolina of Austria 12 January 1740 25 January 1741 died in childhood likely from smallpox, no issue
4 Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II 13 March 1741 20 February 1790 married 1) Princess Isabella Maria of Parma (1741–1763), married 2) Princess Marie Josephe of Bavaria (1739–1767) – second cousin, had issue from his first marriage (two daughters, who died young)
5 Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria 13 May 1742 24 June 1798 married Prince Albert of Saxony, Duke of Teschen (1738–1822), her second cousin, had issue (one stillborn daughter)
6 Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria 13 August 1743 22 September 1808 died unmarried, no issue
7 Archduke Charles Joseph of Austria 1 February 1745 18 January 1761 died of smallpox, no issue
8 Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria 26 February 1746 9 June 1804 married Ferdinand, Duke of Parma (1751–1802), had issue.
9 Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II 5 May 1747 1 March 1792 married Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792), had issue. Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 (abdicated 1790), Holy Roman Emperor from 1790, Archduke of Austria, King of Hungary and King of Bohemia from 1790.
10 Archduchess Maria Carolina of Austria 17 September 1748 17 September 1748 died hours after baptism
11 Archduchess Maria Johanna of Austria 4 February 1750 23 December 1762 died of smallpox, no issue
12 Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria 19 March 1751 15 October 1767 died of smallpox, no issue
13 Archduchess Maria Carolina of Austria 13 August 1752 7 September 1814 married King Ferdinand IV of Naples and Sicily (1751–1825); had issue
14 Archduke Ferdinand of Austria 1 June 1754 24 December 1806 married Maria Beatrice d'Este, Duchess of Massa, heiress of Breisgau and of Modena, had issue (Austria-Este). Duke of Breisgau from 1803.
15 Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria 2 November 1755 16 October 1793 married Louis XVI of France and Navarre (1754–1793) and became Marie Antoinette, Queen of France and Navarre.
16 Archduke Maximilian Franz of Austria 8 December 1756 27 July 1801 Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, 1784.


Coat of Arms of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Coat of arms of Francis I

Francis I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany and of Jerusalem, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Lorraine, Bar, and Grand Duke of Tuscany, Duke of Calabria, in Silesia of Teschen, Prince of Charleville, Margrave of Pont-à-Mousson and Nomeny, Count of Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zütphen, Saarwerden, Salm, Falkenstein, etc. etc.


The Francis Stephen Award pays homage to the interest that Francis I had in science, arts and culture of Austria. It honors works of excellence in the 18th century or the Habsburg monarchy. The award gives rise to the award of a diploma at a ceremony at the University of Vienna.

See also


  1. ^ Encyclopedia of Austria: Franz I
  2. ^ Audrey Carpenter, John Theophilus Desaguliers: A Natural Philosopher, Engineer and Freemason in Newtonian England, (London : Continuum, 2011), ISBN 978-1-4411-2778-5, p. 47
  3. ^ Maclolm Davies, The masonic muse : songs, music, and musicians associated with Dutch freemasonry, 1730–1806. (Utrecht : Koninklijke Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis, 1995), ISBN 90-6375-199-0, pp. 22–23
  4. ^ Hale, Florence and the Medici, Orion books, p 192. London, 1977, ISBN 1-84212-456-0.
  5. ^ Maria Theresia und ihre Zeit. Exhibition from 13 May till October 1980 in Vienna, Schloss Schönbrunn, p. 28, see also pp. 37, 38, 41, 47, 52, 53 for the other details described here.
  6. ^ Maria-Theresa, Jean-Paul Bled
  7. ^ "In Mozart's Vienna, Freemasonry had flourished under the Habsburgs mainly due to the influence of Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine, who, himself, was a Freemason." Wolfgang Amedeus Mozart – Master Mason Archived 13 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Farquhar, Michael (2001). A Treasure of Royal Scandals, p.89. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0-7394-2025-9.
  9. ^ Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 81.

