France 24

France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned international news and current affairs television network based in Paris. Its channels broadcast in French, English, Arabic, and Spanish. Its English broadcast service is aimed at the overseas market, similar to DD India, WION, BBC World News, DW and RT.

Based in the Paris suburb of Issy-les-Moulineaux,[1] the service started on 6 December 2006. It is aimed at a worldwide market and is generally broadcast via satellite and cable operators around the world, but additionally, in 2010, France 24 began broadcasting through its own iPhone and Android apps. The stated mission of the channels is to "provide a global public service and a common editorial stance".[2]

Since 2008 the channel has been wholly owned by the French government, via its holding company France Médias Monde, having bought out the minority share of the former partners: Groupe TF1 and France Télévisions. The budget is approximately €100 million per year.[3]

France 24
FRANCE 24 logo
Launched6 December 2006, at 20:30 CET
Owned byFrance Médias Monde
Picture format16:9 (576i, SDTV)
1080i (HDTV)
SloganLiberté, Égalité, Actualité (French)
International News 24/7 (English)
CountryFrance & International
LanguageFrench, English, Arabic and Spanish
Formerly calledChaîne Française d'Information Internationale (before July 2006)
WebsiteFrance24.com
Availability
Terrestrial
Digital terrestrial television
(Île-de-France)
Channel 33
Digital terrestrial television
French Overseas territories
Channel 4
Digital terrestrial television
(Italy)
Channel 241
Saorview (Ireland)TG4 (02:00 – 07:00)
Digital terrestrial television
(United States)
Channel 26.4 (Atlanta)
Channel 38.1 (Macon, GA)
Channel 60.2 (San Francisco)
Channel 33.1 (Fajardo, PR)
Channel 14.4 (Cobleskill, NY)
Oqaab
(Afghanistan)
Channel 46
Satellite
CanalSatChannel 105 (French)
Channel 401 (Arabic)
Channel 407 (English)
Dish Network
(United States)
Channel 619 (English)
Freesat UKChannel 205 (English) (HD)
Sky UKChannel 512 (English) (HD)
Astra 2E11426 V 27500 5/6 (English) (HD)
Sky ItaliaChannel 521 (English)
Channel 538 (French)
TV Vlaanderen
(Belgium)
Channel 55 (English)
Channel 56 (French)
NOS
(Portugal)
Channel 208 (English)
Channel 209 (French)
Yes
(Israel)
Channel 104
Canal Digitaal
(Netherlands)
Channel 85 (English)
Channel 199 (French)
Channel 228 (Arabic)
Cignal (Philippines)Channel 167 (English)
Indovision
(Indonesia)
Channel 352 (English)
OSN (Middle East and North Africa)
  • Channel 421 (English)
  • Channel 459 (Arabic)
beIN
(Middle East & North Africa)
Channel 149 (Arabic)
Channel 150 (English)
Channel 151 (French)
Dream Satellite
(Philippines)
Channel 13 (English)
Tata Sky (India)Channel 536
Dialog TV (Sri Lanka)Channel 38 (English)
Good TV (Thailand)Channel 78
PSI (Thailand)Channel 219
GMM Z (Thailand)Channel 139
CANAL+
(Myanmar)
Channel 174 (English)
Channel 176 (French)
Thaicom 53585 V 30000 5/6 (English) (HD)
IPM (Thailand)Channel 252
Cable
UPC Switzerland (Switzerland)Channel 331 (French / SD)
Kabel Deutschland (Germany)Channel 836 (French / SD)
MC Cable (Monaco)Channel 88 (French)
Channel 236 (English)
Channel 321 (Arabic)
Naxoo (Switzerland)Channel 65 (French)
Channel 227 (English)
UPC RomaniaChannel 423 (digital with DVR)
Channel 143 (digital)
NOSChannel 208 (English)
Channel 209 (French)
Teledünya (Turkey)Channel 74 (English)
Channel 75 (French)
Hot
(Israel)
Channel 143 (French)
Channel 70 (English)
ComcastChannel 127-6 (Philadelphia)
Channel 198 (San Francisco)
Virgin Media
(United Kingdom)
Channel 624 (English) (HD)
Channel 832 (French) (HD)
Buckeye CableSystem (Toledo, Ohio)Channel 265 (English)
Cablelink
(Philippines)
Channel 66
SkyCable/Destiny Cable
(Philippines)
Channel 238 (English)
DNA Oyj
(Finland)
Channel 87 (English)
First Media (Indonesia)Channel 261 (English)
Macau Cable TV (Macau)Channel 818 (English)
Channel 819 (French)
ClearTV (Nepal)Channel 685 (English)
IPTV
CanalSatCanal 54 (French)
Alice Home TVChannels 538 and 871 (French)
Channel 590 (English)
now TV (Hong Kong)Channel 327 (English)
Channel 715 (French)
Singtel TV (Singapore)Channel 686 (French)
Channel 159 (English)
HyppTV (Malaysia)Channel 652 (French)
PEO TV (Sri Lanka)Channel 27 (English)
Channel 163 (French)
Bell Fibe TV (Canada)Channel 113 (French)
CHT MOD (Taiwan)Channel 557 (English)
Channel 755 (French)
Fetch TV (Australia)Channel 183
eLife (UAE)Channel 545 (French)
Channel 531 (English)
Channel 514 (Arabic)
DU (UAE)Channel 27 (Arabic)
myTV Super (Hong Kong)Channel 705 (English)
A1 TV (Austria)Channel 63 (French)
Streaming media
YouTubeWatch Live
TVPlayerWatch live (UK only)
Virgin TV AnywhereWatch live (English, UK only), Watch live (French, UK only)
Sling TVInternet Protocol television

