Francesc Macià

Francesc Macià i Llussà (Catalan: [frənˈsɛzɡ məsiˈa]; 21 September 1859 – 25 December 1933) was the 122nd [1] President of Catalonia and formerly an officer in the Spanish Army.[2][3]

Francesc Macià i Llussà
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122nd President of the Government of Catalonia
In office
14 December 1932 – 25 December 1933
PresidentNiceto Alcalá-Zamora
Preceded byJosep de Vilamala
Succeeded byLluís Companys
3rd Acting President of the Catalan Republic
In office
14 April 1931 – 17 April 1931
Preceded byBaldomer Lostau
In 1873
Succeeded byLluís Companys
In 1934
Acting President of the Generalitat de Catalunya
In office
17 April 1931 – 14 December 1932
Preceded byhimself
As Acting President of the Catalan Republic
Succeeded byhimself
As President of the Generalitat de Catalunya
Personal details
Born21 September 1859
Vilanova i la Geltrú, Catalonia, Kingdom of Spain
Died25 December 1933 (aged 74)
Barcelona, Catalonia, Spanish Republic
NationalitySpanish
Political partyEstat Català
Republican Left of Catalonia
Spouse(s)Eugènia Lamarca i de Mier

Life

Francesc Macià i Llussà was born in Vilanova i la Geltrú, Catalonia. He achieved the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the Spanish army during his military career. He condemned the assault of the politically satirical Catalan journal Cu-Cut in 1905 by some Spanish army officers and was forced to abandon the army.[4]

He was representative for Barcelona and Borges Blanques (Lleida) in the Congress of Deputies from 1907 to 1923, initially by the electoral coalition Catalan Solidarity. During the last years as politician in Madrid he moved from Catalan autonomist to independentist positions.

In 1922 he founded the independentist party Estat Català.[5]

In 1926 he attempted an insurrection against the Spanish dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera. This uprising, the aim of which was to achieve the independence of Catalonia, was based in Prats de Molló (Roussillon, southern France).[6] He was arrested in France for this and was convicted and sentenced to two months in jail and a fine of 100 francs. Macià left France for Brussels in March 1927. In April 1930 he returned to Spain after being pardoned; he was exiled again but returned once more in February 1931.[7]

In 1931, after the elections that caused the exile of Alfonso XIII of Spain and gave the local majority to his party Republican Left of Catalonia (Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, ERC), few hours before the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in Madrid, from the balcony of the Palace of the Generalitat (then the seat of the Provincial Deputation of Barcelona), proclaimed the "Catalan Republic, expecting that the other peoples of Spain constitute themselves as republics, in order to establish the Iberian Confederation". Macià was appointed as its acting president. Three days later, the government of the new Spanish Republic, sent three ministers (Fernando de los Ríos, Lluís Nicolau d'Olwer and Marcel·lí Domingo) to Barcelona to negotiate with Macià and the Catalan government. Macià reached an agreement with the ministers, in which the Catalan Republic was renamed Generalitat of Catalonia, becoming an autonomous government inside the Spanish Republic. Macià was the President of Generalitat from 1932, after the first Catalan parliamentary election, until his death in December 1933.

Death

He died on 25 December 1933 in Barcelona. His funeral caused a massive demonstration of grief.[4] His remains rest in the Plaça de la Fe, the Montjuïc Cemetery, in Barcelona's Montjuïc hill.

Documentation

In the National Archive of Catalonia preserved part of his personal collection, which consists of documentation image about the president travels throughout Catalonia and family snapshots. They are a repository of Mrs. Teresa Peyrí i Macià. The fund contains documents generated and received by Francesc Macià, personal and family documents, correspondence from the period before the Second Spanish Republic (until April 1931) and documentation produced primarily in terms of its political activity. The fund brings together documents relating to his conduct before being named president of the Government of Catalonia (1907-1931): As a Member of Parliament (speeches, proclamations, and conference reports) on Catalan State (organization, reports, proclamations, calls, publications, etc.), on Catalan Army (constitution, rules and organization, information mapping and geographic pathways) and on the corresponding period in the Directory of General Primo de Rivera. Finally, note the collection of photographs made in mostly pictures of presidential time. Another part of his personal archive, which consists of correspondence written to/by Joan Agell, documents of Centre Català in New York, diverse documentation and press clippings. It is located in the Pavelló de la República CRAI Library - University of Barcelona.

