Francis Collins

Francis Sellers Collins (born April 14, 1950) is an American physician-geneticist who discovered the genes associated with a number of diseases and led the Human Genome Project. He is director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, United States.

Before being appointed director of the NIH, Collins led the Human Genome Project and other genomics research initiatives as director of the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), one of the 27 institutes and centers at NIH. Before joining NHGRI, he earned a reputation as a gene hunter at the University of Michigan.[1] He has been elected to the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences, and has received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the National Medal of Science.

Collins also has written a number of books on science, medicine, and religion, including the New York Times bestseller, The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief. After leaving the directorship of NHGRI and before becoming director of the NIH, he founded and served as president of The BioLogos Foundation, which promotes discourse on the relationship between science and religion and advocates the perspective that belief in Christianity can be reconciled with acceptance of evolution and science, especially through the advancement of evolutionary creation.[2] In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Collins to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.[3]

Francis Collins
Francis Collins official photo
16th Director of the National Institutes of Health
Assumed office
August 7, 2009
PresidentBarack Obama
Donald Trump
Preceded byElias Zerhouni
2nd Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute
In office
1993 – August 1, 2008
PresidentGeorge H.W. Bush
Bill Clinton
George W. Bush
Preceded byMichael M. Gottesman (Acting)
James D. Watson
Succeeded byAlan E. Guttmacher (Acting)
Eric D. Green
Personal details
Born
Francis Sellers Collins

April 14, 1950 (age 68)
Staunton, Virginia, U.S.
Spouse(s)Diane Baker
EducationUniversity of Virginia (BS)
Yale University (PhD)
University of North Carolina,
Chapel Hill
(MD)
WebsiteOffice of the Director
Known forChromosome jumping
Scientific career
FieldsMolecular genetics
Institutions
ThesisSemiclassical theory of vibrationally inelastic scattering, with application to H+ + H₂ (1974)
Doctoral advisorR. James Cross, Jr.

Early years

Collins was born in Staunton, Virginia, the youngest of four sons of Fletcher Collins and Margaret James Collins. Raised on a small farm in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley, Collins was home schooled until the sixth grade.[4] He attended Robert E. Lee High School in Staunton, Virginia. Through most of his high school and college years he aspired to be a chemist, and he had little interest in what he then considered the "messy" field of biology. What he referred to as his "formative education" was received at the University of Virginia, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry in 1970. He went on to graduate as a Doctor of Philosophy in physical chemistry at Yale University in 1974.[5] While at Yale, a course in biochemistry sparked his interest in the subject. After consulting with his mentor from the University of Virginia, Carl Trindle, he changed fields and enrolled in medical school at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, earning a Doctor of Medicine degree there in 1977.

From 1978 to 1981, Collins served a residency and chief residency in internal medicine at North Carolina Memorial Hospital in Chapel Hill. He then returned to Yale, where he was a Fellow in Human Genetics at the medical school from 1981 to 1984.

Genetics research

At Yale, Collins worked under the direction of Sherman Weissman, and in 1984 the two published a paper, "Directional Cloning of DNA Fragments at a Large distance From an Initial Probe: a Circularization Method".[6] The method described was named chromosome jumping, to emphasize the contrast with an older and much more time-consuming method of copying DNA fragments called chromosome walking.[7]

Collins joined the University of Michigan faculty in 1984, rising to the rank of professor in internal medicine and human genetics. His gene-hunting approach, which he named "positional cloning",[8][9] developed into a powerful[10] component of modern molecular genetics.

Several scientific teams worked in the 1970s and 1980s to identify genes and their loci as a cause of cystic fibrosis. Progress was modest until 1985, when Lap-Chee Tsui and colleagues at Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children identified the locus for the gene.[11] It was then determined that a shortcut was needed to speed the process of identification, so Tsui contacted Collins, who agreed to collaborate with the Toronto team and share his chromosome-jumping technique. The gene was identified in June 1989,[12][13] and the results were published in the journal Science on September 8, 1989.[14] This identification was followed by other genetic discoveries made by Collins and a variety of collaborators. They included isolation of the genes for Huntington's disease,[15] neurofibromatosis,[16][17] multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1,[18] inv(16) AML[19] and Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome.[20]

Genomics

In 1993 National Institutes of Health Director Bernadine Healy appointed Collins to succeed James D. Watson as director of the National Center for Human Genome Research, which became National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) in 1997. As director, he oversaw the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium,[21] which was the group that successfully carried out the Human Genome Project.

