Francesco Hayez (Italian: [franˈtʃesko ˈaːjets]; 10 February 1791 – 21 December 1882) was an Italian painter, the leading artist of Romanticism in mid-19th-century Milan, renowned for his grand historical paintings, political allegories, and exceptionally fine portraits.
Self-Portrait at the age of 88 in 1879
|Born||10 February 1791|
|Died||12 February 1882 (aged 91)|
Hayez came from a relatively poor family from Venice. His father, Giovanni, was of French origin while his mother, Chiara Torcella, was from Murano. The child Francesco, youngest of five sons, was brought up by his mother's sister, who had married Giovanni Binasco, a well-off shipowner and collector of art. From childhood he showed a predisposition for drawing, so his uncle apprenticed him to an art restorer. Later he became a student of the painter Francesco Maggiotto with whom he continued his studies for three years. He was admitted to the painting course of the New Academy of Fine Arts in 1806, where he studied under Teodoro Matteini. In 1809 he won a competition from the Academy of Venice for one year of study at the Accademia di San Luca in Rome. He remained in Rome until 1814, then moved to Naples where he was commissioned by Joachim Murat to paint a major work depicting Ulysses at the court of Alcinous. In the mid-1830s he attended the "Salotto Maffei" salon in Milan, hosted by Clara Maffei (whose portrait Hayez painted for her husband), and he was still in Milan in 1850 when he was appointed director of the Academy of Brera there.
Francesco Hayez lived long and was prolific. His output spanned both historic paintings, including those that would have appealed to the patriotic sensibility of his patrons. Others reflect the desire to accompany a Neoclassic style to grand themes, either from biblical or classical literature. He also painted scenes from theatrical presentations of his day. Conspicuously lacking from his output, however, are altarpieces intended for devotional display. However, after the Napoleonic invasions deconsecrated many churches and convents in Northern Italy, the region was not lacking for religious artworks that were removed either to museums or concentrated in the remaining active religious institutions. Corrado Ricci describes him as starting as a classicist but then evolving to a style of emotional tumult.
His portraits have the intensity seen with Ingres and the Nazarene movement. Often sitting, the subjects dress in austere, often black and white clothing, with little to no accoutrements. While he did complete portraits for the nobility, other subjects are artists and musicians. Late in his career, he is known to have worked using photographs.
One of his favorite themes was a semi-clothed female. Often they were, like his Odalisque, evocative of oriental themes, which had been a favorite topic of Romantic painters. The depictions of harems and their women allowed them the ability to paint scenes not acceptable in their society. Even his Mary Magdalene has more sensuality than religious fervor.
Among his works, his painting The Kiss was considered among his best work by contemporaries, and has only gained in esteem since then. The anonymous, unaffected gesture of the couple does not require knowledge of myth or literature to interpret, and appeals to a modern gaze.
Assessment of the career of Hayez is complicated by the fact that he often did not sign or date his works. Often the date indicated from the evidence is that at which the work was acquired or sold, not of its creation. Moreover, he often painted the same compositions several times with minimal variations, or even with no variation.
Among his pupils from the Academy were Carlo Belgioioso, Amanzio Cattaneo, Alessandro Focosi, Giovanni Lamperti, Livo Pecora, Angelo Pietrasanta, Antonio Silo, Antonio Tavella, Ismaele Teglio Milla and Francesco Valaperta.
Events in the year 1823 in Art.1850 in art
Events from the year 1850 in art.1867 in art
Events from the year 1867 in art.Andrea Appiani the Younger
Andrea Appiani, "the younger" (1817–1865) who was the great-nephew of the painter of the same name, was born in 1817. He studied at Rome under Minardi and Francesco Hayez, and became a good historical painter. He was employed by the King of Italy, the Emperor of Austria, and other personages of celebrity. Of his works may be mentioned Petrarch and Laura (1852); Laban and Jacob, and La povera Maria (1859). He died in 1865.Andrea Maffei
Andrea Maffei (1798 – 1885) was an Italian poet, translator and librettist. He was born in Molina di Ledro, Trentino. A follower of Vincenzo Monti, he formed part of the 19th-century Italian classicist literary culture. Gaining laurea in jurisprudence, he moved for some years to Verona, then to Venice and finally to Milan, where in 1831 he married contessa Clara Spinelli. They separated by mutual consent on 15 June 1846.
As well as Verdi, Maffei also built up close relationships with others in the Italian cultural scene of the time, including Vincenzo Monti, Antonio Rosmini, Gino Capponi, Mario Rapisardi, Carlo Tenca, the painter Francesco Hayez, and the sculptors Vincenzo Vela and Giovanni Duprè. Key cultural figures from the rest of Europe also passed through the lounge of his house in Milan, including Liszt and Stendhal. In 1879 Andrea Maffei was made a senator of the Kingdom of Italy and participated in Italian political life. In the mid-19th century he frequently lived at Riva del Garda, where he organised his rich art collection and where, in 1935, the town's Liceo classico was named after him.