See also

References

  1. ^ "List of Presidents" (PDF). Government of Catalonia.
  2. ^ "Francesc Macià i Llussà". Catalan Encyclopaedia. 22 March 2014.
  3. ^ Masanés, Cristina (October 2009). "Els orígens del mite". Sapiens (in Catalan). 84.
  4. ^ a b Esculies, Joan (October 2012). "El cavaller de l'ideal". Sàpiens (in Catalan). Barcelona. 121: 22–28. ISSN 1695-2014.
  5. ^ Esculies, Joan (December 2013). "Macià, el paradigma dels conversors a l'independentisme". Ara (in Catalan): 12.
  6. ^ «Qui va trair Macià?» by Jordi Finestres and Giovanni Cattini, Sàpiens volume 84 (october 2009)
  7. ^ "Bowers Sends Condolences". The New York Times. December 26, 1933. p. 15. Retrieved April 4, 2015.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Himself, as Acting Presidents of the Government of Catalonia, but in 1716, Josep de Vilamala
Presidents of the Government of Catalonia
1932–1933
Succeeded by
Lluís Companys
Preceded by
Himself, as Acting President of the Catalan Republic
Acting Presidents of the Government of Catalonia
1931–1932
Succeeded by
Himself, as Presidents of the Government of Catalonia
Preceded by
Baldomer Lostau, in 1873
Acting President of the Catalan Republic
1931
Succeeded by
Himself, as Acting Presidents of the Government of Catalonia, but Lluís Companys, as Acting President of the Catalan Republic, in 1934
Party political offices
Preceded by
New title
President of Estat Català
1922–1933
Succeeded by
Josep Dencàs i Puigdollers
Preceded by
New title
President of ERC
1931–1933
Succeeded by
Lluís Companys
1932 Catalan regional election

The 1932 Catalan regional election was held on Sunday, 20 November 1932, to elect the first Parliament of the autonomous region of Catalonia.

It was the sole Catalan parliamentary election held during the Second Spanish Republic (1931-1939). Between 1939 and 1980 the Parliament, as the rest of the institutions of the Generalitat of Catalonia, remained in exile as a consequence of the Republican defeat in the Spanish Civil War, and there wasn't another election until 1980.

All 85 seats in the Parliament were up for election. The Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), led by the acting President of the Generalitat of Catalonia, Francesc Macià, was the winning party. the conservative Regionalist League, almost hegemonic in Catalonia during the reign of Alfonso XIII, reached the second place but far from the Republican Left. The third list was the Republican Catalanist Party, which won one seat.

Avinguda de Josep Tarradellas, Barcelona

Avinguda de Josep Tarradellas, often known as just Avinguda Tarradellas, is an avenue in Barcelona. Most of it is in the Les Corts district of the city, while the rest acts as the border of two other districts: Sants-Montjuïc and Eixample. It starts at Plaça dels Països Catalans, by Barcelona Sants railway station, and ends at Plaça de Francesc Macià.

It's named after Josep Tarradellas, the first president of the Generalitat de Catalunya in office after the Spanish transition to democracy.

Barcelona Metro Diagonal line

The Diagonal line of the Barcelona Metro network was a proposed underground railway service in the Spanish city of Barcelona. The proposal was made by Transports Metropolitans de Barcelona (TMB) between 1989 and 1992. It would have been a line crossing the city's most important avenue, Avinguda Diagonal, from southwest to northeast, through central Barcelona. However, the project was finally abandoned.

As of 2009 the current project to link the two main modern tram systems (Trambaix and Trambesòs) through Avinguda Diagonal may be considered its successor, even though the exact location of the stations and the nature of the tram system to be used have not been finalized.