In 1994 Collins founded NHGRI's Division of Intramural Research,[22] a collection of investigator-directed laboratories that conduct genome research on the NIH campus.

In June 2000 Collins was joined by President Bill Clinton and biologist Craig Venter in making the announcement of a working draft of the human genome.[23] He stated that "It is humbling for me, and awe-inspiring to realize that we have caught the first glimpse of our own instruction book, previously known only to God."[24][25][26] An initial analysis was published in February 2001, and scientists worked toward finishing the reference version of the human genome sequence by 2003, coinciding with the 50th anniversary of James D. Watson and Francis Crick's publication of the structure of DNA.

Another major activity at NHGRI during his tenure as director was the creation of the haplotype map of the human genome. This International HapMap Project produced a catalog of human genetic variations—called single-nucleotide polymorphisms—which is now being used to discover variants correlated with disease risk. Among the labs engaged in that effort is Collins' own lab at NHGRI, which has sought to identify and understand the genetic variations that influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

In addition to his basic genetic research and scientific leadership, Collins is known for his close attention to ethical and legal issues in genetics. He has been a strong advocate for protecting the privacy of genetic information and has served as a national leader in securing the passage of the federal Genetic Information and Nondiscrimination Act, which prohibits gene-based discrimination in employment and health insurance.[27] In 2013, spurred by concerns over the publication of the genome of the widely used HeLa cell line derived from the late Henrietta Lacks, Collins and other NIH leaders worked with the Lacks family to reach an agreement to protect their privacy, while giving researchers controlled access to the genomic data.[28]

Building on his own experiences as a physician volunteer in a rural missionary hospital in Nigeria,[29] Collins is also very interested in opening avenues for genome research to benefit the health of people living in developing nations. For example, in 2010, he helped establish an initiative called Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa)[30] to advance African capacity and expertise in genomic science.

Collins announced his resignation from NHGRI on May 28, 2008, but has continued to maintain an active lab there.[31]

NIH director

Nomination and confirmation

Francis Collins with Kathleen Sebelius after swearing-in ceremony
Collins with Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius after swearing-in ceremony

On July 8, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Collins as Director of the National Institutes of Health,[32] and the Senate unanimously confirmed him for the post. He was sworn in by Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius on August 7, 2009.[33]

Science writer Jocelyn Kaiser opined that Collins was "known as a skilled administrator and excellent communicator," that Obama's nomination "did not come as a big surprise" and that the appointment "ignited a volley of flattering remarks from researchers and biomedical groups." Yet, she wrote, Collins "does have his critics," some of them who were concerned with the new director's "outspoken Christian faith."[34]

Washington Post staffer David Brown wrote, however, that Collins' status as a "born-again Christian . . . may help him build bridges with those who view some gene-based research as a potential threat to religious values."[35] Collins' appointment was welcomed by the chief executive officer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science[35] and by Bernadine Healy, the former head of the National Institutes of Health.[36]

Francis Collins official portrait
Collins' first official portrait

In October 2009, shortly after his nomination as NIH director, Collins stated in an interview in The New York Times: "I have made it clear that I have no religious agenda for the N.I.H., and I think the vast majority of scientists have been reassured by that and have moved on."[37]

On October 1, 2009, in the second of his four appearances on The Colbert Report, Collins discussed his leadership at the NIH and other topics such as personalized medicine and stem cell research. And, in November 2011, Collins was included on The New Republic's list of Washington's most powerful, least famous people. Collins appeared on the series finale of The Colbert Report, participating in a chorus with several other famous people singing "We'll Meet Again".[38][39]

On June 6, 2017, President Donald Trump announced his selection of Collins to continue to serve as the NIH Director.

Projects

Collins was instrumental in establishing the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) on December 23, 2011.[40] Other projects included increased support for Alzheimer's disease research, which was announced by Secretary Sebelius and Collins in May 2012;[41] the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative, announced by President Obama and Collins on April 2, 2013, at the White House, and, in February 2014, the Accelerating Medicines Partnership (AMP), a public-private partnership between NIH, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10 biopharmaceutical firms, and multiple non-profit organizations.

