François Hollande

François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (French: [fʁɑ̃swa ʒeʁaʁ ʒɔʁʒ nikɔla ɔlɑ̃d] (listen); born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017. He was previously the First Secretary of the Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, Mayor of Tulle from 2001 to 2008, and President of the Corrèze General Council from 2008 to 2012. Hollande also served in the National Assembly of France twice for the department of Corrèze's 1st constituency from 1988 to 1993, and again from 1997 to 2012.

Born in Rouen and raised in Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hollande began his political career as a special advisor to newly elected President François Mitterrand, before serving as a staffer for Max Gallo, the government's spokesman. He became a member of the National Assembly in 1988 and was elected First Secretary of the Socialist Party in 1997. Following the 2004 regional elections won by the Socialists, Hollande was cited as a potential presidential candidate, but resigned as First Secretary and was immediately elected to replace Jean-Pierre Dupont as President of the General Council of Corrèze in 2008. In 2011, Hollande announced that he would be a candidate in the primary election to select the Socialist Party presidential nominee; he won the nomination and was elected President of France on 6 May 2012 during the second-round of voting with 51.6% of the vote against incumbent Nicolas Sarkozy.

During his tenure, Hollande legalised same-sex marriage by passing Bill no. 344, reformed labour laws and credit training programmes, withdrew French combat troops present in the Afghanistan military intervention[1][2] and concluded a EU directive through a Franco-German contract. Hollande led the country through the January and November 2015 Paris and 2016 Nice attacks. He was a leading proponent of EU mandatory migrant quotas and NATO's 2011 military intervention in Libya. He also sent troops to Mali and the Central African Republic with the approval of the UN Security Council in order to stabilise those countries, two operations largely seen as successful. However his support of the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen[3][4][5] drew controversy among his left-wing electoral basis. Under his term, France also became the most toured country in the world,[6][7][8] and known as a nation of open markets, regulatory efficiency, rule of law and limited governmental intervention.[9][10] Paris hosted the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference and Hollande's efforts to attract the 2024 Summer Olympics to the city were successful.

Notwithstanding, with unemployment up to 10% and domestic troubles[11] over his tenure due to terrorism, he faced spikes and downturns in approval rates, ultimately making him the most unpopular French President under the Fifth Republic.[12][13][14] On 1 December 2016, he announced he would not seek re-election in the 2017 French presidential election, for which polls announced his defeat in the first round.

François Hollande
Francois Hollande 2015.jpeg
Hollande in 2015
President of France
In office
15 May 2012 – 14 May 2017
Prime MinisterJean-Marc Ayrault
Manuel Valls
Bernard Cazeneuve
Preceded byNicolas Sarkozy
Succeeded byEmmanuel Macron
President of the General Council of Corrèze
In office
20 March 2008 – 15 May 2012
Preceded byJean-Pierre Dupont
Succeeded byGérard Bonnet
First Secretary of the Socialist Party
In office
27 November 1997 – 27 November 2008
Preceded byLionel Jospin
Succeeded byMartine Aubry
Mayor of Tulle
In office
17 March 2001 – 17 March 2008
Preceded byRaymond-Max Aubert
Succeeded byBernard Combes
Member of the National Assembly
for Corrèze's 1st constituency
In office
12 June 1997 – 15 May 2012
Preceded byLucien Renaudie
Succeeded bySophie Dessus
In office
12 June 1988 – 1 April 1993
Preceded byConstituency re-established
Succeeded byRaymond-Max Aubert
Member of the European Parliament
In office
20 July 1999 – 17 December 1999
Personal details
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande

12 August 1954 (age 65)
Rouen, France
Political partySocialist Party
Domestic partnerSégolène Royal (1978–2007)
Valérie Trierweiler (2007–2014)
Julie Gayet (2014–present)
Alma materPanthéon-Assas University
HEC Paris
Sciences Po
École nationale d'administration
François Hollande's signature

Early life and education

François Hollande was born on 12 August 1954 in Rouen.[15] His mother, Nicole Frédérique Marguerite Tribert (1927–2009),[16] was a social worker, and his father, Georges Gustave Hollande (born 1923[17]), is a retired ear, nose, and throat doctor who "ran for local election on a far right ticket in 1959."[18][19][20][21][22][23] The name "Hollande" meant "one originally from Holland" – it is mostly found in Hollande's ancestral land, Hauts-de-France, and it is speculated to be Dutch in origin. The earliest known member of the Hollande family lived circa 1569 near Plouvain, working as a miller.[24][25]