Barcelona Metro line VI

The line VI of the Barcelona Metro network was a 1965 ambitious project for a proposed underground railway line in the city of Barcelona. The line would stretch from the Zona Franca towards Plaça de Francesc Macià (then known as Calvo Sotelo), and from there into Travessera de Gràcia, Glòries, the Besòs River area, northern Badalona, and Montigalà in Santa Coloma de Gramenet. This very costly project was progressively abandoned: at first, in 1984, through the revision of the line making it shorter. Later, in 1996, a new plan was devised for the city's public transport infrastructures. In 2001 yet another plan (PDI) was put forward, discarding the line, and proposing other transport projects instead.The different projects devised during the 1960s, under the Francoist regime, were very ambitious. Plaça de Francesc Macià was in contemporaneous plans an important transport hub with other (later discontinued) projected metro lines. As of 2009, both the 22@ and Francesc Macià areas have no metro service, but the projected extension of line L8 and the construction of L9 and L10 follow it very closely.

Can Zam (Barcelona Metro)

Can Zam is a Barcelona Metro station in the municipality of Santa Coloma de Gramenet, in the northern part of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. The station is located at the intersection of Avinguda Francesc Macià and Carrer Balmes. It's served by L9, the first part of line 9 to be opened, between Can Zam and Can Peixauet, both in Santa Coloma. Its inauguration took place on 13 December 2009.

Catalan National Committee

Catalan National Committee was a Catalan separatist organization founded in Paris in 1918 by Daniel Domingo i Montserrat, commander of the First Regiment of Catalan Volunteers in World War I. The committee aimed at giving voice to the aspirations of the Catalan people following the speech of Francesc Macià in the Spanish Courts asking for independence based on the Fourteen Points of the United States President Woodrow Wilson. The organization was greeted the observer status in the Treaty of Versailles. On the 1918 National Day of Catalonia (Sept. 11) the committee published a trilingual (French-English-Catalan) brochures and organized various events asking for the presence of Catalonia in the League of Nations. The committee absorbed the Catalan Nationalist League organization and sought the support of American-based Catalans such as Salvador Carbonell i Puig and Josep Abril i Llinés. In 1923, its members formed the support committee to Catalan State in Paris.

Catalan Republic (1931)

The Catalan Republic (Catalan: República Catalana, IPA: [rəˈpubːlikə kətəˈlanə]) was a state proclaimed in 1931 by Francesc Macià as the "Catalan Republic within the Iberian Federation". It existed between 14 and 17 April 1931.

Committee Pro Catalonia

Committee Pro Catalonia (Comitè Pro Catalunya in Catalan) was a Catalan political committee founded on July 8, 1918 to support the actions of the Catalan National Committee in Paris to achieve an official Catalan representation in the League of Nations. It was chaired by Vicenç Albert Ballester and Pere Oliver i Domenge with Francesc Macià (who would become 122nd president of Catalonia, 14 years later), Manuel Folguera i Duran, J. Grant i Sala as leading participants. It counted with the support of Unió Catalanista party, and maintained contacts with members of the Lliga Regionalista. Most of its members integrated into the Federació Democràtica Nacionalista, and later on into the Estat Català (Catalan State) party.

El Coronel Macià

El coronel Macià is a 2006 Catalan film directed by Josep Maria Forn about the life of Francesc Macià before being elected as President of Catalonia.

Estat Català

Estat Català (Eastern Catalan: [əsˈtat kətəˈla], literally "Catalan State") is a pro-independence nationalist historical political party of Catalonia (Spain).

Francesc Macià station

Francesc Macià is a Trambaix station and a projected metro station located in the Plaça de Francesc Macià, Barcelona, crossed by the Avinguda Diagonal, in the Sarrià-Sant Gervasi district. This stop is the terminal for the three Trambaix routes (T1, T2 and T3).

Also it's planned to be a Barcelona Metro station, which is due to be served by Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC) L8, as part of the station's enlargement towards Gràcia. It would be located on the Plaça de Francesc Macià, in the district of Sarrià-Sant Gervasi. Since this area is one of the few left without a direct metro connection after the completion of L9 and L10, it has been demanded by the neighbours and has featured in some of the ambitious proposals for transportation in the city since the 1960s. Namely in the projects for a line VI and for a Diagonal line.The current project to enlarge line L8 would connect that line with the Trambaix tram system, and it would connect Plaça d'Espanya and some areas of the metropolitan area of Barcelona it goes through with this square.

