François Rude (4 January 1784 – 3 November 1855) was a French sculptor, best known for the Departure of the Volunteers, also known as Le Marseillaise on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. (1835-36).  His work often expressed patriotic themes, as well as the transition from neo-classicism to romanticism.
Portrait by Sophie Rude (1842)
January 4, 1784
|Died||November 3, 1855 (aged 71)|
|Known for||Sculpture, drawing|
François Rude was born 4 January 1784 on rue Petite-Poissonnerie (rue François Rude) in Dijon. His father was a blacksmith and locksmith, who taught Rude the trade of forging iron, so he could take over the family business. In 1799, At the age of fifteen, despite his fathers resistance, he began taking courses at the School of Fine Arts in Dijon, located within the Palace of the Dukes of Burgundy, while continuing to work in the family business. His teacher was the deputy curator of the Dijon museum, Louis Fremiet. Rude learned both drawing and sculpture, using classical models. Fremiet helped protect Rude from being drafted into Napoleon's army, and, in 1808, sent him to Paris to continue his studies.
Rude began his studies at the Imperial Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris in August 1808 under Pierre Cartellier, a devotee of classical sculpture. His fellow students included several sculptors who later became prominent, including David d'Angers, James Pradier and the celebrated animalist Antoine-Louis Barye. While studying, he gained practical experience as an assistant to Edme Gaulle, who was making part of the sculptural frieze of the column being made for Place Vendôme to celebrate the victories of Napoleon. In 1809 he competed in the Academy's prestigious annual competition, and took second place with the purely classical Marius meditating upon the ruins of Carthage. In 1812, he won two competitions, one for the most expressive bust, with a work called attention combined with fear; and a second, Aristotle deploring the loss of his bees.. The latter work won the Grand Prize of the Academy, Prix de Rome, and the opportunity to study at the French Academy in Rome. Unfortunately for Rude, the Academy in Rome was having financial difficulties, and the departure of the winners was postponed. He was preparing again to depart for Rome in early 1815 when Napoleon returned from his exile in Elba and the war began again. After Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo and the second restoration of the French monarchy, Rude decided to go into self-imposed exile in Brussels. At the request of his teacher from Dijon, Louis Fremiet, he agreed to take with him to Brussels and look after Fremiet's mother-in-law, aunt, and two daughters, including Sophie, who in 1821 became Rude's wife. 
Rude lived in Brussels from 1817 until 1826. where he found many other self-imposed exiles, the most famous of whom was the painter Jacques-Louis David. Rude's wife, a painter, became David's pupil and then his copyist.  In Brussels he made a bust of David, neoclassical in style, but realistically portraying the deformation of David's mouth caused by a nervous malady.
in Brussels He received his first major commission; he was asked by the Belgian royal architect Charles Vander Straeten to design decorative relief sculptures for the hunting lodge of the Belgian crown prince at Tervuren. The work was a frieze of a around the rotunda of the Hall of Honor. The other artists selected to work on the frieze Sophie Fremiet, also a painter, who became Rude's wife. The friezes by Rude represented a classical hunting scene, The Hunt of Melanger for the entry portico and a series of eight reliefs for the rotunda, illustrating the life of Achilles. The work required representing dozens of figures, both in action scenes and scenes of pathos and drama. Rude based his work on the models of classical sculpture, but gave them exceptional naturalism and dynamism. The original work was destroyed by a fire in the lodge in 1879, but plaster copies made the from the original moldings and illustrations survive.
Brussels did not offer enough opportunities or challenges, and in 1827 Rude returned to Paris with Sophie and entered a work in the Paris Salon. The work was shown only a short time before the Salon closed, and it attracted little attention, but it illustrated the evolution of his style. The statue, Mercury fastening his sandals after slaying Argus (now in the Louvre) was neoclassical in theme, but showed a striking energy and realism.