Programming

F24 newstitle
The News title as of 9 January 2011

France 24 is broadcast on four channels: in French, in English, in Arabic and in Spanish.[4]

France 24's programming is divided more or less equally between news coverage and news magazines or special reports.

Along with 260 journalists of its own, France 24 can call on the resources of the two main French broadcasters (Groupe TF1 and France Télévisions) as well as partners such as AFP and RFI. The CEO of France 24 is Alain de Pouzilhac. From 19 May 2010 and the Director of France 24 since 2012 is Marc Saikali, France 24 unveiled a new schedule that prioritizes the morning and evening slots, anchored live by the network's editorial staff. More programming space than ever before goes to business, sport, culture, and studio discussion.

As from 2016, France 24 shares its French-language night programming with the France-based France Info. According to Marie-Christine Saragosse, president and CEO of France Médias Monde, "part of the value added of this public channel" would be the fact that "[France 24 journalists] will be wide awake while others would be sleeping".[5]

History

Channel inception

The media's perception was that the channel was a brainchild of former president Jacques Chirac, famous for defending the position of the French language in the world, specifically versus the English domination in this media category.[6]

First project (1987–1997)

In 1987, then French Prime Minister Jacques Chirac expressed his desire for an international television news channel in French and had requested a report into the activities of current international broadcasts from France (Radio France Internationale, TV5, and to a certain extent Réseau France Outre-Mer) and noted the collective offering was "fragmented, disorganised and ineffective."

With the arrival of François Mitterrand as President in 1981 and the naming of Michel Rocard as Prime Minister in 1988, the government launched a new project, Canal France International (CFI), a package of programmes aimed at making programmes in French for foreign audiences, particularly in Africa, to be developed in parallel as a television channel.

The First Gulf War of 1990, relayed across the world by CNN International in particular, revealed the power of international news channels and their role in the formation of opinion. A parliamentary minister, Philippe Séguin, wished to create a French-language equivalent.

In 1996, after nineteen governmental reports in ten years, Prime Minister Alain Juppé asked Radio France Internationale president Jean-Paul Cluzel (who was also General Inspector of Finances) to create a French international news channel. Cluzel proposed in 1997 to group TV5, RFI, and CFI within a corporation entitled Téléfi. The UMP-led government decided to follow that recommendation but, with the return of the Socialist Party to government and the nomination of Hubert Védrine, the new Minister of Foreign Affairs, favoured the augmentation of existing outlets such as TV5, which started to produce its own programming, notably its news bulletins, which in turn created its own news team.

Additionally with the creation of EuroNews in 1993 (with French-language commentary), the media presence of France overseas became more complex, more fragmented, and costlier, without being able to rely on a true round-the-clock international news channel.

Relaunched project (2002–2003)

In 2002, President Jacques Chirac relaunched the project to create a French international news channel; after a speech given at a reception in honour of the High Council of the Francophonie at the 'Élysée on 12 February 2002, he stated:

"Is it understandable that year after year we are still lamenting our persistent failure with news and the French-language media on the international scene? Admittedly, we have with Agence France-Presse a remarkable information tool that we must continue to reinforce, notably in its international mission. Indeed, everyone here recognises the recent progress made by RFI, by TV5, by CFI, thanks to the efforts of their teams and to the determination of the public bodies. But everybody notices that we are still far from having a large international news channel in French, capable of competing with the BBC or CNN."[7]

The recent crises have shown the handicap that a country suffers, a cultural area, which doesn't possess a sufficient weight in the battle of the images and the airwaves. Let us question, in the time of terrestrial television networks, of satellite, of the internet, on our organisation in this domain, and notably in the dissipation of public funds which are reserved to them."