He died in Milan in 1885.Clara Maffei
Elena Clara Antonia Carrara Spinelli (13 March 1814, in Bergamo – 13 July 1886, in Milan) was an Italian woman of letters and backer of the Risorgimento, usually known by her married name of countess Clara Maffei or Chiarina Maffei.Davide Beghè
Davide Beghè (3 May 1854 – 17 January 1933) was an Italian painter, mainly depicting sacred subjects and portraits.
He was born in Calice al Cornoviglio in the province of La Spezia. he studied architecture at the Politecnico of Milan, but then, alongside Giovanni Segantini, he took lessons from Francesco Hayez and Giuseppe Bertini. He painted frescoes in a number of churches including Santa Maria in Binda near Nosate, Santa Maria Assunta in Gorla Maggiore, and the church of Bolano.In 1992, the Comune of Calice al Cornoviglio established the Pinacoteca David Beghè, displaying a collection of 36 oil paintings and photos covering the painter's life.Francesco Barzaghi
Francesco Barzaghi (1839–1892) was an Italian sculptor.
Born in Milan, he had his initial training in the studios of Antonio Tantardini and a sculptor called Puttinati. He enrolled in the Accademia di Brera. Among his colleagues was Vincenzo Vela.
Barzaghi completed a number of monuments, including the bronze equestrian statued dedicated to Napoleon III, first unveiled in 1881 at the Exposition of Milan. He also made monuments to Luciano Manara and Garibaldi (1888). He made many marble female figures, including:
La Frine denudata
La Mosca cieca
Silvia che si specchia (Paris Exposition 1878)
Moses saved from the Nile (Paris Exposition 1878)
L' innocenza (won a prize in Turin 1881)
La VanerellaGalleria d'Arte Moderna, Milan
The Galleria d'Arte Moderna ("modern art gallery") is a modern art museum in Milan, in Lombardy in northern Italy. It is housed in the Villa Reale, at Via Palestro 16, opposite the Giardini Pubblici. The collection consists largely of Italian and European works from the 18th to the 20th centuries.The museum has works by Francesco Filippini, Giuseppe Ferrari, Giovanni Fattori, Silvestro Lega, Giovanni Boldini, Vincent van Gogh, Édouard Manet, Paul Gauguin, Paul Cézanne, Pablo Picasso, Giacomo Balla, Umberto Boccioni, Francesco Hayez, Giovanni Segantini, Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo and Antonio Canova, among others. It has received donations from Milanese families including Treves, Ponti, Grassi and Vismara.
After the Second World War the twentieth-century works in the collection were moved to the Padiglione d'Arte Contemporanea, built in 1955 on the site of the former stables of the palace, which had been destroyed by wartime bombing.In 2011 some works were moved to the Museo del Novecento; these included Bambina che corre sul balcone by Giacomo Balla (1912), Uomo che dorme by Renato Guttuso (1938) and The Fourth Estate by Pellizza da Volpedo (1901).
In recent years the Modern Art Gallery has started a parallel program of temporary exhibitions, including a solo presentation of Tino Sehgal and a selection of drawings from the UBS Art Collection curated by Francesco Bonami.Italia turrita
Italia turrita (pronounced [iˈtaːlja turˈriːta]) is the national personification or allegory of Italy, characterised by a mural crown (hence turrita or "with towers" in Italian) typical of Italian civic heraldry of Medieval communal origin. In broader terms, the crown symbolizes its mostly urban history. She often holds in her hands a bunch of corn ears (a symbol of fertility and reference to the agrarian economy); during the fascist era, she held a bundle of fasces.Italian Neoclassical and 19th-century art
From the second half of the 18th century through the 19th century, Italy went through a great deal of socio-economic changes, several foreign invasions and the turbulent Risorgimento, which resulted in the Italian unification in 1861. Thus, Italian art went through a series of minor and major changes in style.
The Italian Neoclassicism was the earliest manifestation of the general period known as Neoclassicism and lasted more than the other national variants of neoclassicism. It developed in opposition to the Baroque style around c.1750 and lasted until c.1850. Neoclassicism began around the period of the rediscovery of Pompeii and spread all over Europe as a generation of art students returned to their countries from the Grand Tour in Italy with rediscovered Greco-Roman ideals. It first centred in Rome where artists such as Antonio Canova and Jacques-Louis David were active in the second half of the 18th century, before moving to Paris. Painters of Vedute, like Canaletto and Giovanni Paolo Panini, also enjoyed a huge success during the Grand Tour. Neoclassical architecture was inspired by the Renaissance works of Palladio and saw in Luigi Vanvitelli and Filippo Juvarra the main interpreters of the style.