External links

Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Born: 8 December 1708 Died: 18 August 1765
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Gian Gastone de' Medici
Grand Duke of Tuscany
Succeeded by
Leopold II
Preceded by
Duke of Lorraine
Succeeded by
Stanisław I
Duke of Teschen
Succeeded by
Joseph II
Preceded by
Charles VII
King in Germany
Holy Roman Emperor
Preceded by
Maria Theresa
as sole ruler
Archduke of Austria
Ruler of the Austrian Netherlands

21 November 1740–1765
with Maria Theresa
Succeeded by
Maria Theresa
as sole ruler
Adam Friedrich von Seinsheim

Adam Friedrich Graf von Seinsheim (1708–1779) was the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg from 1755 to 1779 and Prince-Bishop of Bamberg from 1757 to 1779.

Adam Friedrich von Seinsheim was born in Regensburg on 16 February 1708, the son of Maximilian Franz Graf von Seinsheim (1681-1739) and his wife Anna Philippina Gräfin von Schönborn (1685-1721). His mother was the sister of Franz Georg von Schönborn, Archbishop-Elector of Trier; Friedrich Karl von Schönborn, Prince-Bishop of Bamberg and Würzburg; and Damian Hugo Philipp von Schönborn, Prince-Bishop of Speyer.He became a canon of Bamberg Cathedral and Würzburg Cathedral in 1718. He studied Christian theology at the University of Salzburg (master's degree 1724) and at the Collegium Germanicum 1725-27; and law at the University of Würzburg and Leiden University. In 1747, he became provost of the Church of St. Gangolf in Bamberg. He was ordained as a priest on 29 September 1753.The cathedral chapter of Würzburg Cathedral unanimously elected him Prince-Bishop of Würzburg on 7 January 1755, with Pope Benedict XIV confirming his appointment on 17 March 1755. He was consecrated as a bishop by Cardinal Franz Christoph von Hutten zu Stolzenfels, Prince-Bishop of Speyer, on 15 June 1755. At the insistence of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, he was elected Prince-Bishop of Bamberg on 21 April 1757, thus creating a personal union between the Prince-Bishopric of Würzburg and the Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg. The pope confirmed this appointment on 23 May 1757.Adam Friedrich von Seinsheim supported the imperial side during the Seven Years' War. Troops from the Kingdom of Prussia invaded both bishoprics during the course of this war.He died of pneumonia in Würzburg on 18 February 1779 and is buried there.

Alexander Ferdinand, 3rd Prince of Thurn and Taxis

Alexander Ferdinand, 3rd Prince of Thurn and Taxis, full German name: Alexander Ferdinand Fürst von Thurn und Taxis (21 March 1704 – 17 March 1773) was the third Prince of Thurn and Taxis, Postmaster General of the Imperial Reichspost, and Head of the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis from 8 November 1739 until his death on 17 March 1773. Alexander Ferdinand served as Principal Commissioner (German: Prinzipalkommissar) at the Perpetual Imperial Diet in Frankfurt am Main and Regensburg for Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1 February 1743 to 1745 and again from 1748 until 1773.

Archduchess Auguste Ferdinande of Austria

Archduchess Auguste Ferdinande of Austria (1 April 1825, Florence – 26 April 1864, Munich), was the daughter of Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and his first wife, Maria Anna of Saxony. She married Prince Luitpold of Bavaria, who later became the Prince Regent of Bavaria after her death.

Archduchess Maria

Archduchess Maria may refer to a number of historical noblewomen of Austria:

Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen (1742–1798), Archduchess of Austria

Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1738–1789)

Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (Maria Anna Josepha Antonia; 6 October 1738 – 19 November 1789) was the second child of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. As a child, and for a time the eldest surviving child, she was heiress presumptive, but she suffered from ill health and physical disability, and did not marry. In 1766 she became abbess of the Frauenstift in Prague. Soon thereafter she moved to Klagenfurt and remained there for the rest of her life. Her palace in Klagenfurt, the Mariannengasse, now houses the Episcopal Palace.

Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria (1737–1740)

Archduchess Maria Elisabeth of Austria (Full name (German): Maria Elisabeth Amalia Antonia Josefa Gabriele Johanna Agathe; 5 February 1737 – 7 June 1740), was the eldest child and daughter of Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria, later Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and Duke Francis of Lorraine, later Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor.

Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria

Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria (Maria Josepha Gabriella Johanna Antonia Anna; 19 March 1751, in Vienna – 15 October 1767). She was the daughter of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (1708–1765) and Maria Theresa of Austria, Holy Roman Empress (1717–1780). She died of smallpox at the age of 16 and was buried in the Imperial Crypt, Vienna, Austria.

Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria

Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria (Maximilian Franz Xaver Joseph Johann Anton de Paula Wenzel, 8 December 1756 in Vienna – 26 July 1801 in Vienna) was Archbishop and Elector Spiritual of Cologne (and as such Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire for Italy), and Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. He was the youngest child of the Habsburg ruler of Austria, Maria Theresa, and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, for whom he was named. His siblings included emperors Joseph II and Leopold II, the Sicilian queen Maria Carolina, and the French queen Marie Antoinette. He was the last fully functioning Elector of Cologne and the second employer and patron of the young Ludwig van Beethoven.

Charles O'Gara

Charles O'Gara (b. 1699 in Saint-Germain, d. 1777) was a French-born courtier of Irish parentage who rose to prominence in the service of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine and later his son Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Like the rest of his family he was a Jacobite who supported the return of Stuart rule to the British and Irish kingdoms.

His father was the Irish Colonel and Member of Parliament Oliver O'Gara who was one of the Wild Geese who left Ireland following the Treaty of Limerick at the end of the Williamite War which ended in defeat for the Jacobites. Colonel O'Gara settled in France at the Saint-Germain court of the exiled James II. Charles was the fourth of five children born to Colonel O'Gara and his wife Mary Fleming. He was baptised at Saint-Germain on 16 July with the exiled King James as his Godfather. His three elder brothers, including John Patrick O'Gara, all joined the Spanish Army.O'Gara was appointed equerry to the two sons of Leopold, the Duke of Lorraine. When Francis the elder of these became Holy Roman Emperor in 1745, O'Gara was appointed an Imperial Counciller and a Chamberlain at the court in Vienna. O'Gara was rewarded for his service by being made a Count of the Holy Roman Empire and a Knight of the Golden Fleece. He became very wealthy and retired to Brussels, where he died in 1777.

Duke of Parma

The Duke of Parma (Italian: duca di Parma) was the ruler of the Duchy of Parma, a small historical state which existed between 1545 and 1802, and again from 1814 to 1859.

The Duke of Parma was also Duke of Piacenza, except for the first years of the rule of Ottavio Farnese (1549–1556), and the time of the Napoleonic wars, when the two were established as separate positions held by two different individuals. The Duke of Parma also usually held the title of Duke of Guastalla from 1746 (when Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor occupied the Duchy of Guastalla after the last Gonzaga duke died childless) until 1847 (when the territory was ceded to Modena), except for the Napoleonic era, when Napoleon's sister Pauline was briefly Duchess of Guastalla and of Varella. The last duke, Robert I, was driven from power in a revolution following France and Sardinia's victory over Austria. Its territory was merged into Sardinia in 1860.

The position is currently claimed by a member of the Bourbon family, which also holds the Spanish throne. Therefore, the current claimant to the Duchy of Parma is a legitimate (though not prime) claimant to the Kingdom of Spain. The recent pretender to the Parmese throne, the late Carlos-Hugo, was also a pretender to the Spanish throne in the 1970s (see Carlism).