Lluís Companys

Lluís Companys i Jover (Catalan pronunciation: [ʎuˈis kumˈpaɲs]; June 21, 1882 – October 15, 1940) was a Catalan politician. He was the President of Catalonia (Spain), from 1934 and during the Spanish Civil War.

He was a lawyer and leader of the Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) political party. Exiled after the war, he was captured and handed over by the Nazi secret police, the Gestapo, to the Spanish State of Francisco Franco, who had him executed by firing squad in 1940.

Plaça de Catalunya

Plaça de Catalunya (pronounced [ˈplasə ðə kətəˈluɲə], meaning in English "Catalonia Square"; sometimes referred to as Plaza de Cataluña, its Spanish name) is a large square in central Barcelona that is generally considered to be both its city centre and the place where the old city (see Barri Gòtic and Raval, in Ciutat Vella) and the 19th century-built Eixample meet.

Some of the city's most important streets and avenues meet at Plaça Catalunya: Passeig de Gràcia, Rambla de Catalunya, La Rambla or Portal de l'Àngel, in addition to Ronda de Sant Pere, Carrer de Vergara or Carrer de Pelai. The plaza occupies an area of about 50,000 square metres. It is especially known for its fountains and statues, its proximity to some of Barcelona's most popular attractions, and the flocks of pigeons that gather in the centre.

Plaça de Francesc Macià, Barcelona

Plaça de Francesc Macià (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈplasə ðə fɾənˈsɛzɡ məsiˈa]) is a square in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Located in one of the main business areas of the city, it is one of the most transited points of Barcelona. It is crossed by Avinguda Diagonal and several other major thoroughfares: Avinguda de Josep Tarradellas, Travessera de Gràcia, Carrer del Comte d'Urgell and Avinguda de Pau Casals. It is part of the Sarrià-Sant Gervasi district, even though it borders two other districts of Barcelona: Les Corts and Eixample.

It is named after Francesc Macià (1859-1933), Catalan president during the Second Spanish Republic who proclaimed a short-lived Catalan Republic.

The central part of the square contains a pond modelled after the shape of Menorca, the birthplace of its architect, Nicolau Rubió i Tudurí, as well as feminine sculpture called Joventut ("youth") designed by Josep Manuel Benedicto, added in 1953.

Spanish-language newspaper La Vanguardia is based in Avinguda Diagonal 477, within square limits.

Roda de Ter

Roda de Ter (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈrɔðə ðə ˈteɾ]) is a municipality in the comarca of Osona, province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, near Vic, on the Ter River above the Sau Reservoir. Population: 5,435 (2004), area: 2.18 km². Its church is dedicated to St. Peter. Main monuments: Pont Vell ("Old Bridge") and the Capella del Sòl del Pont (Chapel of Sun of the Bridge). The Virgin Mary, La Mare de Déu del Sòl del Pont is the patron of the village.

On the site of an Iberian town a Roman villa was established. In its later fortified state it existed until 826, when was destroyed by Aissó, in revolt against the Frankish count Bernat of Septimania. Many years passed before it was repopulated and grew slowly. The fierce independence of the mountain people of northern Catalonia manifested itself in banditry in which villagers were encouraged to participate, even by their silence, by a share in the takings. The bandit leaders might be peasants or local noblemen. On one occasion in 1646, the whole of the village of Roda de Ter was briefly incarcerated as fautors ("abettors") for their part in sheltering members of a local gang.The Catalan fighters against the French forces of the Bourbon Philip V of Spain are an easily overlooked local part of the European War of the Spanish Succession, but Roda was a hotbed of partisans for the unsuccessful Habsburg claimant. One of them, Francesc Macià i Ambert (died 1713), who came from Roda de Ter, is memorialized in Barcelona by a street and a metro station that bear his nom de guerre Bac de Roda.

