Francesc Pi i Margall (Spanish: Francisci Pi y Margall) (29 April 1824 – 29 November 1901) was a Spanish politician federalist and libertarian socialist statesman, historian, and political philosopher and romanticist writer. He was briefly president of the short-lived First Spanish Republic in 1873.
Francisco Pi y Margall
Portrait by José Sánchez Pescador
|President of the Executive Power|
11 June 1873 – 18 July 1873
|Preceded by||Estanislao Figueras|
|Succeeded by||Nicolás Salmerón|
|Born||29 April 1824|
|Died||29 November 1901 (aged 77)|
|Political party||Democratic |
Democratic Federal Republican
Pi was the son of a working-class textile worker in Barcelona and was born on 29 April 1824. Pi's father enrolled him in a religious school in 1831 where he acquired an education in the humanities and the classics. He was a member of the Societat Filomàtica, enabling him to meet some of the main thinkers and writers of the Catalan romanticist movement. In 1837, he left to study law, graduating with a law degree in 1847. He moved to Madrid that year and began writing as a theater critic for the journal El Renacimiento and for El Correo, in which Pi's first political article was published. In need of further income, Pi also took a job for Martí, a Catalan bank.
In 1848, Pi completed the unfinished Memories and Beauties of Spain by the poet Pau Piferrer, contributing to the sections on Catalonia, Seville, and Granada. At this time, he connected himself with the Republican faction in Spanish politics. In 1851, he wrote a monumental and highly popular history of painting, though it was eventually condemned by the Church and the Spanish state for heterodoxy.
Pi was involved in the revolution of 1854 that brought the liberal caudillo Baldomero Espartero, Count of Luchana back to power. He published La reacción y la revolución in that year, influenced by G.W.F. Hegel's philosophy of history and the thinking of the French anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. In 1856 he established a new journal, La Razón, that was closed when the moderate O'Donnell government was overthrown by the reactionary Ramón María Narváez, 1st Duke of Valencia. Pi fled to Guipúzcoa in the Basque country until 1857, when Nicolás María Rivero asked him to return to Madrid to contribute to the Republican newspaper La Discusión. At La Discusión, Pi became acquainted with a number of leaders of the Spanish republican movement, including another future president of the First Republic, Estanislau Figueras i de Moragas. In 1864 he became the director of the newspaper.
After the sergeants' revolt at San Gil in 1866, Pi fled to Paris, where he gave lectures and translated several of Proudhon's works and became familiar with French positivism. He developed ideas about revolutions and the philosophy of history, including a belief in an inevitable, progressive, and permanent movement in history toward greater freedom, embodied in federal constitutions. Throughout his life he would promote republicanism and social objectives through the federal idea.
Pi returned from Paris in 1868 after the success of the Glorious Revolution. He was elected deputy on behalf of Barcelona and was part of the Cortes that wrote the Spanish Constitution of 1869. During this time Pi became respected as a leader of the Republican party in the Cortes; he is officially named the head of the party in March 1870. He was replaced shortly thereafter by internal strife over the party's policy toward the Paris Commune, conciliatory policy toward opposition groups, and electoral setbacks. He continued to adamantly promote the establishment of a federal republic in place of a monarchy. He opposed the liberal monarchy of King Amadeo I of Spain during its short rule.
When the First Spanish Republic was established in 1873 after the abdication of King Amadeo, the first president, Estanislao Figueras, named Pi Minister of the Interior. During his tenure as Interior Minister, Pi was responsible for the struggle against the cantonalist movement in the provinces. On Figueras's resignation on 11 June, Pi was named president. Pi presented to the Cortes an ambitious plan of reform, including a law formalizing a stricter separation of church and state, the reorganization of the army, reduction of the working day to eight hours, regulation of child labor, enhancements to the relationship between business and labor, new laws regarding the autonomy of the regions of Spain, and a program of universal education. His acquaintance with Proudhon enabled Pi to warm relations between the Republicans and the socialists in Spain. However, Pi was unable to rein in the instability of the Republic; on the 1 July, the more radical elements of the Republican party and federalists broke off and declared the government illegitimate, and new insurrections appeared in Alcoy and Cartagena only a week later. Under pressure from the Cortes and many leading Republicans who accused him of dangerous weakness, Pi resigned the presidency on 18 July, only a little more than a month after he assumed the office.
