Francesco Caracciolo

Prince Francesco Caracciolo (18 January 1752 – 30 June 1799) was an Italian admiral and revolutionist.

Francesco Caracciolo
Francesco Caracciolo.

Early life and British service

Caracciolo was born in Naples to a noble family. It is likely that he was named after St. Francis Caracciolo, a saint of the Catholic Church and Francesco's many times great uncle. He entered the navy and learned his seamanship under Rodney. He fought with distinction in the British service in the American War of Independence, against the Barbary pirates, and against the French at Genoa under Lord Hotham. The Bourbons placed the greatest confidence in his skill.

To Sicily and back

When on the approach of the French to Naples, King Ferdinand IV and Queen Mary Caroline fled to Sicily on board Horatio Nelson's ship, HMS Vanguard (December 1798), Caracciolo escorted them on the frigate Sannita. He was the only prominent Neapolitan trusted by the king, but the admiral's loyalty was shaken by Ferdinand's flight. On reaching Palermo, Caracciolo asked permission to return to Naples to look after his own private affairs (January 1799). This was granted, but when he arrived at Naples he found all the aristocracy and educated middle classes infatuated with the French revolutionary ideas, and he himself was received with great enthusiasm.

Republican service and capture

He seems at first to have intended to live a retired life; but, finding that he must either join the Republican party or escape to Procida, then in the hands of the English, in which case even his intimates would regard him as a traitor and his property would have been confiscated, he was induced to adhere to the new order of things and took command of the republic's naval forces. Once at sea, he fought actively against the British and Neapolitan squadrons and prevented the landing of some Royalist bands. A few days later, all the French troops in Naples, except 500 men, were recalled to the north of Italy.

Caracciolo then attacked Admiral Thurn, who from the Minerva commanded the Royalist fleet, and did some damage to that vessel. But the British fleet on the one hand and Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo's army on the other made resistance impossible. The Republicans and the 500 French had retired to the castles, and Caracciolo landed and tried to escape in disguise. He was betrayed and arrested by a Royalist officer, who on 29 June brought him in chains on board Nelson's flagship, HMS Foudroyant.

Trial and execution

It is doubtful whether Caracciolo should have been included in the capitulation concluded with the Republicans in the castles, as that document promised life and liberty to those who surrendered before the blockade of the forts, whereas he was arrested afterwards, but as the whole capitulation was violated, the point is immaterial. Moreover, the admiral's fate was decided even before his capture, because on 27 June, the British minister, Sir William Hamilton, had communicated to Nelson, Queen Mary Caroline's wish that Caracciolo should be hanged. As soon as he was brought on board, Nelson ordered Thurn to summon a court martial composed of Caracciolo's former officers, Thurn himself being a personal enemy of the accused. The court was held on board the Foudroyant, which was British territory—a most indefensible proceeding.

Caracciolo was charged with high treason; he had asked to be judged by British officers, which was refused, nor was he allowed to summon witnesses in his defence. He was condemned to death by three votes to two, and as soon as the sentence was communicated to Nelson, the latter ordered that he should be hanged at the yard-arm of the Minerva the next morning, and his body thrown into the sea at sundown. Even the customary twenty-four hours respite for confession was denied him, and his request to be shot instead of hanged refused. The sentence was duly carried out on 30 June 1799.

The local port of Borgo Santa Lucia nevertheless took care of Caracciolo's remains, giving him a proper funeral and burial at church of Santa Maria della Catena. His epitaph reads, Francesco Caracciolo, Admiral of the Republic of Naples, who fell victim of the hatred and the lack of mercy of his enemies. He was hanged at the mast on 29 June 1799. The people of Santa Lucia took it upon themselves to honour him with a Christian burial. The City Council of Naples, 1881.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Caracciolo, Francesco" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Cagni-class submarine

The Cagni or Ammiraglio Cagni class was a class of submarines built for Italy's Regia Marina during World War II.