In January 2015 President Obama announced the NIH-led Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) in his State of the Union address.[42] Through advances in research, technology, and policies that empower patients, PMI will enable a new era of precision medicine long envisioned by Collins and many others in which researchers, providers, and patients work together to develop more individualized care. In fiscal year 2016, the first funding for the initiative was awarded, with $130 million allocated to NIH to build a national, large-scale research participant group, called a cohort, and $70 million allocated to NIH's National Cancer Institute as part of PMI for Oncology. The PMI Cohort Program will seek to extend precision medicine to all diseases by building a national research cohort of 1 million or more U.S. participants.[43] In January 2016, in his State of the Union address, President Obama called for a new initiative, to be led by Vice President Joe Biden, to galvanize the nation's research efforts against cancer.[44] Fueled by an additional $680 million in the proposed fiscal year 2017 budget for NIH, the National Cancer Moonshot Initiative will aim to accelerate progress toward the next generation of interventions to reduce cancer incidence and improve patient outcomes.[45]

In other precedent-setting actions during his time as NIH Director, Collins in June 2013 outlined plans to substantially reduce the use of chimpanzees in NIH-funded biomedical research.[46] In November 2015, he announced NIH will no longer support any biomedical research involving chimpanzees.[47] In January 2013, Collins also created two senior scientific positions as part of the NIH's response to an advisory group's recommendations on Big Data and the diversity of the scientific workforce.[48] In December 2013, Collins announced the selection of Philip E. Bourne as NIH's first Associate Director for Data Science,[49] and, in response to internal NIH working group recommendations, Collins appointed Stanford cardiologist Hannah Valantine in 2014 as the institution's first Chief Officer for Scientific Workforce Diversity.[50] In December 2015 Collins and other NIH leaders released a detailed plan that charted a course for NIH's efforts over the ensuing five years The NIH-Wide Strategic Plan, Fiscal Years 2016-2020: Turning Discovery Into Health[51] was aimed at ensuring the agency remains well positioned to capitalize on new opportunities for scientific exploration and to address new challenges for human health.

Music

Mention of Collins' love of guitar playing and motorcycle riding can often be found in articles about him.[52] While directing NHGRI, he formed a rock band with other NIH scientists. Sometimes the band, called "The Directors," dueled with a rock band from Johns Hopkins University, led by cancer researcher Bert Vogelstein. Lyrics of The Directors' songs included spoofs of rock and gospel classics re-written to address the challenges of contemporary biomedical research.[53] Collins has performed at TEDMED 2012, StandUpToCancer,[54] The 2017 Southern Methodist University Commencement[55] and Rock Stars of Science.[56]

Awards and honors

While leading the National Human Genome Research Institute, Collins was elected to the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences. He was a Kilby International Awards recipient in 1993.[57] He received the Biotechnology Heritage Award with J. Craig Venter in 2001, from the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) and the Chemical Heritage Foundation.[58][59] He received the William Allan Award from the American Society of Human Genetics in 2005. In 2007 he was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom.[60] In 2008 he was awarded the Inamori Ethics Prize[61] and National Medal of Science.[62] In the same year, Collins won the Trotter Prize where he delivered a lecture called "The Language of God".

Collins and Venter shared the "Biography of the Year" title from A&E Network in 2000.[63] In 2005, Collins and Venter were honored as two of "America's Best Leaders" by U.S. News & World Report and the Harvard University Center for Public Leadership.[64]

Collins received the Albany Medical Center Prize in 2010 and the Pro Bono Humanum Award of the Galien Foundation in 2012.[65]

Collins was a keynote speaker at the Congress of Future Medical Leaders in 2014.

Views

Christianity

By graduate school Collins considered himself an atheist. However, a conversation with a hospital patient led him to question his lack of religious views, and he investigated various faiths. He familiarized himself with the evidence for and against God in cosmology, and on the recommendation of a Methodist minister used Mere Christianity by C. S. Lewis as a foundation to develop his religious views. He eventually came to a conclusion and became a Christian after a "leap of faith" when he saw a frozen waterfall during a hike on a fall afternoon.[66] He has described himself as a "serious Christian".[27]

In his 2006 book The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief, Collins wrote that scientific discoveries were an "opportunity to worship" and that he rejected both Young Earth creationism and intelligent design. His own belief, he wrote, was theistic evolution or evolutionary creation, which he preferred to call BioLogos. He wrote that one can "think of DNA as an instructional script, a software program, sitting in the nucleus of the cell".[67] He appeared in December 2006 on The Colbert Report television show and in a March 2007 Fresh Air radio interview to discuss this book.[68][69] In an interview with D. J. Grothe on the Point of Inquiry podcast he said that the overall aim of the book was to show that "one can be intellectually in a rigorous position and argue that science and faith can be compatible", and that he was prompted to write the book because "most people are seeking a possible harmony between these worldviews [science and faith], and it seems rather sad that we hear so little about this possibility.[70]