When Hollande was thirteen, the family moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine, a highly exclusive suburb of Paris.[26] He attended Saint-Jean-Baptiste-de-la-Salle boarding school, a private Catholic school in Rouen, the Lycée Pasteur, in Neuilly-sur-Seine, receiving his baccalaureate in 1972 then graduated with a bachelor's degree in Law from Panthéon-Assas University. Hollande studied at HEC Paris, graduated in 1975, and then attended the Institut d'études politiques de Paris and the École nationale d'administration (ENA). He did his military service in the French Army in 1977.[27] He graduated from the ENA in 1980[28] and chose to enter the prestigious Cour des comptes.

Hollande lived in the United States in the summer of 1974 as a university student.[29] Immediately after graduation, he was employed as a councillor in the Court of Audit.

Early political career

Five years after volunteering as a student to work for François Mitterrand's ultimately unsuccessful campaign in the 1974 presidential election, Hollande joined the Socialist Party. He was quickly spotted by Jacques Attali, a senior adviser to Mitterrand, who arranged for Hollande to run in legislative election of 1981 in Corrèze against future President Jacques Chirac, who was then the leader of the Rally for the Republic, a Neo-Gaullist party. Hollande lost to Chirac in the first round.

He went on to become a special advisor to newly elected President Mitterrand, before serving as a staffer for Max Gallo, the government's spokesman. After becoming a municipal councillor for Ussel in 1983, he contested Corrèze for a second time in 1988, this time being elected to the National Assembly. Hollande lost his bid for re-election to the Assembly in the so-called "blue wave" of the 1993 election, described as such due to the number of seats gained by the Right at the expense of the Socialist Party.

First Secretary of the Socialist Party (1997–2008)

François Hollande2
François Hollande in 2005

As the end of Mitterrand's term in office approached, the Socialist Party was torn by a struggle of internal factions, each seeking to influence the direction of the party. Hollande pleaded for reconciliation and for the party to unite behind Jacques Delors, the President of the European Commission, but Delors renounced his ambitions to run for the French presidency in 1995. Former party leader Lionel Jospin resumed his position, and selected Hollande to become the official party spokesman. Hollande went on to contest Corrèze once again in 1997, successfully returning to the National Assembly.

That same year, Jospin became the Prime Minister of France, and Hollande won the election for his successor as First Secretary of the party, a position he would hold for eleven years. Because of the very strong position of the Socialist Party within the French government during this period, Hollande's position led some to refer to him the "Vice Prime Minister". Hollande would go on to be elected mayor of Tulle in 2001, an office he would hold for the next seven years.

The immediate resignation of Jospin from politics following his shock defeat by far-right candidate Jean-Marie Le Pen in the first round of the 2002 presidential election forced Hollande to become the public face of the party for the 2002 legislative election. Although he managed to limit defeats and was re-elected in his own constituency, the Socialists lost nationally. In order to prepare for the 2003 party congress in Dijon, he obtained the support of many notable personalities of the party and was re-elected first secretary against opposition from left-wing factions.

After the triumph of the Left in the 2004 regional elections, Hollande was cited as a potential presidential candidate, but the Socialists were divided on the European Constitution, and Hollande's support for the ill-fated "Yes" position in the French referendum on the European constitution caused friction within the party. Although Hollande was re-elected as first secretary at the Le Mans Congress in 2005, his authority over the party began to decline. Eventually his domestic partner, Ségolène Royal, was chosen to represent the party in the 2007 presidential election, where she would lose to Nicolas Sarkozy.

Hollande was widely blamed for the poor performances of the Socialist Party in the 2007 elections, and he announced that he would not seek another term as First Secretary. Hollande publicly declared his support for Bertrand Delanoë, the mayor of Paris, but it was Martine Aubry who would go on to win the race to succeed him in 2008. Hollande was next elected to replace Jean-Pierre Dupont as the president of the General Council of Corrèze in April 2008, and won re-election in 2011.

2012 presidential campaign

Hollande announced in early 2011 that he would be a candidate in the upcoming primary election to select the Socialist and Radical Left Party presidential nominee.[30] The primary marked the first time that both parties had held an open primary to select a joint nominee at the same time. He initially trailed the front-runner, former finance minister and International Monetary Fund managing director Dominique Strauss-Kahn. Following Strauss-Kahn's arrest on suspicion of sexual assault in New York City in May 2011, Hollande began to lead the opinion polls, and his position as front-runner was established just as Strauss-Kahn declared that he would no longer seek the nomination. After a series of televised debates with other candidates throughout September, Hollande topped the ballot in the first round held on 9 October with 39% of the vote. He did not, however, gain the 50% required to avoid a run-off election, and was obliged to enter a second ballot against Martine Aubry, who had come in second with 30% of the vote.