Cannone navale da 381/40

The Cannone navale da 381/40 was an Italian naval gun ordered in 1913 to equip the battleships of the Francesco Caracciolo class. The ships were cancelled in 1916 and the guns intended for them were diverted to other uses. Seven were turned over to the Army and turned into railroad guns, a number were used as coastal defense guns and the rest were used on monitors to provide naval gunfire support for the Army. Most of the monitors were disarmed after World War I and their guns were transferred to coastal batteries, but the railroad guns and the coast defense guns were used throughout World War II.

Caracciolo

Caracciolo (Italian pronunciation: [kaˈrattʃolo]) is an Italian surname most associated with the noble House of Caracciolo from the Kingdom of Naples.

Other people with the name include:

Alberto Caracciolo, Argentinian musician

Andrea Caracciolo, Italian footballer

Battistello Caracciolo, Italian painter

Fabio Caracciolo, Belgian footballer of Italian descent

Franco Caracciolo, Italian conductor

Alessia Cara, Canadian musician

Pasqual or Pasquale Caracciolo, author of La gloria del cavallo Venice 1566 ("The Glory of the Horse")

Francesco Caracciolo-class battleship

The Francesco Caracciolo-class battleships were a class of battleships designed for the Italian Regia Marina in 1912–1913 and ordered in 1914; the first ship of the class, Francesco Caracciolo, was laid down that year. The other three ships, Cristoforo Colombo, Marcantonio Colonna, and Francesco Morosini were all laid down in 1915. Armed with a main battery of eight 381 mm (15.0 in) guns and possessing a top speed of 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph), the four ships of the class were intended to be the equivalent of the British Queen Elizabeth class. They were never completed, however, due to material shortages and shifting construction priorities after the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Only the lead ship was launched, and several proposals to convert her into an aircraft carrier were considered, but budgetary problems prevented any work being done. She was sold to an Italian shipping firm for conversion into a merchant ship. This too proved to be too expensive, and so she was broken up for scrap.

Francesco Morosini

Francesco Morosini (26 February 1619 – 16 January 1694) was the Doge of Venice from 1688 to 1694, at the height of the Great Turkish War. He was a member of a famous noble Venetian family (the Morosini family) which produced several Doges and generals. He "dressed always in red from top to toe and never went into action without his cat beside him on the poop."

House of Caracciolo

The House of Caracciolo (Italian pronunciation: [kaˈrattʃolo]) is a prominent aristocratic family from the Kingdom of Naples. Its members include:

Allegra Caracciolo di Castagneto, wife of the late industrialist Umberto Agnelli

Battistello Caracciolo (1578–1635), Italian painter

Fabrizio Caracciolo (1607 - 1683), Duke of Girifalco, adviser of the Holy Council, Neapolitan Patrician

Carmine Nicolao Caracciolo (1671–1726), Viceroy of the Spanish Colony of Peru

Filippo Giudice Caracciolo, Archbishop of Naples from 1833-1844

Prince Francesco Caracciolo (1752–1799), Neapolitan admiral and revolutionary

Saint Francesco Caracciolo (1563–1608), born Ascanio Pisquizio, priest and co-founder with Gian Agostino Adorno of the Congregation of the Clerics Regular Minor

Franco Caracciolo (1920-1999), Italian actor and conductor

Giovanni Caracciolo (c. 1372 – 1432), Minister of the Kingdom of Naples under Joan II

Giuseppe Caracciolo (1892-1975), Italian cinematographer

Gerolamo Caracciolo, Marqués de Torrecuso, 17th century Spanish aristocrat and soldier

Carlo Caracciolo, twentieth-century Italian-American newspaper publisher; founder of Gruppo Editoriale L’Espresso

Marella Caracciolo di Castagneto (1927-2019), Italian art collector and designer, widow of Gianni Agnelli

Marino Caracciolo (1468–1538), cardinal and diplomat

Niccolo d'Ardia Caracciolo, twentieth-century painter

Riccardo Caracciolo (died 1395), one of two rival Grand Masters of the Knights Hospitaller