Classicist literature had a great impact on the Risorgimento movement: the main figures of the period include Vittorio Alfieri, Giuseppe Parini, Vincenzo Monti and Ugo Foscolo, Giacomo Leopardi and Alessandro Manzoni (nephew of Cesare Beccaria), who were also influenced by the French Enlightenment and German Romanticism. The virtuoso violinist Paganini and the operas of Rossini, Donnizetti, Bellini and, later, Verdi dominated the scene in Italian classical and romantic music.
The art of Francesco Hayez and especially that of the Macchiaioli represented a break with the classical school, which came to an end as Italy unified (see Italian modern and contemporary art). Neoclassicism was the last Italian-born style, after the Renaissance and Baroque, to spread to all Western Art.Luigi Boscolo
Luigi Boscolo (Italian pronunciation: [luˈiːdʒi ˈboskolo; ˈbɔs-]; 22 March 1824 – ?) was an Italian engraver, active in Venice.
Born in Rovigo, he first studied in his hometown, then at the Academy of Ferrara, but at age 16 he was sent to study at the Accademia di Belle Arti of Venice. He was to become professor there, and later knighted. Among his engravings are those of The Bathers by Francesco Hayez, the Magdalen by Natale Schiavoni, works given an award by the Academy of Fine Arts of Milan; The Odalisque also by Schiavoni; a portrait of Carlo Goldoni by Alessandro Longhi, engravings awarded by the Academy of Belle Arti in Venice; the Madonna del Pomo by Giovanni Bellini; a portrait of Malatesta Buglioni by the painter Raffaele Giannetti of Genoa; La Sorpresa del Bechi di Firenze; a Torquato Tasso in the jails of Ferrara, and the Poet Camoens in prison by the painter Luigi Moretti of Venice; and finally five portraits of King Vittorio Emanuele, King Umberto, of Cardinal Silvestri of Rovigo, Conte Spiridione Papadopoli of Venice, and Conte Luigi Camerini of Padua.Odysseus at the Court of Alcinous
Odysseus at the Court of Alcinous is an oil on canvas painting by Francesco Hayez, painted between 1814 and 1816 and now in the National Museum of Capodimonte in Naples. It was commissioned for Gioacchino Murat by Naples' interior minister Giuseppe Zurlo, using dimensions, price and subject specified by Hayez's patron and protector Leopoldo Cicognara, president of the Accademia di Venezia.Pinacoteca Tosio Martinengo
The Pinacoteca Tosio Martinengo is a public art museum in Brescia, Lombardy, northern Italy, exhibiting mainly paintings by local artists from the 13th through 18th centuries.The gallery opened in 1851 in the Palazzo Tosio, endowed in 1832 with the collection of Count Paolo Tosio and further enriched by donations and gathering of items from local religious buildings. For some paintings in the collection see the Category for Pinacoteca Tosio Martinengo in Brescia below.
In 1884, the Count Leopardo Martinengo da Barco added to the painting collection and endowed a library and collections of scientific artifacts to display in his palace.
The collection includes works by Vincenzo Foppa, Ferramola, Paolo Veneziano, Andrea Solari, Francesco Francia, Lorenzo Lotto, Luca Mombello and Lattanzio Gambara. The museum ist currently being renovated until 2019.Pinacoteca di Brera
The Pinacoteca di Brera ("Brera Art Gallery") is the main public gallery for paintings in Milan, Italy. It contains one of the foremost collections of Italian paintings, an outgrowth of the cultural program of the Brera Academy, which shares the site in the Palazzo Brera.Portrait of Febo da Brescia
Portrait of Febo da Brescia is a 1543-1544 oil on canvas painting by Lorenzo Lotto. It is identified with the commission mentioned in the artist's account books in April 1543 from Febo Bettignoli da Brescia, a nobleman from Treviso, for paintings of himself and his wife, which were delivered in 1544. After Febo's death in 1547 the painting passed to his wife's heirs and remained with them until her family died out in the 19th century. In 1859, via Francesco Hayez the painter, the Pinacoteca di Brera acquired the paintings of Febo and his wife - they still hang there.The Kiss (Hayez)
Il bacio (Italian pronunciation: [il ˈbaːtʃo]; The Kiss) is an 1859 painting by the Italian artist Francesco Hayez. It is possibly his best known work. This painting conveys the main features of Italian Romanticism and has come to represent the spirit of the Risorgimento. It was commissioned by Alfonso Maria Visconti di Saliceto, who donated to the Pinacoteca di Brera after his death.The Two Foscari (Byron)
The Two Foscari: An Historical Tragedy (1821) is a verse play in five acts by Lord Byron. The plot, set in Venice in the mid 15th century, is loosely based on the true story of the downfall of doge Francesco Foscari and his son Jacopo. Byron's play formed the basis of Verdi's opera I due Foscari.Villa Litta Modignani, Milan
The Villa Litta Modignani is a 17th-century rural palace and park located on Via Taccioli in the north suburbs of Milan, in the Province of Milan, Lombardy, Italy.