The second ballot took place on 16 October 2011. Hollande won with 56% of the vote to Aubry's 43% and thus became the official Socialist and Radical Left Party candidate for the 2012 presidential election.[31] All his main opponents in the primary – Aubry, Ségolène Royal, Arnaud Montebourg, and Manuel Valls – pledged their support to him for the general election.[32]

Hollande 146
Hollande campaigning in Reims, 2012

Hollande's presidential campaign was managed by Pierre Moscovici and Stéphane Le Foll, a member of Parliament and Member of the European Parliament respectively.[33] Hollande launched his campaign officially with a rally and major speech at Le Bourget on 22 January 2012 in front of 25,000 people.[34][35] The main themes of his speech were equality and the regulation of finance, both of which he promised to make a key part of his campaign.[35]

On 26 January, he outlined a full list of policies in a manifesto containing 60 propositions, including the separation of retail activities from riskier investment-banking businesses; raising taxes on big corporations, banks and the wealthy; creating 60,000 teaching jobs; bringing the official retirement age back down to 60 from 62; creating subsidised jobs in areas of high unemployment for the young; promoting more industry in France by creating a public investment bank; granting marriage and adoption rights to same-sex couples; and pulling French troops out of Afghanistan in 2012.[36][37] On 9 February, he detailed his policies specifically relating to education in a major speech in Orléans.[38]

Incumbent President Nicolas Sarkozy announced on 15 February that he would run for a second and final term, strongly criticising the Socialist proposals and claiming that Hollande would bring about "economic disaster within two days of taking office".[39] Opinion polls showed a tight race between the two men in the first round of voting, with most polls showing Hollande comfortably ahead of Sarkozy in a hypothetical second round.[40] The first round of the presidential election was held on 22 April. François Hollande came in first place with 28.63% of the vote, and faced Nicolas Sarkozy in a run-off.[41] In the second round of voting on 6 May 2012, Hollande was elected with 51.6% of the vote.[42]

President of France (2012–2017)

PR-2012-05-15 IMG 1620
Hollande (right) and outgoing President Nicolas Sarkozy at Élysée Palace on inauguration day, 15 May 2012
Francois Hollande Carcassonne-1118
Hollande during a meeting in Carcassonne in May 2015

Hollande was inaugurated on 15 May 2012, and shortly afterwards appointed Jean-Marc Ayrault to be his Prime Minister. He was the first Socialist Party president since François Mitterrand left office in 1995. The President of the French Republic is one of the two joint heads of state of the Principality of Andorra. Hollande hosted a visit from Antoni Martí, head of the government, and Vicenç Mateu Zamora, leader of the parliament.[43][44]

He also appointed Benoît Puga to be the military's chief of staff, Pierre-René Lemas as his general secretary and Pierre Besnard as his Head of Cabinet.[45] Hollande's full Council of Ministers became the first ever in France to show gender parity, with 17 men and 17 women, and each member was required to sign a new "code of ethics" that placed significant restrictions on their conduct and compensation, above that of existing law.[46] The first measure enacted by the new government was to lower the salaries of the President, the Prime Minister, and other members of the government by 30%.[46]


Hollande's economic policies are wide-ranging, including supporting the creation of a European credit rating agency, the separation of lending and investment in banks, reducing the share of electricity generated by nuclear power in France from 75 to 50% in favour of renewable energy sources, merging income tax and the General Social Contribution (CSG), creating an additional 45% for additional income of 150,000 euros, capping tax loopholes at a maximum of €10,000 per year, and questioning the relief solidarity tax on wealth (ISF, Impôt de Solidarité sur la Fortune) measure that should bring €29 billion in additional revenue. Hollande also signalled his intent to implement a 75% income tax rate on revenue earned above 1,000,000 euros per year, to generate the provision of development funds for deprived suburbs, and to return to a deficit of zero percent of GDP by 2017.[47][48] The tax plan proved controversial, with courts ruling it unconstitutional in 2012, only to then take the opposite position on a redrafted version in 2013.[49][50]

Hollande had also announced several reforms to education, pledging to recruit 60,000 new teachers, to create a study allowance and means-tested training, and to set up a mutually beneficial contract that would allow a generation of experienced employees and craftsmen to be the guardians and teachers of younger newly hired employees, thereby creating a total of 150,000 subsidized jobs. This was complemented by the promise of aid to SMEs, with the creation of a public bank investment-oriented SME's, and a reduction of the corporate tax rate to 30% for medium corporations and 15% for small.