On 7 March, speaking in the French Senate in front of foreign delegates to France, and as part of his presidential campaign, Chirac said:

"We must have the ambition of a big, round-the-clock news channel in French, equal to the BBC or CNN for the English-speaking world. It is essential for the influence of our country. For our expatriates, it would be a live and an immediate link to the mainland"[8]

After his reelection, the first reflections were engaged at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, headed by Dominique de Villepin. Various technical options were examined at the time, in an unreleased report:

  • Purchase of EuroNews by the French State
  • Creation of an external channel, proposed by then-France Télévisions President Marc Tessier, approved by the previous government.
  • An international version of LCI, proposed by Groupe TF1, which asked for a state subvention for the service.
  • Strengthening of TV5's news service, as suggested by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

The subsequent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq reassured the authorities about the project, especially in February 2003, when the American broadcasters CNN, FOX News, and MSNBC opted not to broadcast the long applause given by the members of the United Nations Security Council after Dominique de Villepin gave his address on the Iraq conflict.[9]

On 19 March 2003, Matignon opened offers to:

Elicit the development of an international news channel. Broadcasting primarily in the French language, this service will assure a more important and more visible presence of France in the worldwide battle of images, and to contribute to the pluralism of international information by offering to our viewers the choice of a different viewpoint on the news, marked by a singular point of view of our country on world affairs, by its culture and by its own ideas, and to value its historical links and its privileged geography. The international news channel must contribute to a long-lasting strategy of influence of France in the world.[10]

By the application deadline on 22 April 2003, three candidates replied:

  • France Télévisions & RFI: to operate a channel entirely run by the public service sector;
  • Groupe TF1 : proposed an international version of its LCI channel;
  • Groupe Canal+ : proposed a news "factory" to reinforce its i>Télé channel, already seen in 47 countries but running at a financial loss.

One month later, a parliamentary commission gave its conclusion, voted with a unanimous decision by its members in the National Assembly, to form a public-owned corporation (groupement d'intérêt public) grouping all of the public broadcasters (France Télévisions, RFO, RFI, TV5 and AFP) with the goal of launching the channel at the end of 2004.

Ignoring the work of the parliamentary commission, the government asked a member of the assembly, Bernard Brochand, to form a partnership between the applying candidates for the international channel, something which the parliamentary commission did not demand. Brochard attempted to group both Groupe TF1 and Groupe Canal+, with no success. He then proposed a 50/50 partnership between France Télévisions and Groupe TF1 (whilst at the same time rejecting RFI), both groups possessing the technical means and experience of broadcasting externally: TF1 with its LCI channel and France Télévisions' editorial teams at France 2 and France 3.

Preparing for launch (2004–2006)

Defying parliament

After a press conference in January 2004, President Chirac wished for a launch of the channel towards the end of the year. However, various disputes began to surface. The ministers of the assembly that voted were angry that the recommendations voted for in the parliamentary commission were thrown out in favour of one prepared outside the parliamentary framework. Unionised journalists working for France Télévisions denounced the potential alliance with the private sector, calling it "the marriage of the snake and the rabbit"; Radio France International was angry that it would not be associated with the project. A headline published in Le Monde described the partnership having a "public channel, private owner",[11] while other sections of the press criticised its modest budget of 80 million euro (compared with 600 million euro for BBC World). Finally the Minister for Foreign Affairs had worried that the budget would take away from existing funded channels such as TV5.

Facing discontentment, the cabinet of Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin delayed all discussion of the project in 2004. Then Foreign Minister Michel Barnier announced on 21 July that the channel would not be funded before 2007, which was confirmed by a vote in parliament on the Finance Bill.

However, the Prime Minister acceded to pressure from the Élysée; a press conference by Raffarin on 9 December confirmed the launch of the new news channel in 2005.

"I have decided to accept the proposed joint venture proposed by France Télévisions and TF1. As desired by the President, the new channel will draw on the talents of major French television companies, and will promote the expression of a French vision, more necessary than ever in the world today. The Government will present an amendment to the Finance Bill to provide for the start of the channel, to a total of 30 million euro."[12] The amendment was carried the same day in the National Assembly.

Public-private angst

The start of 2005 concerned obtaining the authorisation necessary from the European Union and the relevant competition commissions. Trade union members working for France Télévisions continued to voice opposition to the project and circulated a petition in March 2005. The newly elected president of the public corporation, Patrick de Carolis, who assumed his position in the summer (and who had been accused of being too close to the President), expressed doubts about an alliance with TF1:

"To be effective, you need a single driver in a car".[13]

He insisted that the channel be made available within France, which the members of parliament required, and which TF1, wanting to protect its own news channel LCI, could object to. Patrick Le Lay, president of TF1, gave his blessing for the channel to be broadcast domestically and wished the direction of the channel to alternate every six months between the two parties, and eventually a Supervisory Board devolved to France Télévisions. These few amendments needed new authorisation from the French and European authorities, obtained this time round without difficulty.