Francis I

Francis I or Francis the First may refer to:

Francesco I Gonzaga (1366–1407)

Francis I, Duke of Brittany (1414–1450, reigned 1442–1450)

Francis I, Duke of Lorraine (1517–1545, reigned 1544–1545)

Francis I of France (1494–1547, reigned 1515–1547)

Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1541–1587, reigned 1574–1587)

Francis I of Beauharnais, leading noble of the French House of Beauharnais (died 1587)

Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena (1644–1658)

Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (1708–1765, reigned 1745–1765)

Francis I (Erbach-Erbach) (1754–1823), Count of Erbach

Francis I of the Two Sicilies (1777–1830, reigned 1825–1830)

Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, also known as Francis I, Emperor of Austria, (1768–1835, reigned 1804–1835)

Francis V, Duke of Modena (1819–1875), known to Jacobites as Francis I of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.

Franz I, Prince of Liechtenstein (1853–1938)

Pope Francis (born 1936), Pope since 2013

Francis the First, an opera composed by Edward Loder

Karl Joseph von Firmian

Karl Joseph von Firmian (15 August 1716, in Trento – 20 July 1782, in Milan) was an Austrian noble, who served as Plenipotentiary of Lombardy to the Austrio-Hungarian Empire. His proper name was Karl Gotthard von Firmian, and in Italy known as Carlo Giuseppe di Firmian. He was the nephew of Leopold Anton von Firmian.

He was also related to Leopold Maximilian von Firmian (1760-1831), Archbishop of Vienna. He was raised and educated in the Abbey School of Ettal in Bavaria, then in Innsbruck and Salzburg. He attended university in Leiden and well traveled through France and Italy. The aristocrat was recruited in 1753 by Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor as ambassador to Naples. Three years later, he was named plenipotentiary minister to Lombardy, and served for many years. He is remembered as an avid promoter of the arts and sciences, patronizing both the artists Johann Joachim Winckelmann and Angelica Kauffman. From the painter Andrea Salvatore Aglio, he commissioned a Virgin of Bovilli and a Birth of Maria de Medici, Queen of France, copy of the large canvas by Rubens.

His tomb was placed in the church of San Bartolomeo in Milan. During the Napoleonic occupation of Lombardy, his monument was removed as part of an effort to expunge any signs of prior Austrian governance. After 1815, it was returned to its place. At his death, he had accumulated a large collection of paintings and a substantial library.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1731

Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1731.

Maria Wilhelmina von Neipperg

Countess Maria Wilhelmina von Neipperg (later Princess of Auersperg) (30 April 1738 - 21 October 1775) was an Austrian noble and court official, known as the mistress of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor.

Marie-Christine (given name)

Marie-Christine may refer to:

Marie-Christine Adam (born 1950), French actress

Marie-Christine Arnautu (born 1952), French Member of the European Parliament for the National Front

Marie Christine of Austria, Duchess of Teschen (1742–1798), fifth child of Maria Theresa of Austria and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor

Marie-Christine Barrault (born 1944), French actress who has appeared in over forty feature films

Princess Marie-Christine of Belgium (born 1951), member of the Belgian Royal Family

Marie Christine Björn (1763–1837), Danish ballerina and actor

Marie-Christine Blandin (born 1952), member of the Senate of France, representing the Nord department

Marie Christine of Savoy, Blessed (1812–1836), the first Queen consort of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies

Marie Christine de Bourbon (1806–1878), Queen consort of Spain (1829 to 1833) and Regent of Spain (1833 to 1840)

Marie-Christine Brignole (1737–1813), the daughter of a Genovese nobleman

Marie-Christine Cazier (born 1963), retired French sprinter, who specialized in the 200 meters

Marie Christine Chilver (1920–2007), also known by the codename Agent Fifi, British secret agent in World War II

Marie-Christine Dalloz (born 1958), member of the National Assembly of France

Marie-Christine Deurbroeck (born 1957), retired female long-distance runner from Belgium

Marie-Christine Gessinger (1992–2010), Austrian fashion model who died in a car accident at the age of 17

Marie Christine de Pardaillan de Gondrin (1663–1675), daughter of Françoise de Rochechouart de Mortemart and the Marquis of Montespan

Marie Christine Anna Agnes Hedwig Ida (Princess Michael of Kent) (born 1945), member of the British Royal Family