Hollande's government has announced plans to construct 500,000 public homes per year, including 150,000 social houses, funded by a doubling of the ceiling of the A passbook, the region making available its local government land within five years. In accordance with long-standing Socialist Party policy, Hollande has announced that the retirement age will revert to 60, for those who have contributed for more than 41 years.

Marriage and adoption for same-sex couples

Hollande has also announced his personal support for same-sex marriage and adoption for LGBT couples, and outlined plans to pursue the issue in early 2013.[51] In July 2012, Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault announced that "In the first half of 2013, the right to marriage and adoption will be open to all couples, without discrimination", confirming this election promise by Hollande.[52][53]

The bill to legalize same-sex marriage, known as Bill no. 344, was introduced to the National Assembly of France on 7 November 2012. On 12 February 2013, the National Assembly approved the bill in a 329–229 vote.[54] The Right-wing opposed the bill. The Senate approved the full bill with a 171–165 majority on 12 April with minor amendments. On 23 April, the National Assembly approved the amended bill, in a 331–225 vote, and following approval of the law by the Constitutional Council of France, it was signed into law by President Hollande on 18 May 2013, with the first same-sex weddings under the law taking place eleven days later.[55]

Labour reform

2016-03-09 11-35-56 manif-belfort
Demonstration against Hollande's labour reform in Belfort, 2016

As President, Hollande pursued labour reform to make France more competitive internationally. Legislation was introduced in late 2012 and after much debate passed the French lower and upper house in May 2013. The bill includes measures such as making it easier for workers to change jobs and for companies to fire employees. One of the main measures of the bill allows companies to temporarily cut workers' salaries or hours during times of economic difficulty. This measure takes its inspiration from Germany, where furloughs have been credited with allowing companies to weather difficult times without resorting to massive layoffs. Layoffs in France are often challenged in courts and the cases can take years to resolve. Many companies cite the threat of lengthy court action – even more than any financial cost – as the most difficult part of doing business in France. The law shortens the time that employees have to contest a layoff and also lays out a scheme for severance pay. The government hopes this will help employees and companies reach agreement faster in contentious layoffs.[56]

Another key measure introduced are credits for training that follow employees throughout their career, regardless of where they work, and the right to take a leave of absence to work at another company. The law will also require all companies to offer and partially pay for supplemental health insurance. Lastly, the law also reforms unemployment insurance, so that someone out of work doesn't risk foregoing significant benefits when taking a job that might pay less than previous work or end up only being temporary. Under the new law, workers will be able to essentially put benefits on hold when they take temporary work, instead of seeing their benefits recalculated each time.[56]

Pension reform

As President, Hollande pursued reform to the vast and expensive pension system in France. The process proved to be very contentious, with members of Parliament, Labor Unions, and general public all opposed. Mass protests and demonstrations occurred throughout Paris. Despite the opposition, the French Parliament did pass a reform in December 2013 aimed at plugging a pension deficit expected to reach 20.7 billion euros ($28.4 billion) by 2020 if nothing were to be done. Rather than raising the mandatory retirement age, as many economists had advised, Hollande pursued increases in contributions, leaving the retirement age untouched. The reform had a rough ride in parliament, being rejected twice by the Senate, where Hollande's Socialist Party has a slim majority, before it won sufficient backing in a final vote before the lower house of parliament. French private sector workers will see the size and duration of their pension contributions increase only modestly under the reform while their retirement benefits are largely untouched.[57]

Foreign affairs

Francois Hollande Bastille Day 2013 Paris t101747
Hollande reviewing troops during the 2013 Bastille Day military parade

As President, Hollande promised an early withdrawal of French combat troops present in Afghanistan in 2012.[1][2] He also pledged to conclude a new contract of Franco-German partnership, advocating the adoption of a Directive on the protection of public services. Hollande has proposed "an acceleration of the establishment of a Franco-German civic service, the creation of a Franco-German research office, the creation of a Franco-German industrial fund to finance common competitiveness clusters, and the establishment of a common military headquarters".[58] As well as this, Hollande has expressed a wish to "combine the positions of the presidents of the European Commission and of the European Council (currently held by José Manuel Barroso and Herman Van Rompuy respectively) into a single office [...] and that it should be directly chosen" by the members of the European Parliament.[58]