Rudolf Caracciola (1901–1959), German racing-driver (from a branch in Germany since the 17th century)

Tommaso Caracciolo, Count of Roccarainola (1572–1631), Spanish Field Marshal

Tommaso Caracciolo (bishop of Gerace), Bishop of Gerace (1687–1689)

Tommaso Caracciolo (archbishop of Capua), Archbishop of Capua (1536–1546), Bishop of Trivento (1502–1540), and Bishop of Capaccio (1523–1531)

Tommaso Caracciolo (archbishop), Archbishop of Taranto (1636–1637)Bibliography

Maria Pina Cancelliere, "Lo Stato feudale dei Caracciolo di Torella: poteri, istituzioni e rapporti economico-sociali nel Mezzogiorno moderno", editore Terebinto, 2012, ISBN 8897489079.

Italian battleship Francesco Morosini

Francesco Morosini has been the name of more than one Italian battleship, and may refer to:

Italian ironclad Francesco Morosini, an ironclad battleship completed in 1889 and stricken in 1909

Italian battleship Francesco Morosini (1915), a Francesco Caracciolo-class dreadnought battleship laid down in 1915 but scrapped prior to being launched

Italian monitor Alfredo Cappellini

Alfredo Cappellini was an Italian monitor converted from the floating crane GA53 during World War I. She bombarded Austro-Hungarian positions during the Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo in 1917 before she was wrecked off Ancona on 16 November 1917.

Italian monitor Faà di Bruno

Faà di Bruno was an Italian monitor built during World War I. Although called a monitor, Faà di Bruno was more of a self-propelled barge with a bow welded on. She was decommissioned in 1924, but returned to service as the floating battery GM 194 at the beginning of World War II. She was towed to Genoa and spent the rest of the war there. The ship was captured by the Germans after the Surrender of Italy in 1943 and was renamed as Biber. She was surrendered in May 1945 and scrapped afterwards.

Italian ship Caracciolo

Francesco Caracciolo or Ammiraglio Caracciolo or simply Caracciolo was the name of at least two ships of the Italian Navy named in honour of Francesco Caracciolo and may refer to:

Italian battleship Francesco Caracciolo, a Caracciolo-class battleship laid down in 1914 and launched in 1920. She was never completed.

Italian submarine Ammiraglio Caracciolo, a Cagni-class submarine launched in 1940 and sunk in 1941.

Italian ship Cristoforo Colombo

Four ships of the Italian Regia Marina (Royal Navy) have been named Cristoforo Colombo, after the Genoan explorer Christopher Columbus:

Italian corvette Cristoforo Colombo (1875), a wooden-hulled ship built in the 1870s

Italian corvette Cristoforo Colombo (1892), a steel-hulled ship built to replace the original vessel

Italian battleship Cristoforo Colombo, a Francesco Caracciolo-class battleship cancelled in 1916

Italian training ship Cristoforo Colombo, a sail training ship launched in 1928, she was ceded to the Soviet Union in 1949 and given the name Dunay

John Rushout, 2nd Baron Northwick

John Rushout, 2nd Baron Northwick (16 February 1770 – 20 January 1859) was an English peer, landowner and collector of art works.

Rushout was the son of John Rushout, 1st Baron Northwick and his wife Rebecca Bowles. He was born at St James', Westminster, London and was educated at Newcome's School at Hackney (rather than Eton like his father) and did not then go to an English university. Instead he was sent to Neuchâtel in Switzerland. In 1790 he visited Italy and while touring the continent became friends with many eminent men including Edward Gibbon, Horatio Nelson, Sir William Hamilton (diplomat) and his wife Emma Hamilton, Richard Payne Knight, and the Italian artists Antonio Canova, and Vincenzo Camuccini. While he was living at the Bay of Palermo HMS Vanguard was stranded there, and as a result he was the first man in Europe to receive the news of the victory of the Battle of the Nile, hearing it from Nelson himself. He was also party to a less glorious incident of Nelson's career, as he was at Nelson's table in the flagship when a gun announced the execution of Prince Francesco Caracciolo.