Collins is a critic of intelligent design, and for this reason he was not asked to participate in the 2008 documentary Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed. Walt Ruloff, a producer for the film, claimed that by rejecting intelligent design, Collins was "toeing the party line", a claim which Collins called "just ludicrous".[71] In an interview he stated that "intelligent design is headed for collapse in the not too distant future" and that "science class ought to be about science, and opening the door to religious perspectives in that setting is a big mistake."[70] In 2007, Collins founded the BioLogos Foundation to "contribute to the public voice that represents the harmony of science and faith". He served as the foundation's president until he was confirmed as director of the NIH.[72] Collins has also spoken at the Veritas Forum on the relationship between science and religion and the existence of God.[73]

Christopher Hitchens referred to Francis Collins as a 'Great American' and stated that Collins was one of the most devout believers he had ever met.[74] He further stated that Collins was sequencing the genome of the cancer that would ultimately claim Hitchens's life, and that their friendship despite their differing opinion on religion was an example of the greatest armed truce in modern times.

Agnosticism

In an interview with National Geographic in February 2007, writer John Horgan criticized Collins' description of agnosticism as "a cop-out". In response, Collins clarified his position on agnosticism so as to exclude

earnest agnostics who have considered the evidence and still don't find an answer. I was reacting to the agnosticism I see in the scientific community, which has not been arrived at by a careful examination of the evidence. I went through a phase when I was a casual agnostic, and I am perhaps too quick to assume that others have no more depth than I did.[75]

Abortion

In a 1998 interview with Scientific American, Collins stated that he is "intensely uncomfortable with abortion as a solution to anything" and does not "perceive a precise moment at which life begins other than the moment of conception". However, in the same interview it was said that Collins also "does not advocate changing the law".[76]

Books

  • Principles of Medical Genetics, 2nd Edition, with T.D. Gelehrter and D. Ginsburg (Williams & Wilkins, 1998)
  • The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief (Free Press, 2006)
  • The Language of Life: DNA and the Revolution in Personalized Medicine (HarperCollins, published in early 2010)
  • Belief: Readings on the Reason for Faith (HarperOne, March 2, 2010)
  • The Language of Science and Faith: Straight Answers to Genuine Questions with Karl Giberson IVP Books (February 15, 2011)

See also

References

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  2. ^ "About The BioLogos Foundation". The Biologos Foundation. Retrieved May 3, 2014. We embrace the historical Christian faith, upholding the authority and inspiration of the Bible. We affirm evolutionary creation, recognizing God as Creator of all life over billions of years. We seek truth, ever learning as we study the natural world and the Bible.
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  76. ^ Beardsley T (1998). "Profile: Where Science and Religion Meet". Scientific American. 278 (2): 28–29. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0298-28.

Further reading

External links

Government offices
Preceded by
James D. Watson
Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute
1993 – 2008
Succeeded by
Eric D. Green
Preceded by
Raynard Kington
Acting
Director of the National Institutes of Health
2009 – present
Incumbent
Argument from desire

The argument from desire is an argument for the existence of God and/or a heavenly afterlife. The best-known defender of the argument is the Christian writer C. S. Lewis. Briefly and roughly, the argument states that humans’ natural desire for eternal happiness must be capable of satisfaction, because all natural desires are capable of satisfaction. Versions of the argument have been offered since the Middle Ages, and the argument continues to have defenders today, such as Peter Kreeft and Francis Collins .

Arthur Collins (singer)

Arthur Francis Collins (February 7, 1864 – August 3, 1933) was an American baritone who was one of the most prolific and beloved of pioneer recording artists, regarded in his day as "King of the Ragtime Singers".

Christian apologetics

Christian apologetics (Greek: ἀπολογία, "verbal defence, speech in defence") is a branch of Christian theology that defends Christianity against objections.Christian apologetics has taken many forms over the centuries, starting with Paul the Apostle in the early church and Patristic writers such as Origen, Augustine of Hippo, Justin Martyr and Tertullian, then continuing with writers such as Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, William of Ockham and Anselm of Canterbury during Scholasticism. Blaise Pascal was an active Christian apologist before the Age of Enlightenment, and in the modern period, Christianity was defended through the efforts of many authors such as G. K. Chesterton and C. S. Lewis, as well as G. E. M. Anscombe. In contemporary times Christianity is defended through the work of figures such as Robert Barron, Richard Swinburne, J. P. Moreland, Ravi Zacharias, Rabi Maharaj, Robert Hutchinson, John Lennox, Doug Wilson, Lee Strobel, Francis Collins, Henry M. Morris, Hugh W. Nibley, Alister McGrath, Alvin Plantinga, Hugh Ross, Frank Turek, Greg Koukl, James White, David Wood, Dinesh D’Souza, David Bentley Hart, Nabeel Qureshi, William Lane Craig and Roger Scruton.