Rude decided to move permanently to Paris in 1828. He found a client in the French state, which commissioned him, along with several others sculptors, to work on a frieze for the Arc de Triomphe, He refined his technique and style. In 1833 he presented a new work, A young Neopolitan fisherman playing with tortoise a fusion of classicism and romanticism, vividly expressing emotion. This work won a cross of the Legion of Honor, sculpture. 
The Arc de Triomphe had been begun in 1806 by Napoleon to celebrate his victory at the battle of Austerlitz. It had only reached a height of nine meters when Napoleon was overthrown, and it was abandoned for years. During Bourbon Restoration, Charles X of France had begun to work on it again, to make it a monument to celebrate the defeat of Spanish revolutionaries by a French royal expeditionary force. When Rude first arrived in Paris in 1828, based on his experience with the friezes in Tervuren, he became one of the sculptors working on the friezes, depicting the exploits of the royalist army in Spain.
The July Revolution of 1830 overthrew the royal government of the Charles X and put on the throne Louis Philippe. The new government decided to complete the construction of the Arc de Triomphe on a very different theme. Rude's work at the Salon of 1833 had come to the attention of Adolphe Thiers, the new Minister of the Interior, who had taken office in 1832. Thiers was an art collector, and was familiar with Rude's work at the 1828 salon. The royalist architect of the Arch was replaced, and Thiers put a new architect, Guillaume-Abel Blouet, who had political opinions closer to those of Rude, in charge of the project, with Rude to assist him. Rude was given the commission to make portions of the frieze depicting the departure of volunteers from Paris in 1792 to fight against the anti-revolutionary armies, as well as a frieze commemorating the triumphal returns to France of Napoleon's expeditions to Egypt and Italy. 
The Départ des volontaires de 1792 (Departure of the Volunteers of 1792), also known as La Marseillaise completed in 1836, became Rude's most famous work. It depicted the departure of a French revolutionary army to fight against a coalition of royalist forces at the Battle of Valmy in 1792. Sophie Fremiet, Rude's wife, posed for the principal figure, the Génie de la Guerre (Genius of the War), a woman with a sword shouting to urge others on to battle. The soldiers themselves wore the costumes of warriors of ancient Gaul.  Her fierce, shouting expression The pose of this figure resembled also the central figure of the painting by Delacroix, Liberte leading the People, which had been purchased by the French government at the 1831 Salon, and shown briefly at the Luxembourg Museum until 1833. The fierce shouting expression had been used earlier by Rude as a student at the Academy, in the competition for best facial expressions, which he won in 1812.  The Depart des Volontaires de 1792 immediately became famous for its vitality and energy, and as a celebration of the French revolutionary spirit. Auguste Rodin took up the same theme, with a similar shouting figure, in his La Defense (1879). 
The critical and popular acclaim for the frieze on the Arc de Triomphe led to more commissions for Rude. King Louis-Philippe encouraged patriotic monuments, to replace the pre-revolutionary style of monuments only the King, and to try to bridge the deep political divide between monarchists and republicans. In 1832, Louis-Philippe commissioned Rude to make a statue of the Roman statesman Cato the Elder. In 1837, Louis-Philppe opened a museum within the largely-abandoned Palace of Versailles to honor the heroes of French history, and, as he declared, "all the glories of France." Rude was commissioned in 1836, before the opening of the museum, to make a statue of a German-born French military hero from the 18th century, the Maurice de Saxe. This statue followed the traditions of heroic sculpture, presenting him a triumphal pose, holding his marshal's baton. He also had patrons in the nobility; In 1843, he created a statue in silver of the adolescent Louis XIII, for the Duc de Luynes, whose family had been ennobled by Lous XIII. It was later recast in bronze. In 1845, Rude completed another statue devoted to French history; Joan of Arc, portraed with her hand up, listing to the mystical voice calling her to fight for the liberty of France against the English invaders. Her hair has already been cut to prepare her for battle, and her armor is by her side. 