Birth (2006–2008)

The launch of the channel was made official after a statement to the cabinet of the Ministry of Culture and Communication, headed by Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres on 30 November 2005:

" The project of the International French News Channel (abbreviated in French to CFII)[...] will allow us to propose our own country's vision of world events and to reinforce its presence in the world."[14]

Alain de Pouzilhac, former CEO of Havas, was named President, along with two deputies, one each from group partners TF1 and France Télévisions.

Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin declared that CFII, against the wishes of TF1, would be broadcast within mainland France.[15] However, TF1 wished to launch its news channel LCI onto the digital terrestrial platform. In order to placate TF1, CFII was due to be broadcast via satellite and cable.

On 22 April 2006, Le Monde announced that the managers of the forthcoming channel found its initial name difficult to pronounce (CFII, in French pronounced as C-F-I-I or C-F-2-I).[16] A new name was announced on 30 June 2006; France 24 (pronounced France vingt-quatre). This decision was taken by the Supervisory Board, chaired by France Télévision president Patrick de Carolis, who made the choice from a list of five potential names.

France 24 launched on 6 December 2006, initially available online as a web stream, followed by satellite distribution a day later, covering France and the rest of Europe, the Middle East, Africa and the United States (specifically airing in New York State and the District of Columbia using two channels: one in English and the other in French. Since April 2007 the channel increased its reach, airing programmes in Arabic for viewers in the Maghreb, North Africa and the Middle East.

Two months after launch, a survey conducted by TNS Sofres indicated that 75% of respondents in France questioned thought France 24 was "useful and essential",[17] but questions have arisen concerning the France 24 name being too Franco-centric for an international news channel.[18]

State takes over

In 2008 Groupe TF1 ceded its share in the channel to a government-owned holding company, Société de l'audiovisuel extérieur de la France (AEF), whilst conversely committing to producing programmes for the channel until 2015.

Despite the launch of France 24, the fragmentation of public broadcasting overseas continues. The total budget for external broadcasting from France totalled 300 million euro each year. Following the election of Nicolas Sarkozy as President in May 2007, a "steering committee" of twenty members was called in with view to reform in June 2007. President Sarkozy called on Bernard Kouchner and Christine Albanel, respectively Foreign Minister and Culture Minister to reform the current system. The proposition of reform was met with concern from Belgium, Switzerland and Canada/Québec, as the public broadcasters involved in TV5 (of which the French government holds a 49% share whilst the three aforementioned countries hold 11% each) consider TV5 to be a promoter of the wider French-language world.[19] Just one month after France 24's launch, TV5 renamed itself TV5MONDE.

As published in the Journal Officiel de la République Française of 23 January 2009, a Decree for 23 January 2009 appeared, authorising the company France Télévisions to cede its share in the capital of the France 24 company.[20] The same Decree transferred its share to the Société de l'audiovisuel extérieur de la France (AEF), which made AEF sole shareholder of France 24, for the sum of 4 million euro.[21]

Under one maison (2008–present)

President Nicolas Sarkozy announced on 8 January 2008 that he was in favour of reducing France 24's programming to French only.[22]

In January 2012 AEF announced a merger between France 24 and Radio France International, a procedure finalised on 13 February 2012. It is expected that staff from Radio France International (which includes Arabic sister station Monte Carlo Doualiya) will move to premises currently home to France 24. Alain de Pouzilhac, president of AEF stated in Le Monde:

We have just created a French audiovisual group of international dimensions, that aspires to be powerful and ambitious; [the merger] is irreversible and is definitive

102 posts, of which 85 from RFI, were cut preceding the official merger. Editorial teams, technical and distribution, financial and human resources departments of both France 24 and RFI were involved. On 13 February 2012 the merger of France 24 and RFI was made official.

Long-term goals

France 24 aims to compete with leading English-language international news channels BBC World News and CNN International. Its intention is to put more emphasis on debate, dialogue and the role of cultural differences. It also competes with Deutsche Welle, Al Jazeera English, and NHK World news channels. The Arabic programming competes with Al Jazeera's Arabic service, RT Arabic, BBC Arabic and Sky News Arabia. The new Spanish channel for the Latin American market is expected to start in September 2017. It will compete with CNN en Español, DW (Latinoamérica), NTN24, TeleSUR, RT en español and CCTV-E

The French government allocated around €100 million for the project. The European Commission gave the green light to France 24 in June 2006, saying it did not breach European Union state aid rules.