Before the comarca was called simply Roda; it took the name of Roda de Ter in late 20th century when the municipality was split into Roda de Ter (the town) and Masies de Roda (the rural zone). Roda de Ter lies on Catalan route C-153.

The foundry Fundiciones de Roda produced fine cast iron components for hydraulics.

The Catalan poet Miquel Martí i Pol was born in Roda de Ter, March 19, 1929. Children's author Miquel Obiols is also from Roda.

Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 1932

The Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 1932, also called the Statute of Núria, was the first drafted statute of autonomy for Catalonia. The statute was promoted by the then President of the Generalitat of Catalonia, Francesc Macià and approved in a referendum by 99% of voters. The draft Statute was completed on 20 June 1931 in Núria (Ripollès, Girona) and finally approved in the Spanish Parliament on 9 September 1932.

Statute of Catalonia of 1919

The Statute of Catalonia of 1919 started in a pro-autonomist environment and was approved by the Assembly of the Commonwealth of Catalonia in Barcelona, on 24 January 1919 with the support of several Catalan parties: The Partit Català Republicà (Republican Catalan Party) took this Statute as its main concern, Alejandro Lerroux's radicals endorsed it, Francesc Cambó and his party (Lliga Regionalista) asked for a pragmatic vision. Liberals and Conservatives (who were in the Spanish government) went against central party policy, and the Traditionalists remembered his defense of autonomy with weapons. Francesc Macià -speaking as a supporter of independence- said that this was a short Statute, but the best one that could be achieved. Finally, Largo Caballero, speaking as a Socialist, stated that Spanish workers believed that Catalan Autonomy was the first step in the regeneration of Spain.

On 26 January, this Statute was ratified in an Assembly held at the Palau de la Música of Barcelona, which gathered all the municipal representatives together. 1,046 of 1,072 towns voted positively, as well as 2,076,251 of the 2,099,218 eligible citizens. It also got the approval of several civic entities and corporations such as the Centre Regionalista Andalús (Regionalist Center of Andalusia), the Football Club Barcelona, the Bloc Regionalista Castellà (Castilian Regionalist Crew, in Madrid) or the Club Sports Catalunya, in Mexico.

This project was sent to the Spanish Government for its approval on 28 January 1919 with several Catalan deputies to defend it, but the Socio-political situation, which changed quickly due to several strikes in the Catalan field, first, the collision between Government of Catalonia's interests and the Spanish government's ones, secondly, and, finally, the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera stopped its progression.

Trambaix

The Trambaix (Catalan pronunciation: [tɾəmˈbaʃ]) is one of Barcelona's three tram systems. It is operated by TRAMMET connecting the Baix Llobregat area with the city of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. It opened to the public on 5 April 2004 after a weekend when the tram could be used free of charge.

The Trambaix includes three different routes (T1, T2 and T3). The tram route starts at Plaça Francesc Macià in Barcelona to the west of the city and extends west, passing L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Esplugues de Llobregat, Cornellà de Llobregat, Sant Joan Despí and Sant Just Desvern. An extension of Tram T3 opened on 8 December 2006, as far as Consell Comarcal in Sant Feliu de Llobregat. The yearly ridership of all of its lines combined is of 15,057,318 passengers as of 2008.

The Trambaix complements the Trambesòs that runs to the north-east of the city. Both networks will be interconnected through Avinguda Diagonal in the next construction phase.

Travessera de Gràcia

Travessera de Gràcia is a street in Barcelona named after Gràcia, a district it crosses, even though it also spans two other districts. It starts in Plaça de Francesc Macià in Sarrià-Sant Gervasi and ends in Carrer de Cartagena in Horta-Guinardó, where one of the landmarks of the city, the Hospital de Sant Pau stands. Its central part follows the outline of a medieval road, Via Francisca, documented in 1057. Its current name was approved in 1932. Before 1867, it was known as Travesera, with the older spelling and no reference to the neighbourhood, since Gràcia was an independent village. The street's other names include Orden and Solar. One of the main markets of the city in its heyday was also on this street: Mercat de l'Abaceria Central, which opened in 1892.

In Travessera de Gràcia number 9 are the headquarters of perfume and fashion company Puig.

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