Louis-Philippe was driven into exile in 1848, and the new and brief Second French Republic came to power. It commissioned Rude to make an heroic statue of Michel Ney, one of Napoleon's most famous marshals, who had been shot for treason by the restored royalist government which replaced Napoleon. The earliest wax model made by Rude depicted Ney at his execution, as he opened his coat and urged the firing squad to "aim for the heart." This pose was judged as too politically provocative, so Rude made a different version, depicting Ney, sword upraised, ordering his soldiers forward. This work, like his earlier Departure of the Volunteers, broke with a academic tradition by showing Ney with his mouth open, shouting at his soldiers to follow. This work was completed in 1853, after the fall of the Second Republic and the rise of Napoleon III. It is found in the square in front of the Paris Observatory. 
An unusual work in his period of patriotic sculptures was his tomb of Éléonore-Louis Godefroi Cavaignac, one of the leaders of the republican opposition to the monarchy, who had died in 1845. The sepulcher designed by Rude recalled those of the middle ages made for the Kings of France, particularly the tomb of Henry II of France sculpted by [[Germain Pilon. The figure of Cavaignac was depicted with great realism; the body was depicted under a plain sheet, and body was emaciated from his imprisonment by royal government. The sepulcher served a model for those of later opponents of the monarchy. 
Another notable example of his patriotic work was Napoleon Awakening to Immortality (1845). The statue was made for Claude Noisot, who a former captain in Napoleon's imperial guard and an officer of the Legion of Honor, who had accompanied Napoleon into exile on Elba, and at the Battle of Waterloo. He was unable to pursue a military career after Napoleon's downfall, but with the help of a wealthy wife purchased vineyards and an estate at Fixin in Burgundy. At the time that the statue was conceived, the political climate in Paris was still hostile to Napoleon, and there were no monuments to him in the city. Therefore Noisot and Rude planned for the sculpture of the Emperor to be placed on Noisot's estate in Burgundy. The statue shows the Emperor, eyes closed, wearing a crown of laurel, under a military cloak, atop a rocky pedestal. An eagle, his symbol, is chained to the stone, and is crying out to awaken him, while the chains that held the Emperor have been broken. For years, elderly veterans of Napoleon's army made pilgrimages to Fixin to honor Rude's statue. 
Late works by Rude included a Calvary in bronze for the high altar of St Vincent de Paul (1852). Late in his life, he was commissioned by the Museum of Fine Arts of Dijon to make a work on a subject of his choosing; he chose a mythological work, Hebe and the Eagle of Jupiter (1852). Other late works included Love Triumphant (1855-57; and Head of Christ (1852). After his death, the two unfinished works were completed by his student and nephew, Paul Cabet, and they were shown at the Paris Salon of 1857.
Rude received a medal for his lifetime work at the Paris International Exposition of 1855. Shortly afterwards, on November 3, 1855, Rude died at his Paris residence at rue d'Enfer 3. He was buried at Montparnasse Cemetery in Paris.
Toward the end of his life, Rude made several notable religious sculptures, including the sculptural decoration of a pulpit for the Church of St. Etienne in Lille. His major religious works include a Baptism of Christ now in the Church of the Madeleine, and a smaller bust of Christ on the Cross finished in 1855, not long before his death, and now in the Louvre. The statue Love, dominator of the world, was one of his last works, commissioned by the Dijon Museum of Fine Arts. He died before it was completed. It was finished by his pupil and stepson Paul Cabet, and was shown in the Paris Salon of 1857.
Rude's pupil Charles-Auguste Lebourg became famous for the Wallace fountains in Paris. Another important pupil of Rude was Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, who subsequently executed his own interpretation of a Neapolitan Fisher Boy, a popular subject at the time.
The Musée Rude in Dijon, inaugurated in 1947, is devoted to plaster casts of his works that were acquired by the city of Dijon, between 1887 and 1910; it is housed in the transept of the 11th-century church of Saint-Etienne in rue Vaillant.