Overnight simulcast

From 2 September 2016, France's new news channel, France Info, started simulcasting France 24 from midnight to 6 am daily, when the channel doesn't broadcast live except the on-the-hour news bulletins.

However, from 20 March 2017, on weekdays, France Info started simulcasting France 24 until 6:30 am, due to the main presenter Laurent Bignolas anchors the early newscast on France 2 Le 6H Info, which isn't simulcast on France Info.

Shows and presenters

Programmes

  • Beyond Business
  • The Business Interview – hosted by Raphael Kahane
  • Business Matters – hosted by Stéphane Marchand, Pierre Briançon
  • Culture – hosted by Genie Godula
  • Culture Critique – hosted by Augustin Trapenard on literature, Amobe Mevegue on music, Sean Rose on exhibitions, Lisa Nesselson on cinema and Stephen Clarke
  • The Debate – hosted by François Picard
  • Environment – hosted by Eve Irvine
  • Europe District – Christophe Robeet
  • Fashion
  • Focus
  • France Bon Appétit
  • Health – hosted by Eve Irvine
  • In the Papers – hosted by James Creedon
  • In the Weeklies
  • The Interview
  • Lifestyle
  • Media Watch
  • The Observers – hosted by Derek Thomson
  • Planet Hope – hosted by Louise Hannah
  • Politics
  • Reporters – hosted by Mark Owen
  • Talking Europe
  • Talking Points
  • Tech 24 – hosted by Rebecca Bowring
  • This Week in Africa – hosted by Genie Godula
  • This Week in Asia – hosted by Claire Pryde
  • This Week in Europe – hosted by Rebecca Bowring
  • This Week in France – hosted by Nadia Charbit
  • This Week in the Americas – hosted by Annette Young
  • This Week in the Maghreb – hosted by Georja Calvin Smith
  • This Week in the Middle East – hosted by Lanah Kammourieh
  • Top Story
  • Vice Versa
  • Web News
  • The World This Week

Availability

France 24 News presenter
Inaugural News presenter, François Picard
France 24 News ident
The News title 2006–2011

France 24 is available by satellite in most of Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, as well as by cable and antenna in the US cities of New York; Washington, DC; Chicago; Philadelphia; the San Francisco Bay Area; and Atlanta, Georgia. In the United States, Canada, and Central and South America, France 24 is represented by the American telecommunications company New Line Television, headquartered in Miami, Florida. As of August 2010, the network also became available to subscribers to the satellite television Dish Network.[23] An hour of France 24 news in English is shown in the United States on Free Speech TV at 6 pm Eastern and 2 am Eastern and on Link TV.

The French, English, and Arabic channels are all available live on the France 24 website, broadcast en direct (live) in Adobe Flash Video format. On 1 April 2007, the Irish terrestrial channel TG4, which is an Irish Language TV channel, began carrying retransmissions of France 24 overnight. Previously, it had retransmitted Euronews. France 24 is also available on Livestation.

In 2007, France 24 started a VOD service on Virgin Media, allowing customers to access weekly news updates and programmes to watch when they choose. The use of a free application means that France 24 is also available live and VOD on mobile phones throughout the world. An official App for the iPhone has also been released.[24]

In October 2009, France24 relaunched its website France24.com with a complete video archive as well as a video-on-demand service whereby the viewer may watch any of the three channels with the ability to replay the past 24 hours of programming anytime. On 1 March 2010, France 24 released live streaming with experimental automatic transcription in association with Yacast Media, the search engine Exalead, Vocapia Research, and Microsoft.[25]

On 2 March 2010, Iran blocked the news website of this French broadcaster.[26]

On 9 January 2011, France 24's English and French channels officially switched to 16:9 widescreen at 02:00 CET, and the Arabic channel switched to widescreen later that day at 06:00 CET. Graphics were modified to fit the new format. The studio design was not altered. The video player at France24.com was also amended to accommodate the new format.[27]

France 24 is a supporter of the Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV (HbbTV) initiative, which is promoting and establishing an open European standard for hybrid set-top boxes for the reception of broadcast TV and broadband multimedia applications with a single user interface, and has announced that it will launch an HbbTV interactive news service in 2012 via the Astra 19.2°E satellites with support from Orange and SES.[28]

In New Zealand, the channels are available via Sky Network Television on channel 100 (English) and 101 (French). It is available via Now TV in Hong Kong and in Sri Lanka this channel is available via Sri Lanka Telecom Peo TV on channel 27. In Pakistan, the channel is available on most cable systems, PTCL Smart TV and NayaTel.