After the end of the Republic in 1874, Pi left political life for a decade. During this time, he returned his attentions to his writings; only a few months after the end of the Republic, he wrote a treatise on its events, La República de 1873. He followed this with Las Nacionalidades and Joyas Literarias in 1876. The first volume of his Historia General de América was published in 1878, La Federación in 1880, and Las luchas de nuestros días and Observaciones sobre el carácter de don Juan Tenorio in 1884. In 1886, he returned to politics and was elected deputy for Figueres, in Catalonia, and again in 1891 and 1893. He was involved in the fragmentation of the Spanish Republican movement in this period together with Estanislao Figueras, Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla, Emilio Castelar y Ripoll, and Valentí Almirall. Pi was involved in the 1883 Republican Congress of Zaragoza that proposed a federal republican constitution for Spain; in 1894, he was instrumental in reforming the republican movement with a new manifesto for the Federal Party. In 1890, Pi founded the newspaper El Nuevo Régimen, which campaigned for Cuban independence. Pi's promotion of federalism and regional autonomy earned him popularity among Catalan anarchists. He was also a supporter of Iberian Federalism.
Pi died in Madrid on 29 November 1901.
Pi i Margall became the principal translator of Proudhon's works into Spanish and later briefly became president of Spain in 1873 while being the leader of the Democratic Republican Federal Party. According to George Woodcock, "These translations were to have a profound and lasting effect on the development of Spanish anarchism after 1870, but before that time Proudhonian ideas, as interpreted by Pi, already provided much of the inspiration for the federalist movement which sprang up in the early 1860's." According to the Encyclopædia Britannica "During the Spanish revolution of 1873, Pi i Margall attempted to establish a decentralized, or “cantonalist,” political system on Proudhonian lines."
Pi i Margall was a dedicated theorist in his own right, especially through book-length works such as La reacción y la revolución (English: "Reaction and revolution" from 1855), Las nacionalidades (English: "Nationalities" from 1877), and La Federación from 1880. For prominent anarcho-syndicalist Rudolf Rocker "The first movement of the Spanish workers was strongly influenced by the ideas of Pi i Margall, leader of the Spanish Federalists and disciple of Proudhon. Pi i Margall was one of the outstanding theorists of his time and had a powerful influence on the development of libertarian ideas in Spain. His political ideas had much in common with those of Richard Price, Joseph Priestly (sic), Thomas Paine, Jefferson, and other representatives of the Anglo-American liberalism of the first period. He wanted to limit the power of the state to a minimum and gradually replace it by a Socialist economic order."
| President of the Executive Power of Spain
11 June 1873 – 18 July 1873
| President of the Provisional Government of Spain|
11 June 1873 – 18 July 1873
General elections to the Cortes Generales were held in Spain on the 15 January 1869. At stake were all 352 seats in the Congress of Deputies, plus 11 Puerto Rican and 18 Cuban additional seats.1871 Spanish general election
General elections to the Cortes Generales were held in Spain on the 15 January 1869. At stake were all 391 seats in the Congress of Deputies. The Progressive-Liberal coalition won the elections.1873 Spanish general election
General elections to the Cortes Generales were held in Spain on May 10 1873. At stake were all 383 seats in the Congress of Deputies. The Federal Democratic Republican Party won the elections.1901 in Spain
Events in the year 1901 in Spain.April 1872 Spanish general election
General elections to the Cortes Generales were held in Spain on April 3, 1872. At stake were all 391 seats in the Congress of Deputies. The Conservative-Constitutional coalition (political heir of the Progressive-Liberal coalition in the previous elections) won the elections.August 1872 Spanish general election
General elections to the Cortes Generales were held in Spain on August 24, 1872. At stake were all 391 seats in the Congress of Deputies. The Radical-Democratic Party won the elections.Cantonal rebellion
The Cantonal rebellion was a cantonalist uprising that took place during the First Spanish Republic, starting on July 12 of 1873 in Cartagena. In the following days it spread through many regions including, Valencia, Andalusia (especially Granada), Cartagena (which endured for several months the besieging army of Nicolás Salmerón) and in the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila, all of them in places that came to articulate cantonalism. The attempt to establish cantons took place in Extremadura, Coria, Hervás and Plasencia. Pi y Margall, seeing that cantons declared independent by the tardiness of the taxation of improvements, resigned from his post to be succeeded by Salmerón.