Events from the year 1784 in art.1827 in art
Events in the year 1827 in Art.1833 in art
Events from the year 1833 in art.1852 in art
Events from the year 1852 in art.Arc de Triomphe
The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (French pronunciation: [aʁk də tʁijɔ̃f də letwal] (listen), Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, France, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the centre of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues. The location of the arc and the plaza is shared between three arrondissements, 16th (south and west), 17th (north) and 8th (east). The Arc de Triomphe honours those who fought and died for France in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, with the names of all French victories and generals inscribed on its inner and outer surfaces. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I.
As the central cohesive element of the Axe historique (historic axis, a sequence of monuments and grand thoroughfares on a route running from the courtyard of the Louvre to the Grande Arche de la Défense), the Arc de Triomphe was designed by Jean Chalgrin in 1806, and its iconographic program pits heroically nude French youths against bearded Germanic warriors in chain mail. It set the tone for public monuments with triumphant patriotic messages. Inspired by the Arch of Titus in Rome, Italy, the Arc de Triomphe has an overall height of 50 metres (164 ft), width of 45 m (148 ft) and depth of 22 m (72 ft), while its large vault is 29.19 m (95.8 ft) high and 14.62 m (48.0 ft) wide. The smaller transverse vaults are 18.68 m (61.3 ft) high and 8.44 m (27.7 ft) wide. Three weeks after the Paris victory parade in 1919 (marking the end of hostilities in World War I), Charles Godefroy flew his Nieuport biplane under the arch's primary vault, with the event captured on newsreel.Paris's Arc de Triomphe was the tallest triumphal arch until the completion of the Monumento a la Revolución in Mexico City in 1938, which is 67 metres (220 ft) high. The Arch of Triumph in Pyongyang, completed in 1982, is modelled on the Arc de Triomphe and is slightly taller at 60 m (197 ft). La Grande Arche in La Defense near Paris is 110 metres high. Although it is not named an Arc de Triomphe, it has been designed on the same model and in the perspective of the Arc de Triomphe. It qualifies as the world's tallest arch.Botanical Garden of Brussels
The Botanical Garden of Brussels (French: Jardin botanique de Bruxelles; Dutch: Kruidtuin van Brussel) stands on Rue Royale in Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, near Brussels’ Northern Quarter financial district. The main building is a cultural complex and music venue known as Le Botanique. It can be accessed from the Botanique/Kruidtuin metro station on lines 2 and 6 of the Brussels metro.Ernest Christophe
Ernest Christophe (1827 – 1892) was a French sculptor, a student of François Rude and a friend of Charles Baudelaire. Rude assigned him to help with the bronze recumbent effigy to Éléonore-Louis Godefroi Cavaignac, a French politician. The funerary monument is signed Rude et Christophe, son jeune élève (Rude and Cristophe, his young pupil). His Le Masque (the Mask) sculpture won Christophe third place in the Paris Salon in 1876 and two of his sculptures, La Fatalité (Fatality) and Le Baiser suprême (The supreme kiss) were acquired by the Musée du Luxembourg.Christophe developed a deep friendship with Cuban-born French poet José-Maria de Heredia and made him his testamentary legatee. De Heredia collected part of Ernest's library after his death. He is buried in the Batignolles Cemetery.Henri-Frédéric Iselin
Henri-Frédéric Iselin (1826–1905) was a French sculptor.
Born in Clairegoutte, Haute-Saône, he was a pupil of François Rude. He started at the Salon in 1849 and became famous and successful, sculpting many portraits.
He died in Paris in 1905.Jean-Baptiste Roman
Jean-Baptiste Roman (31 October 1792 – 13 February 1835) was a French sculptor. He was born and died in Paris. Among his works is a sculpture on the death of Cato the Younger, a theme that became popular along with revolutionary sentiment. It depicts Cato reading the Phaedo of Plato, on the death of Socrates, heroically nude as he contemplates his own death. The piece was commissioned in 1832 for the Louvre, but was finished by François Rude after his friend's death.