Marie Christine Kohler (1876–1943), member of the Kohler family of Wisconsin, well known for her philanthropic deeds

Marie-Christine Koundja (born 1957), Chadian writer and diplomat

Marie-Christine de Lalaing, daughter of Count Charles II of Lalaing and Marie de Montmorency-Nivelle

Marie Christine Felizitas of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg-Heidesheim (1692–1734), German noblewoman member of the House of Leiningen

Marie-Christine Lombard (born 1958), French business executive

Marie-Christine Schmidt (born 1986), Canadian sprint kayaker

Marie Christine Schneider (1952–2011), French actress, known as Maria Schneider

Marie-Christine Vergiat (born 1956), community organizations' activist and a French politician

Martin van Meytens

Martin van Meytens (June 24, 1695 – March 23, 1770) was a Dutch-Swedish painter who painted members of the Royal Court of Austria such as Marie Antoinette, Maria Theresa of Austria, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, the Emperor's family and members of the local aristocracy. His painting style inspired many other painters to paint in a similar format.

Wilhelm Reinhard von Neipperg

Count Wilhelm Reinhard von Neipperg (27 May 1684 – 26 May 1774) was an Austrian general.

Born in Schwaigern, the residence of the Lordship, from 1766 County of Neipperg, he descended from an ancient comital family from Swabia, his father Count Eberhard Friedrich von Neipperg (1655–1725) having been an Imperial field marshal. He spent his boyhood in Vienna and in 1702 joined the Imperial service. He was a Obristlieutnant in his father's regiment in 1709, and by 1715 was a colonel. He distinguished himself at Temesvar in 1716 and at Belgrade in 1717.

After fighting against the Turks, he renounced his military career in order to attend to the education of Prince Francis of Lorraine, the future Holy Roman Emperor. He was elevated to the rank of count in 1726. Neipperg was with Fieldmarshal Wallis, at the Battle of Grocka and negotiated the Peace of Belgrade (1739). Two years later, during the War of Austrian Succession, he commanded the Austrian Army which was defeated at the Battle of Mollwitz by Frederick II of Prussia. Nonetheless he became an Imperial field marshal later that year.

His daughter, Maria Wilhelmina von Neipperg, became mistress of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. His grandson Adam Albert von Neipperg married Napoleon's widow Marie Louise.

He died at Vienna in 1774, just one day before his 90th birthday.

Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans

Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans (13 September 1676 – 23 December 1744) was a petite-fille de France, and duchess of Lorraine and Bar by marriage to Leopold, Duke of Lorraine. She was regent of Lorraine and Bar during the minority (1729–1730) and absence of her son (1730–1737), and suo jure Princess of Commercy 1737–1744. Among her children was Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, a co-founder of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.

Ancestors of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor[9]
16. Francis II, Duke of Lorraine
8. Nicholas II, Duke of Lorraine
17. Christina of Salm
4. Charles V, Duke of Lorraine
18. Henry II, Duke of Lorraine
9. Claude Françoise of Lorraine
19. Margherita Gonzaga
2. Leopold, Duke of Lorraine
20. Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
10. Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
21. Maria Anna of Bavaria
5. Eleanor of Austria
22. Charles II Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers
11. Eleonora Gonzaga
23. Maria Gonzaga
1. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
24. Henry IV of France
12. Louis XIII of France
25. Marie de' Medici
6. Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
26. Philip III of Spain
13. Anne of Austria
27. Margaret of Austria
3. Élisabeth Charlotte of Orléans
28. Frederick V, Elector Palatine
14. Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine
29. Elizabeth Stuart
7. Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
30. William V, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
15. Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel
31. Amalie Elisabeth of Hanau-Münzenberg
Carolingian Empire
Holy Roman Empire
East Francia within the
Carolingian Empire (843–911)
East Francia (911–962)
Kingdom of Germany within the
Holy Roman Empire (962–1806)
Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813)
German Confederation (1815–1848)
German Empire (1848/1849)
German Confederation (1850–1866)
North German Confederation (1867–1871)
German Empire (1871–1918)

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