On 3 October 2014, France 24 began live streaming the channel on YouTube.[29]

On September 25, 2017, France 24 began to broadcast its Spanish version.[30]

On January 9, 2018, France 24 was pulled from Spectrum cable TV.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Contact Us." France 24. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
  2. ^ "France 24, the company". France 24. Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
  3. ^ "Faits et chiffres". Audiovisuel Exterieur de France. Archived from the original on 30 December 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  4. ^ "FRANCE 24's Arabic channel goes to 24 hours". France 24.
  5. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rqz5INe_4GM
  6. ^ "France launches world TV channel". BBC News. 6 December 2006.
  7. ^ Speech given by Jacques Chirac to the High Commission of the Francophonie Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine (French), 12 February 2002.
  8. ^ Speech given by Jacques Chirac in front of foreign representatives of the French state Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, (French), 7 March 2002.
  9. ^ Statement by Dominique de Villepin to the United Nations Security Council. Foreign Policy. 14 February 2003. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
  10. ^ Consultation guide, Direction and Developemt of Media (Archive) (French)
  11. ^ "Parrain privé, chaîne publique". Le Monde diplomatique (in French). Paris. January 2006.
  12. ^ Press conference, 9 December 2005.
  13. ^ Delesalle, Nicolas (11 January 2006). "La voix de la France, en léger différé…", Télérama, n°2922.
  14. ^ "Statement by the Ministry of Culture and Communication (Archive)".
  15. ^ "Financée par l'argent public, il est légitime qu'elle soit diffusée en France". Radio France International. 9 November 2005. (French)
  16. ^ Article published online, Le Monde (Paris). (Paid article) (Archive) (French), 23 February 2008
  17. ^ Survey published in Métro, 16 February 2007.
  18. ^ "France24, ou le splendide isolement audiovisuel de la France", Marc Chevrier, Professor of Political Science, Université du Québec à Montréal. Encyclopédie de la Francophonie. Retrieved 16 October 2007.
  19. ^ "Audiovisuel extérieur. Une réforme au forceps", Daniel Psenny, Le Monde (Paris). 11 October 2007, p. 23.
  20. ^ Legifrance.gouv.fr. 9 April 2009.
  21. ^ Legifrance.gouv.fr. 9 April 2009.
  22. ^ "La chaîne France 24 dans l'incertitude". Le Monde (Paris).
  23. ^ "DISH Network Launches FRANCE 24". 3 August 2010. Archived from the original on 7 August 2010.
  24. ^ "FRANCE 24 LIVE Now available over 3G on iPhone®". France 24. 25 February 2009. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  25. ^ Laurent, Alexandre (1 March 2010). "France24.com: transcription écrite automatique". Clubic. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
  26. ^ "Iran blocks news website: French broadcaster". Google News. 2 April 2010.
  27. ^ "France 24 going widescreen". France 24.
  28. ^ "Globecast and FRANCE 24 to lead HbbTV experiment with Orange and SES" (Press release). France 24. 21 December 2011.
  29. ^ "FRANCE 24 live news stream: all the latest news 24/7". YouTube.
  30. ^ "France 24 launches Spanish language channel". Broadband TV News. 13 October 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2018.

External links

2014 in France

Events from the year 2014 in France.

2015 in France

The following lists events that happened in 2015 in France.

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Emmanuel Macron

Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (French: [emanɥɛl ʒɑ̃ miʃɛl fʁedeʁik makʁɔ̃]; born 21 December 1977) is a French politician serving as President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 2017. He was Minister of the Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs from 2014 to 2016.

Macron was born in Amiens and studied philosophy at Paris Nanterre University, completed a Master's of Public Affairs at Sciences Po and graduated from the École nationale d'administration (ENA) in 2004. He worked as a senior civil servant at the Inspectorate General of Finances and later became an investment banker at Rothschild & Cie Banque.

Macron was appointed Deputy Secretary General to the President by François Hollande in May 2012. He was appointed Minister of Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs in August 2014 under the Second Valls government, where he pushed through business-friendly reforms. He resigned in August 2016 to launch a bid in the 2017 presidential election. After being a member of the Socialist Party from 2006 to 2009, Macron ran in the election under the banner of a centrist political movement he founded in April 2016, En Marche!.

He won the election on 7 May 2017 with 66.1% of the vote in the second round. At age 39, Macron became the youngest president of France in history and appointed Édouard Philippe to be prime minister. In the June 2017 legislative elections, Macron's party, renamed "La République en marche" (LREM), together with its ally the Democratic Movement (MoDem), secured a majority in the National Assembly.