Electoral results for the Division of Evans

This is a list of electoral results for the Division of Evans in Australian federal elections from the division's creation in 1949 until its abolition in 1977.

Francis Collins (disambiguation)

Francis Collins (born 1950) is an American physician-geneticist.

Francis Collins may also refer to:

Francis Dolan Collins (1841–1891), American politician

Francis Collins (Borris-Ileigh hurler) on Borris-Ileigh Hurling Team 1987

Francis Collins (hurler), Irish hurler

Francis Collins (hurler)

Francis Collins is an Irish retired hurler who played as a midfielder for the Cork senior team.Born in Castlehaven, County Cork, Collins first played competitive Gaelic games during his schooling at the St. Finbarr's College. He arrived on the inter-county scene when he first linked up with the Cork senior team. He made his debut during the 1982 championship. Collins quickly became a regular member of the starting fifteen. He was an All-Ireland runner-up on two occasions.

At club level Collins is a one-time Munster medallist as a Gaelic footballer with Castlehaven. In addition to this he is also a dual championship medallist having played hurling with Blackrock.

Collin's brothers, Donie and Christy, also played with Cork.

Throughout his career Collins made 4 championship appearances. His retirement came following the conclusion of the 1983 championship.

Francis Dolan Collins

Francis Dolan Collins (March 5, 1841 – November 21, 1891) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.Francis Collins was born in Saugerties, New York. He attended St. Joseph's College, near Montrose, Pennsylvania before moving with his parents to Dinsmore. He attended Wyoming Seminary at Kingston, Pennsylvania.

He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1866 and commenced practice in Scranton, Pennsylvania. He was elected district attorney of the mayor’s court district in 1869. He served in the Pennsylvania State Senate from 1872 to 1874.

Collins was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth Congresses. He resumed the practice of his profession and died in Scranton in 1891, aged 50. He was interred in Cathedral Cemetery in Hyde Park, Scranton.

Great Ape Project

The Great Ape Project (GAP), founded in 1993, is an international organization of primatologists, anthropologists, ethicists, and others who advocate a United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Great Apes that would confer basic legal rights on non-human great apes: chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans.

The rights suggested are the right to life, the protection of individual liberty, and the prohibition of torture. The organization also monitors individual great ape activity in the United States through a census program. Once rights are established, GAP would demand the release of great apes from captivity; currently 3,100 are held in the U.S., including 1,280 in biomedical research facilities.

Greg Collins (record producer)

Gregory Francis Collins (born September 5, 1969) is an American mixer, record producer, composer, and recording engineer, best known for his work with U2, No Doubt, Gwen Stefani, Eels, Matchbox Twenty, and KISS.Collins won a Grammy Award in 2006 for his work as mix engineer on the U2 singles "City Of Blinding Lights" and "Sometimes You Can't Make it On Your Own" from the album How To Dismantle An Atomic Bomb, which won Album Of The Year.In 2008 Collins co-produced the band KISS's first album of new material in over 10 years, Sonic Boom, with Paul Stanley. The album reached the number 2 position on the Billboard album charts and was praised by critics and fans as a return to the sound and spirit of the band's 1970s heyday.Collins is the owner and operator of The Nook recording studio in Studio City, Los Angeles.

James Francis Collins

General James Francis Collins (September 2, 1905 – January 22, 1989) commanded the U.S. Army, Pacific from April 1961 until his retirement in 1964, and was President of the American Red Cross from 1964 until 1970.

A graduate of the United States Military Academy, he gained his commission in 1927 into the Field Artillery. He later attended the National War College. He also worked in the Hawaiian Division before the outbreak of World War II, during which he served exclusively in the Pacific Theater. At the close of World War II, Collins commanded the I Corps Artillery in the Philippines and in Japan. From 1954 to 1957 he commanded the U.S. Army, Alaska. Afterward he commanded the 71st and 2nd Infantry Divisions before his tour in Hawaii. Other significant assignments include serving on the faculty of the Army War College and as Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, Department of the Army in Washington, D.C..