Roman was an instructor in sculpture at the École des beaux-arts; his vacant place was filled in 1835, by Louis-Messidor Lebon Petitot, full professeur from 1845 to 1862.Joseph-Noël Sylvestre
Joseph-Noël Sylvestre (1847–1926) was a French artist, notable for his studies of classic scenes from antiquity. He was born in Béziers in South-West France on 24 June 1847, training as an artist first in Toulouse under Thomas Couture, then at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Alexandre Cabanel. He was an exponent of the romantic Academic art style, also known as art pompier (fireman's art), examples of which are the Death of Seneca (1875), The Gaul Ducar decapitates the Roman general Flaminius at the Battle of Trasimene (1882), The Sack of Rome by the barbarians in 410 (1890) and François Rude working on the Arc de Triomphe (1893).Joseph Tournois
Joseph Tournois (born in Chazeuil on 18 November 1831, died in Dijon in September 1891) was a French sculptor.
He was the pupil of French sculptors by François Jouffroy and François Rude. He attended the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, where he created Ulysse blessé à la chasse par un sanglier, a bas-relief with whom he won the first Grand Prix de Rome for sculpture in 1857. Then he moved to Rome and lived in the Académie de France à Rome of Villa Medici, from 27 January 1858 to 31 December 1862.In 1868, he participated in the Salon des artistes français, with a sculpture in plaster Bacchus inventant la comédie. This work was later acquired by the State and Victor Thiebaut created a copy of the work in bronze. With this sculpture, Tournois participated in 1869 in the Salon de la Culture, then in the Exposition Universelle in Vienna in 1873. The sculpture is currently installed in the Jardin du Luxembourg in Paris.
In 1870, Tournois participated in the Salon des artistes français with a status of Perseus, made in plaster. The work was later owned by the State. In 1875, Tournois made another statue of Perseus, but this time it was in marble.List of works by François Rude
Famous above all for the iconic sculpture "La Marseillaise" on the Arc de Triomphe de l’Étoile, François Rude was born in Dijon on 4 January 1781, the son of a coppersmith/locksmith. Apprenticed to his father, an injury made him unsuitable for forge-work, leading to his attending François Devosges's famous École de Dessin in Dijon where he was soon to show his artistic talent. He developed a relationship with Louis Frémiet, under whose patronage he began to study in 1805 with Pierre Cartellier in Paris at the studio of Edme Gaulle. By 1809 his work began to be noticed, winning him several awards. In 1815, having saved enough money, he left Paris for Rome, but due to political conditions, he ended up in Brussels once again living with the Frémiets. Whilst in Brussels he married Sophie Frémiet, an accomplished painter and they were to become a formidable force in the art world. In Brussels he executed his first bust of Louis David, gaining him much notice. They returned to Paris in 1827 where they remained until his death on 3 November 1855.Musée Rude
The Musée Rude is an art museum dedicated to the French sculptor François Rude (1784–1855). It has the "Musée de France" label and has been housed since 1947 in a part of the former Église Saint-Étienne of Dijon, built during the 11th century. The museum displays life-size plaster casts acquired by the Dijon municipality between 1887 and 1910, which are major works by the artist exhibited in other museums in France (including the Louvre in Paris). The museum also displays archaeological crypt of the 11th century and the former St. Stephen's Gate of the Dijon castrum of the 3rd century on which the church is built. Open from 9:30 am to 6 pm from 1 June to 30 September, the museum is free.Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nice
The Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nice in Nice, France at 33 av. des Baumettes was built in the former private mansion built in 1878 by the Russian Princess, Elizaveta Vasilievna Kochubey. Named for the artist Jules Chéret who lived and worked in Nice during his final years, the museum opened as the "Palais des Arts Jules Chéret" on 7 January 1928.The museum houses a collection of art spanning the past four centuries. There are paintings by Chéret and other artists who lived and worked on the French Riviera, such as Alexis Mossa, and his son Gustav-Adolf Mossa, who for many years were curators of the museum. The small museum has sculptures by Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, François Rude, Michel de Tarnowsky and Auguste Rodin, plus ceramic pieces by Pablo Picasso. Some of the paintings are from:
Jan Brueghel the Elder
Kees van Dongen
Édouard VuillardPaul Cabet
Jean-Baptiste Paul Cabet (1 February 1815, Nuits, Yonne – 1876, Paris), was a French sculptor. He was the pupil of François Rude, his stepfather. Having achieved his own fame, he was the author of the statue known under the name of Résistance as a witness to the heroic fightings in Dijon during the 1870 war and other statues located in the Musée d'Orsay in Paris.Sophie Frémiet
Sophie Frémiet (16 June 1797 – 4 December 1867) was a French painter.