The Catalan politician Francesc Pi i Margall became the principal translator of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's works into Spanish and later briefly became president of Spain in 1873 while being the leader of the Federal Democratic Republican Party. According to George Woodcock "These translations were to have a profound and lasting effect on the development of Spanish anarchism after 1870, but before that time Proudhonian ideas, as interpreted by Pi, already provided much of the inspiration for the federalist movement which sprang up in the early 1860s." According to the Encyclopædia Britannica "During the Spanish revolution of 1873, Pi y Margall attempted to establish a decentralized, or “cantonalist,” political system on Proudhonian lines."Catalan State (1873)
The Catalan State (Spanish: Estado Catalán; Catalan: Estat Català) was a short-lived state proclaimed in 1873, during the First Spanish Republic, by the Provincial Deputation of Barcelona. It included the four provinces of Catalonia and the Balearic Islands.Civil libertarianism
Civil libertarianism is a strain of political thought that supports civil liberties, or which emphasizes the supremacy of individual rights and personal freedoms over and against any kind of authority (such as a state, a corporation, social norms imposed through peer pressure and so on). Civil libertarianism is not a complete ideology—rather, it is a collection of views on the specific issues of civil liberties and civil rights.Consequentialist libertarianism
Consequentialist libertarianism (also known as libertarian consequentialism or consequentialist liberalism, in Europe) refers to the libertarian position that is supportive of a free market and strong private property rights only on the grounds that they bring about favorable consequences, such as prosperity or efficiency.Estanislao Figueras
Estanislao Figueras y de Moragas (Catalan: Estanislau Figueras i de Moragas [əstənizˈlaw fiˈɣeɾəs]; 13 November 1819 – 11 November 1882) was a Spanish politician who served as the first President of the First Spanish Republic from 12 February to 11 June 1873).
Figueras was born in Barcelona.
He led the Republican Party after Queen Isabella II was overthrown in 1868. He briefly became President after King Amadeo abdicated. He was succeeded as President by Francisco Pi y Margall. After the 1875 restoration of the monarchy he withdrew from public life.
He died in Madrid in 1882.Francesc
Francesc (Catalan pronunciation: [fɾənˈsɛsk, fɾanˈsesk]) is a masculine given name of Catalan origin. It is a cognate of Francis, Francesco, Francisco, François, and Franz. People with the name include:
Cesc Fàbregas (Francesc Fàbregas i Soler) (born 1987), Spanish professional football player
Francesc Antoni de la Dueña y Cisneros (1753–1821), Roman Catholic prelate; Bishop of Urgell 1797–1816
Francesc Areny Casal (contemporary), Andorran politician
Francesc Arnau (born 1975), Spanish professional football player
Francesc Bellmunt (born 1947), Spanish screenwriter and film director
Francesc Berenguer i Mestres (1866–1914), Spanish Art Nouveau architect
Francesc Cambó (1876–1947), Spanish politician, government minister, and artistic supporter
Francesc Candel Tortajada (a.k.a. Paco Candel) (1925–2007), Spanish writer and journalist
Francesc Capdevila (born 1956), Spanish artist and illustrator
Francesc de Tamarit (1600–1653), Spanish politician and military leader during the Catalan Revolt
Francesc Eiximenis (c. 1340–1409), Spanish Franciscan priest, encyclopedist, and writer
Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia (1859–1909), Spanish Catalan free-thinker and anarchist
Francesc Fontanella (1622–1685), Spanish poet, dramatist, and priest
Francesc Gaset Fris (born 1947), Andorran sport shooter
Francesc Layret (1880–1920), Spanish nationalist, politician, and lawyer; assassinated
Francesc Macià (1859–1933), Spanish military officer and president of Catalonia
Francesc Pi i Margall (Francisco Pi y Margall), Second President of the First Spanish Republic and Catalan romanticist writer
Francesc Pujols (1882–1962), Spanish writer and philosopher
Francesc Sabaté Llopart (1915–1960), Spanish anarchist; fought against the regime of Francisco Franco
Francesc Santacruz i Artigas (fl. 1665–1721), Spanish sculptor
Francesc Vicent Garcia (1582–1623), Spanish poet
Francesc Vicent (1450–1512), Spanish author who wrote about chess
Francesc Vilanova (1968–2014), Spanish professional football player and manager
Francesc Xavier Butinyà i Hospital (1834–1899), Spanish missionary Jesuit, teacher, and writer
François Arago (Francesc Joan Domènec Aragó) (1786–1853), French mathematician, physicist, astronomer, and politician
Xesco Espar (Francesc Espar Moya) (born 1963), Spanish handball player and trainerLibertarian possibilism
Libertarian possibilism (Spanish: posibilismo libertario) was a political current within the early 20th century Spanish anarchist movement which advocated achieving the anarchist ends of ending the state and capitalism with participation inside structures of contemporary parliamentary democracy. The name of this political position appeared for the first time between 1922 and 1923 within the discourse of catalan anarcho-syndicalist Salvador Segui when he said: "We have to intervene in politics in order to take over the positions of the bourgeoisie".Libertarian theories of law
Libertarian theories of law build upon classical liberal and individualist doctrines.