Collins was appointed President of the American Red Cross in 1964, one month after retiring from the Army.[1] During his tenure he enhanced Red Cross services to American military personnel in Vietnam and to military hospitals worldwide. Collins was born and raised in the Van Nest section of the Bronx.

He died on January 22, 1989.

John A. Leslie

John Andrew Leslie (born 2 August 1940) is a Canadian philosopher. He was educated at Wadham College, Oxford, earning his B.A. in English Literature in 1962 and his M.Litt. in Classics in 1968. He is currently Professor emeritus at the University of Guelph, in Ontario, Canada.

In his book Universes, Leslie describes a philosophical parable in which an individual survives a firing squad of fifty expert marksmen unscathed. He offers two explanations for this remarkable event: either it is a fortuitous outcome, to be expected occasionally by pure chance among many thousands of attempted executions by firing squad; or it is intentional. Francis Collins references this parable in his book The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief as part of his argument that the Anthropic Principle strongly suggests a Creator with intent.

Leslie has spoken as follows about his life's work: What I have to contribute is some technical defense of the idea that if you had an infinitely rich [universe], it could be explained by reference to its value. Its goodness could be the creative force which had produced it. I think if I would like to be remembered as a philosopher for any one thing, that would be the thing I'd most like to be remembered for.

John F. Collins (mayor of Providence)

John Francis Collins (February 17, 1872 – October 6, 1962) was an American lawyer and 28th mayor of Providence, Rhode Island. He served one term, from 1939 to 1941.

Preacher and the Bear

Preacher and the Bear is an American folk song. Ragtime artist Arthur Francis Collins recorded the song in 1905 and it became a huge hit selling over a million records. He continued performing and recording the song for various records over several decades. Publisher Arthur Longbrake composed the song using the pseudonym Joe Arzonia and sheet music for the song in 1905 was published by Joseph Morris. The song was also recorded by various artists including Phil Harris in 1947, The Jubalaires, and Jerry Reed on his album Georgia Sunshine. The song was also recorded by the Golden Gate Quartet.A "coon song", the lyrics recount the story of a man who appeals to God after being treed by a bear while out hunting on the Sabbath. He falls out out of the tree. The University Of Arkansas' Ozark Folksong Collection has a 1962 recording from Jasper, Arkansas of an acapella version with bigoted slurs included in the lyrics.

Raynard S. Kington

Raynard S. Kington is the president of Grinnell College. He was most recently deputy director of the National Institutes of Health, and officially became the 13th president of Grinnell College on August 1, 2010. Kington entered a combined B.S./M.D. program at the University of Michigan at age 16, earning his bachelor's degree when he was 19 and the M.D. at 21. He earned an M.B.A. and a Ph.D. in health policy and economics at The Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania.He served as deputy director of the National Institutes of Health after his appointment by director Elias Zerhouni in 2003. He briefly served as acting director of NIH from October 2008 to August 2009, until the appointment of director Francis Collins. He is known for being the first openly gay president of Grinnell College, as well as the first black president.

The BioLogos Foundation

The BioLogos Foundation is a Christian advocacy group established by Francis Collins in 2007.

Francis Collins served as its president until he resigned on August 16, 2009 to become the 16th Director of the National Institutes of Health. The presidency was then assumed by Darrel Falk, succeeded in January 2013 by Deborah Haarsma .

The Language of God

The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief is a bestselling book by Francis Collins in which he advocates theistic evolution. Francis Collins is an American physician-geneticist, noted for his landmark discoveries of disease genes, and his leadership of the Human Genome Project (HGP). He currently serves as the Director of the US National Institutes of Health. In the book, Collins describes briefly the process by which he became a Christian.Collins raises arguments for the idea of God from biology, astrophysics, psychology and other disciplines. He cites many famous thinkers, most prevalently C. S. Lewis, as well as Saint Augustine, Stephen Hawking, Charles Darwin, Theodosius Dobzhansky and others. In 2007 Christianity Today judged it one of the best books of the previous year.

The Weight of the Nation

The Weight of the Nation is a four-part documentary series produced by American cable television network HBO. Addressing the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, it was first aired in May 2012.

The scientific commentators featured in the documentary include Francis Collins, Samuel Klein, Rudolph Leibel, and Robert Lustig.

Tom Francis Collins

Thomas Francis Collins (1886–1907) was an English drifter who was convicted and hanged for murder in Albert County, New Brunswick in 1907. The events of the murder and trials resulted in several legal firsts in Canada.

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