Rushout developed a love of antique art from Sir William Hamilton and with Hamilton and Payne Knight purchased several collections of coins and other works of art. His art collection was to include paintings by contemporary artists as well as Old Masters, miniatures, enamels prints, coins and other collectible items. He returned from Italy in 1800 when, on the death of his father, he succeeded to the titles of 6th Baronet Rushout, of Milnst and 2nd Baron Northwick. He became a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries (F.S.A.) in 1800. In 1832 he built a gallery for his collection at Northwick Park, near Moreton-in-Marsh, Gloucestershire, but this became too small. Northwick was a landowner behind many property developments in Cheltenham and purchased Thirlestaine House there to allow access to any art lovers who wanted to admire his collection. He also had a gallery at Connaught Place in London, which he sold in 1838, having transferred its pictures to Thirlestaine.

Northwick appears in the accounts of Anthony Trollope the author whose father had rented a poor farm from him at Harrow. As the farm failed, Trollope senior referred to Northwick as a 'cormorant who was eating us up' and fled to Belgium in 1834 to escape arrest for his debts.

Northwick died at Northwick Park in 1859 aged eighty-eight, intestate and childless. As a result his collection was sold off and items from it appear in many major art collections around the world. The barony and Northwick Park passed to his nephew, George Rushout. Thirlestaine House was bought in 1863 by Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bt. to house his own huge book collection.

List of battleships of Italy

Starting in the 1890s, the Italian Regia Marina (Royal Navy) began building a series of modern battleships. Early designs were marked by their small size, light armor, and high speed compared to contemporary foreign counterparts. The first pre-dreadnought battleship design, the Ammiraglio di Saint Bon class, was constrained by budgetary limits imposed by the legislature. Two ships were ordered by the class's namesake, Admiral Simone de Pacoret Saint Bon, though the design was also influenced by Benedetto Brin, who replaced di Saint Bon as naval minister after his death. Brin designed the next pair of battleships, the Regina Margherita class. These ships were larger than the preceding class, and were intended to challenge the Austro-Hungarian Habsburg-class battleships then under construction. Brin himself died during the construction process. Vittorio Cuniberti designed the next class of small pre-dreadnoughts, the Regina Elena class, which were the fastest battleships in the world at the time of their completion. These ships all served in the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–12, where they were primarily used to provide naval gunfire support for the Italian ground troops, as the Ottoman Navy largely confined itself to port.By the time that the Regina Elenas had been built in the early 1900s, the British battleship HMS Dreadnought had been completed, a revolutionary design that rendered all previous battleships obsolete. Therefore, a new dreadnought-type battleship was needed. The new ship was Dante Alighieri, and was designed by Rear Admiral Edoardo Masdea. The Italian Navy built five further battleships to two similar designs: the Conte di Cavour and Andrea Doria classes. These six dreadnoughts formed the core of the Italian fleet during World War I, as a further four-ship class was cancelled. Both the Italian and Austro-Hungarian navies adopted cautious fleet policies and neither chose to risk their capital ships in a major engagement; as a result, the Italian battle line spent the war in harbor and did not see combat. Nevertheless, the dreadnought Leonardo da Vinci was destroyed by a magazine explosion in August 1916. The pre-dreadnought Benedetto Brin was also destroyed by an internal explosion in September 1915, and her sister Regina Margherita was sunk by a German mine in December 1916. The remaining battleships of the Ammiraglio di Saint Bon and Regina Elena classes were discarded after the end of the war.In the interwar period, the Italian Navy—along with the rest of the major naval powers—was limited by the Washington Naval Treaty, which granted Italy parity with the French Navy. The Italians had 70,000 long tons (71,000 t) worth of battleship tonnage available for new vessels before they would reach their treaty limits, but they avoided new construction in the 1920s due to severe budgetary problems and to avoid a naval arms race with France. These financial limitations also forced the Italians to scrap Dante Alighieri in 1928. Nevertheless, the Regia Marina decided to make use of its excess tonnage by the early 1930s, which resulted in the four Littorio-class battleships. Two were finished early in World War II and were used extensively to escort convoys during the North African Campaign. The third ship, Roma, was finished in 1942, but was sunk in September 1943 by a German radio-controlled bomb when Italy surrendered to the Allies. The fourth ship, Impero, was never finished and was instead sunk by American bombers and scrapped after the end of the war. The two surviving ships, Littorio and Vittorio Veneto, were surrendered to the Allies and were later broken up for scrap. Of the surviving members of the Conte di Cavour class, Conte di Cavour was scrapped after the end of the war and Giulio Cesare was surrendered to the Soviet Union as war reparations. Only the two Andrea Doria-class battleships survived in Italian service for any significant length of time after the conclusion of hostilities; both served as training ships until the mid-1950s, when they too were broken up for scrap.