France Info (TV channel)

France Info (pronounced [fʁɑ̃s ɛ̃.fo]; stylized as franceinfo:) is a French domestic rolling news channel which started broadcasting on 31 August 2016 at 6:00 p.m. on the Web. TV broadcasting began on 1 September 2016 at 8:00 p.m. on most TV operators (Bouygues Telecom, Orange, SFR, Numericable...), and on the TNT (Digital Terrestrial Television). As for TNT Sat and Canalsat, it began on 6 September.France Info involves France Télévisions, Radio France, France Médias Monde (with France 24) and the Institut national de l'audiovisuel (INA). It shares its name with a global news service which gathers the TV channel itself, the radio channel France Info and the website www.francetvinfo.fr. France Info broadcasts from 06:30 on weekdays and 06:00 on weekends until 00:00 and simulcasts France 24 overnight. France Info can be watched live on YouTube (with a 4-hour rewind availability) and web.

Link TV

Link TV, original WorldLink TV, is a non-commercial liberal / progressive American satellite television network providing what it describes as "diverse perspectives on world and national issues." It is carried nationally on DirecTV (ch. 375) and Dish Network (ch. 9410) and is broadcast over the air in the Los Angeles area on the 28.2 subchannel of KCET. Link TV was launched as a daily, 24-hour non-commercial network on 15 December 1999. It receives no money from the satellite providers, but relies instead on contributions from viewers and foundations.

Link TV broadcasts a mix of documentaries, global and national news, music of diverse cultures, and programs promoting citizen action. The network also airs English language news from Al Jazeera English, Deutsche Welle, NHK and France 24, as well as various documentaries and world music videos. Select Link TV programs are streamed on the Internet, via the channel's website at www.linktv.org.The network also produced Mosaic: World News from the Middle East, a program of translated news reports from the Middle East.

NHK World-Japan

NHK World-Japan is the international broadcasting service of NHK (Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai - Japan Broadcasting Corporation), Japan's public broadcaster. The service is aimed at the overseas market, similar to BBC World News, DW, France 24, CGTN, and RT, and broadcast through satellite and cable operators throughout the world as well as online and through its mobile apps. The channel is based in Tokyo, Japan.

NHK World-Japan provides three services: NHK World Radio Japan, NHK World TV, and NHK World Premium. NHK World also makes most of its programming available through an online version of the television channel.

NHK World-Japan was rebranded from NHK World in April 2018.The Chinese Web TV service, NHK Huayu Shijie, which provides news and select programs from NHK World-Japan in Chinese dubbing and/or subtitles was launched on January 15, 2019.

NHK World Premium

NHK World Premium is the international broadcasting service of NHK (Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai - Japan Broadcasting Corporation), Japan's public broadcaster. The service is aimed towards overseas Japanese and the overseas market, similar to DD India, BBC World News, Press TV, DW-TV, France 24, Russia Today and broadcast through satellite and cable operators throughout the world.

NHK World Premium Television broadcast a mixture of news, sports and entertainment in Japanese worldwide via satellite as a subscription service. In Europe this service is broadcast under the name JSTV and in the US and Canada it is known as TV Japan. The programmes generally don't carry English subtitles while a few programmes, especially news, have bilingual audio.

SEEMORE

SEEMORE SAT CHANNEL is a Croatian pay per view satellite platform owned by OIV company. Introduced in 2005, it was the first project of this kind in Croatia. It has 25.000 users and broadcasts 45 channels. SEEMORE is operating in Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and North Macedonia.

HBO

N1

Al Jazeera Balkans

CNN International

CCTV News

NHK World TV

RT

SABC News International

i24news

Sky News

National Geographic Channel

Nat Geo Wild

Nat Geo Music

CBS Reality

CMC

CBS Europa

BabyTV

Jim Jam

MTV Adria

C Music TV

Hustler TV

Eurosport

Euronews

CNBC Europe

Disney Channel

Cartoon Network

Boomerang

Turner Classic Movies

Nick Jr.

Nickelodeon

Disney Junior

Disney Cinemagic

AMC

Sundance Channel

ShortsTV

Fox Life

Fox Crime

24Kitchen

Travel Channel EMEA

Motors TV

FUEL TV

Fashion One

E!

Comedy Central Extra

France 24

Swimming at the 2013 World Aquatics Championships – Men's 50 metre backstroke

The men's 50 metre backstroke event in swimming at the 2013 World Aquatics Championships took place on 3–4 August at the Palau Sant Jordi in Barcelona, Spain.

Swimming at the 2017 World Aquatics Championships – Men's 50 metre backstroke

The Men's 50 metre backstroke competition at the 2017 World Championships was held on 29 and 30 July 2017.

Third Square

The Third Square (Arabic: الميدان الثالث‎) is an Egyptian political movement created by liberal, leftist and moderate Islamist activists who reject both Muslim Brotherhood and military rule following the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état.