Born in Dijon, her father was the assistant curator of the city's museum, a patron of artists and a fervent Bonapartist. Sophie was taught by Anatole Devosge, a former pupil of Jacques-Louis David. Her father supported the work of a young Dijon sculptor, François Rude.
In the aftermath of the second Bourbon Restoration in 1815, the Frémiet family, along with many other Bonapartists, left France for Brussels (now Belgium, then part of the newly created United Kingdom of the Netherlands). Here Sophie studied under another French exile, her former teacher's master, Jacques-Louis David. She worked as David's copyist and exhibited her own works in Brussels and in Antwerp. In 1820, her Belle Anthia was a great success at an exhibition in Ghent
On 25 July 1821, Sophie married her father's former protégé François Rude. The couple would have only one child, Amédée, who died young in 1830. In Brussels Sophie was a successful artist, receiving many commissions, including several for the former royal palace at Tervuren, lost in the fire that destroyed it. Her works were neoclassicist in style, largely mythological, although she produced a small number of religious paintings.
In 1826, the Rude family returned to France, settling in Paris. Here Sophie began to paint historical scenes. She served as the model for the female figure representing France in her husband's statue La Marseillaise, which forms part of the Arc de Triomphe. François Rude died in 1855, and Sophie devoted the rest of her life to exhibiting and publicising her husband's work.
She died in Paris.Uranie Alphonsine Colin-Libour
Uranie Alphonsine Colin-Libour (September 19, 1831 – 1916) was a French painter.
Colin-Libour was born in Paris and became a pupil of François Bonvin, Charles Louis Lucien Muller, and François Rude. She exhibited at Chicago World Exposition in 1893.Her painting Charity was included in the 1905 book Women Painters of the World.Éléonore-Louis Godefroi Cavaignac
Éléonore-Louis Godefroi Cavaignac (1801 – 5 May 1845), better known as Godefroi Cavaignac, was a French politician.
He was born in Paris, the eldest son of Jean-Baptiste Cavaignac and the brother of General Eugène Cavaignac; he was the uncle of Jacques Marie Eugène Godefroy Cavaignac.
Like his father, a Republican of the intransigent type, he was bitterly disappointed by the triumph of the monarchical principle after the Revolution of July 1830, in which he had taken part. He also participated in the Parisian uprisings of October 1830 during the trial of Charles X's ministers, 1832 and 1834. On the third occasion, he was imprisoned, but escaped to England in 1835.
When he returned to France in 1841, he worked on the staff of La Réforme, and produced energetic republican propaganda. In 1843, he became president of the Society of the Rights of Man, of which he had been one of the founders in 1832.
The recumbent statue (1847) of Godefroi Cavaignac on his tomb at Montmartre, Paris, is one of the masterpieces of the sculptor François Rude and Rude's pupil Ernest Christophe.