Mottola

Mottola (Mottolese: Mòtele IPA: [ˈmɔːtələ]) is a town and comune in the province of Taranto and region of Apulia in southeast Italy.

It stands on a hill 387 metres (1,270 ft) above mean sea level in the sub-region of Murgia. It is also called "The Ionian Spy" for its strategic geographical position. From various points of the town all of the Gulf of Taranto can be seen.

The economy is based mostly on agriculture and food production (olives, wine, citrus fruits, vegetables). Tourism and the manufacture of wooden fixtures are also being developed.

Paolo Spinola, 3rd Marquis of the Balbases

Paolo Spinola (24 February 1628 – 24 December 1699), 3rd Marquis of the Balbases and 3rd Duke of San Severino and Sesto, was a Spanish nobleman of Italian descent and a diplomat.

Princess Leopoldina of Savoy

Princess Leopoldina of Savoy (Leopoldina Maria; 21 December 1744 – 17 April 1807) was a Princess of Savoy and later the Princess of Melfi, as wife of Giovanni Andrea VI Doria-Pamphilj-Landi, (13) Prince of Melfi. She was the older sister of the princesse de Lamballe.

Santa Maria della Catena, Naples

Santa Maria della Catena or Santa Maria del Porto is a church in Borgo Santa Lucia of Naples, Italy.

The church was founded in 1576 by the inhabitants of the quartiere, and dedicated to the Madonna della Catena, an important Marian cult in Naples and Sicily. The legend holds that in 1390 in Palermo, three innocent, yet condemned, prisoners had their execution delayed due to a downpour. While in jail, their chains were broken by the miraculous intervention of the Virgin. The chains were found in the church of Santa Maria del Porto, further corroborating their tale, and led to the cult of Holy Mary of "the Chains" (della Catena).

The church here was rebuilt in the 17th century by Carmelo Passero. The decoration of the cupolas was completed by Gabriele Barrile, with collaboration of Andrea Canale. The church has the tomb of the painter Jusepe de Ribera, called Spagnoletto. In the church is buried since 1799, the Admiral Francesco Caracciolo, who was executed by orders of Horatio Nelson. The fishermen of the neighborhood, who considered the admiral one of their own. An epitath, posted in 1881, recalls that event.

The church was linked to the Feast of the Chain, which until thirty years ago took place in early September. During the feast, a boat was burned on the beach, around which were then organized singing and dancing. Santa Maria della Catena was a parish church up to half of the 18th century, today is a rectory for the nearby church of Santa Lucia a Mare.

Santissimo Crocifisso, Urbania

The church of the Santissimo Crocifisso or Chiesa dell'Ospedale is a Roman Catholic, Baroque-style church in Urbania, region of Marche, Italy.

Villa Santa Maria

Villa Santa Maria (locally La Vìlle) is a town and comune in the province of Chieti, in the region of Abruzzo of southern Italy.

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