The movement first appeared when the Egyptian defence minister, General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, called for mass demonstrations on 26 July 2013 to grant the military a "mandate" to crack down on "terrorism", which was seen as contradicting the military's pledges to hand over power to civilians after removing Morsi and as an indication for an imminent crackdown against Islamists. The announcement by General Al-Sisi was rejected by a number of political groups that had initially supported the military coup, such as the revolutionary April 6 Youth Movement, the moderate Strong Egypt Party, the Salafi Al-Nour Party and Egyptian human rights groups.In response, The Third Square, a group of activists who mistrust both the military and the Islamists, called for a separate protest in Sphinx Square in Mohandessin, Cairo. One of the activists described the movement as "a group of young people whose views are not represented either in Tahrir Square or Rabia Al-Adawiya", referring to the military-organised protests in Tahrir Square and the Islamist protests in Rabia Al-Adawiya square in Nasr City. In a leaflet, they declared their opposition to "the defense minister calling for an authorization to kill Egyptians on the pretext of fighting terrorism".Interviewed on the French television news channel France 24, activist Firas Mokhtar said: "The Third Square is an attempt to bring Egyptians together and put an end to the polarisation of our society". Fellow activist and singer of Egyptian band Eskenderella, Samia Jahin, added: "Maybe there's only a few of us tonight. But soon you might hear of another group like ours in another square."The movement is supported by intellectuals and artists such as the activist filmmaker Aalam Wassef, who released a music video showing him sitting out the demonstrations on 26 July at home, doing his laundry in front of a banner with the word "Resist".

WNYJ-TV

WNYJ-TV, virtual channel 66 (UHF digital channel 29), was an independent non-commercial educational television station licensed to West Milford, New Jersey, United States. The station's transmitting facilities were located in West Orange, New Jersey. Its broadcast license was owned by the Oakland, California-based Christian broadcast ministry Family Stations, who from 1996 through 2013 operated it as WFME-TV, a religious television station.

WNYJ-TV carried programming from CNC World, an English-language news channel based in Beijing, on its main channel, 66.1. On WNYJ's digital subchannel 66.2 it aired MHz WorldView, a non-commercial television network owned by Virginia-based Commonwealth Public Broadcasting Corporation. An additional subchannel carried the audio from WFME-FM in Mount Kisco, New York, which broadcasts the Family Radio religious network. One WNYJ subchannel had carried France 24, an English-language news channel from Paris, although that service has been discontinued.

In April 2017, it was announced that WNYJ had sold its spectrum in the FCC's incentive auction and would be going off the air. WNYJ-TV ceased operations October 25, 2017.

Yellow vests movement

The yellow vests movement or yellow jackets movement (French: Mouvement des gilets jaunes, pronounced [muvmɑ̃ de ʒilɛ ʒon]) is a populist, grassroots political movement for economic justice that began in France in October 2018. After an online petition posted in May had attracted nearly a million signatures, mass demonstrations began on 17 November. The movement is motivated by rising fuel prices, a high cost of living; it claims that a disproportionate burden of the government's tax reforms were falling on the working and middle classes, especially in rural and peri-urban areas. The protesters have called for lower fuel taxes, a reintroduction of the solidarity tax on wealth, a minimum-wage increase, the implementation of Citizens' initiative referendums, as well as the resignations of President Emmanuel Macron and the Second Philippe government.

The movement spans the political spectrum. According to one poll, few of those protesting had voted for Macron in the 2017 French presidential election, and many had either not voted, or had voted for far-right or far-left candidates. Rising fuel prices initially sparked the demonstrations. Yellow high-visibility vests, which French law required all drivers to have in their vehicles and to wear during emergencies, were chosen as "a unifying thread and call to arms" because of their convenience, visibility, ubiquity, and association with working-class industries.The protests have involved demonstrations and the blocking of roads and fuel depots, some of which developed into major riots, described as the most violent since those of May 1968, and the police response, resulting in multiple incidences of loss of limb, has been criticised by international media. The movement has received international attention, and protesters in many places around the world—some with similar grievances, others unrelated—have used the yellow vest as a symbol.

Édouard Philippe

Édouard Charles Philippe (French: [edwaʁ filip]; born 28 November 1970) is a French politician serving as Prime Minister of France since 15 May 2017 under President Emmanuel Macron.

A lawyer by occupation, Philippe is a former member of the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP), which later became The Republicans (LR). He served as a member of the National Assembly representing the 7th constituency of Seine-Maritime from 2012 to 2017, as well as Mayor of Le Havre and President of the Agglomeration community of Le Havre from 2010 to 2017. In 2017 President Macron appointed him Prime Minister; Philippe subsequently named his government on 17 May.

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