Barack Obama and François Hollande on board Air Force One February 2014
Hollande and Barack Obama on board Air Force One, 10 February 2014

On 11 January 2013, Hollande authorised the execution of Operation Serval, which aimed to curtail the activities of Islamist extremists in the north of Mali.[1] The intervention was popularly supported in Mali, as Hollande promised that his government would do all it could to "rebuild Mali".[59] During his one-day visit to Bamako, Mali's capital, on 2 February 2013, he said that it was "the most important day in [his] political life".[60] In 2014, Hollande took some of these troops out of Mali and spread them over the rest of the Sahel under Operation Barkhane, in an effort to curb jihadist militants.[61][62][63][64] On 27 February 2014, Hollande was a special guest of honor in Abuja, received by Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan in celebration of Nigeria's amalgamation in 1914, a 100-year anniversary.[65] In July 2014, Hollande expressed support for Israel's right to defend itself during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, and told Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, "France strongly condemns these aggressions [by Hamas]."[66]

Normandy format talks in Minsk (February 2015) 03 cropped.jpeg
Leaders of Belarus, Russia, Germany, France, and Ukraine at the Minsk II summit, 11–12 February 2015

In September 2015, Hollande warned former Eastern Bloc countries against rejecting the EU mandatory migrant quotas, saying: "Those who don't share our values, those who don't even want to respect those principles, need to start asking themselves questions about their place in the European Union".[67]

Hollande supported the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen,[68] re-supplying the Saudi military.[69] France authorised $18 billion (€16 billion) in arms sales to Saudi Arabia in 2015.[70] In 2014, French bank BNP Paribas agreed to pay an $8.9 billion fine, the largest ever for violating U.S. sanctions against Iran at that time.[71] In October 2016, Hollande said: "When the (European) Commission goes after Google or digital giants which do not pay the taxes they should in Europe, America takes offence. And yet, they quite shamelessly demand 8 billion from BNP or 5 billion from Deutsche Bank."[72]

Approval ratings

An IFOP poll released in April 2014 showed that Hollande's approval rating had dropped five points since the previous month of March to 18%, dipping below his earlier low of 20% in February during the same year.[73] In November 2014, his approval rating reached a new low of 12%, according to a YouGov poll.[74] Following the Charlie Hebdo shooting in January 2015, however, approval for Hollande increased dramatically, reaching 40% according to an IFOP poll two weeks after the attack,[75] though an Ipsos-Le Point survey in early February showed his rating declining back to 30%.[76]

Hollande is the most unpopular president of the French Fifth Republic. In September 2014, his approval rating was down to 13% according to an IFOP/JDD survey, making him the first French leader in modern times to ever break the 20% threshold.[77] One year before the end of his mandate, in April 2016, his approval rating was at 14%, and surveys predicted that if he were to run for a second term, he would be defeated in the first round of the 2017 presidential elections.[78] By November 2016, Hollande's approval rating was just 4%.[79]

Personal life

Socialist rally Zenith 2007 05 29 n2
Hollande with his former partner Ségolène Royal, at a rally for the 2007 elections

For over thirty years, his partner was fellow Socialist politician Ségolène Royal, with whom he has four children: Thomas (1984), Clémence (1985), Julien (1987) and Flora (1992). In June 2007, just a month after Royal's defeat in the French presidential election of 2007, the couple announced that they were separating.[80]

A few months after his split from Ségolène Royal was announced, a French website published details of a relationship between Hollande and French journalist Valérie Trierweiler. In November 2007, Trierweiler confirmed and openly discussed her relationship with Hollande in an interview with the French weekly Télé 7 Jours. She remained a reporter for the magazine Paris Match, but ceased work on political stories. Trierweiler moved into the Élysée Palace with Hollande when he became president and started to accompany him on official travel.[81]

On 25 January 2014, Hollande officially announced his separation from Valérie Trierweiler[82] after the tabloid magazine Closer revealed his affair with actress Julie Gayet.[83] In September 2014, Trierweiler published a book about her time with Hollande titled Merci pour ce moment (Thank You for This Moment). The memoir claimed the president presented himself as disliking the rich, but in reality disliked the poor. The claim brought an angry reaction and rejection from Hollande, who said he had spent his life dedicated to the under-privileged.[84]