The defining characteristics of libertarian legal theory are its insistence that the amount of governmental intervention should be kept to a minimum and the primary functions of law should be enforcement of contracts and social order, though "social order" is often seen as a desirable side effect of a free market rather than a philosophical necessity.
Historically, the Austrian economist Friedrich Hayek is the most important libertarian legal theorist. Another important predecessor was Lysander Spooner, a 19th-century American individualist anarchist and lawyer. John Locke was also an influence on libertarian legal theory (see Two Treatises of Government).
Ideas range from anarcho-capitalism to a minimal state providing physical protection and enforcement of contracts. Some advocate regulation, including the existence of a police force, military, public land, and public infrastructure. Geolibertarians oppose absolute ownership of land on Georgist grounds.Libertarians (Brazil)
Libertarians (Libertários, LIBER) is a libertarian political party in Brazil founded in 2009. It is registered as a civil association and is pursuing the support of 500,000 Brazilian electors in order to obtain full party registration with the Brazilian Electoral Court (Tribunal Superior Eleitoral).
The current chairman is Rafael Lemos.List of libertarian organizations
This is a list of notable libertarian organizations.Pi (disambiguation)
Pi or π is a mathematical constant equal to a circle's circumference divided by its diameter.
Pi, π or Π may also refer to:
Pi (letter), a Greek letterPlaça de la República, Barcelona
Plaça de la República (in Catalan, meaning in English: Republic Square), previously called "Plaça de Llucmajor" is a square in Barcelona, unofficially regarded as the nucleus of its Nou Barris district. It's the intersection of three avenues: Passeig de Valldaura, Passeig de Verdum and Via Júlia, Barcelona. Besides, it's the official border between four neighbourhoods of the district: Guineueta, Prosperitat, Porta and Verdum.
Being scarcely more than a roundabout, its center is occupied since 1990 by a 30-metre high metal monument made by Josep Viladomat in the 1930s called La República, with the effigy of Francesc Pi i Margall. The monument was originally located in the much more famous intersection between Passeig de Gràcia and Avinguda Diagonal, which is nowadays still crowned by a Francoist monument.The November 29, 2015 the City Council announced the upcoming change of name of the square, which will be renamed "Plaça de la República". The change will be effective on April 14, 2016.Voluntary society
A voluntary society, voluntary community or voluntary city is one in which all property (including streets, parks, etc.) and all services (including courts, police, etc.) are provided through voluntary means, such as private or cooperative ownership. In a voluntary society, the notion of something being "privately" or "cooperatively" owned would be radically different from monopolistic "privatization" with state subsidies, or monopolistic control of public resources by the state, respectively. Instead, courts might be replaced with dispute resolution organizations; police with volunteer-based community defense organizations or private security agencies and crime insurers; transportation authorities with community road associations and rail counterparts; etc. These services were the subject of the book, The Voluntary City, which dealt with them chapter-by-chapter.Anarcho-capitalists as well as anti-capitalist market anarchists view voluntary societies as the solution to the conflict between those who favor government allowing behaviors and arrangements such as non-violent drug use, free stores, sexual liberation, voluntary communal sharing (e.g. Food Not Bombs), etc., and those who favor government restrictions on such activities. Those who want to live under a certain code of conduct can move to a community that supports and protects it. Prominent anarcho-capitalists such as Stefan Molyneux suggest that in a voluntary society, dispute resolution organizations and pollution insurance companies would prevent problems such as pollution.