Hollande was raised Catholic, but became an agnostic later in life.[85] He now considers himself to be an atheist,[86] but still professes respect for all religious practices.[87]

Honours and decorations

National honours

Ribbon bar Honour Date & Comment
Legion Honneur GC ribbon Grand Cross of the National Order of the Legion of Honour 15 May 2012 – automatic upon taking presidential office
National Order of Merit Grand Cross Ribbon Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit 15 May 2012 – automatic upon taking presidential office

Foreign honours

Ribbon bar Country Honour Date
POL Order Orła Białego BAR Poland Knight of the Order of the White Eagle 16 November 2012[88][89]
ITA OMRI 2001 GC-GCord BAR Italy Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic 21 November 2012[90]
Decoration without ribbon - en Morocco Grand Collar of the Order of Muhammad 3 April 2013[91]
Spange des König-Abdulaziz-Ordens Saudi Arabia Chain of the Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud 30 December 2013[92]
 Holy See Holy See Proto-canon of the Papal Basilica of St. John Lateran (2012–2017; the post is held ex officio by the French Head of State) 15 May 2012 - 14 May 2017[93]
Order of the Republic (Tunisia) - ribbon bar Tunisia Grand Cordon of the Order of the Republic of Tunisia 4 July 2013[94]
FIN Order of the White Rose Grand Cross BAR Finland Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the White Rose of Finland 9 July 2013
MLI National Order - Grand Cross BAR Mali Grand Cordon of the National Order of Mali of Mali 15 July 2013[95]
GER Bundesverdienstkreuz 9 Sond des Grosskreuzes Germany Grand Cross Special Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany 3 September 2013
SVK Rad Bieleho Dvojkriza 1 triedy BAR Slovakia Order of the White Double Cross, 1st Class 29 October 2013
AUT Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria - 1st Class BAR Austria Grand Star of the Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria 5 November 2013
MCO Order of Saint-Charles - Grand Cross BAR Monaco Grand Cross of the Order of Saint-Charles 14 November 2013[96]
NLD Order of the Dutch Lion - Grand Cross BAR Netherlands Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion 20 January 2014[97]
Order of the Bath UK ribbon United Kingdom Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath 5 June 2014[98]
National Order Quebec ribbon bar Canada Grand officier of the National Order of Quebec 3 November 2014[99]
Order of the Seraphim - Ribbon bar Sweden Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim 2 December 2014[100]
ESP Isabella Catholic Order GC Spain Knight Collar of the Order of Isabella the Catholic 23 March 2015[101]
GRE Order Redeemer 1Class Greece Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer 22 October 2015[102]
Order Dostik 1kl rib Kazakhstan Order of Friendship, 1st class 6 November 2015[103]
ARG Order of the Liberator San Martin - Grand Cross BAR Argentina Grand Cross of the Order of the Liberator General San Martín 25 February 2016[104]
Ordre de la reconnaissance centrafricaine - chevalier Central African Republic Grand Cross of the Order of Central African recognition 13 May 2016[105]
PRT Order of Liberty - Grand Cross BAR Portugal Grand Collar of the Order of Liberty 19 June 2016[106]
Star of Romania Ribbon Romania Grand Collar of the Order of the Star of Romania 13 September 2016[107]
Order of Freedom of Ukraine Ukraine Member of the Order of Liberty 1 October 2018[108]

Key to the City

Flag of Manila.svg Manila: Freedom of the City of Manila (26 February 2015).


Hollande has had a number of books and academic works published, including:

  • L'Heure des choix. Pour une économie politique (The hour of choices. For a political economy), with Pierre Moscovici, 1991. ISBN 2-7381-0146-1
  • L'Idée socialiste aujourd'hui (The Socialist Idea Today), Omnibus, 2001. ISBN 978-2-259-19584-3
  • Devoirs de vérité (Duties of truth), interviews with Edwy Plenel, éd. Stock, 2007. ISBN 978-2-234-05934-4
  • Droit d'inventaires (Rights of inventory), interviews with Pierre Favier, Le Seuil, 2009. ISBN 978-2-02-097913-9
  • Le rêve français (The French Dream), Privat, August 2011. ISBN 978-2-7089-4441-1
  • Un destin pour la France (A Destiny for France), Fayard, January 2012. ISBN 978-2-213-66283-1
  • Changer de destin (Changing destiny), Robert Laffont, February 2012. ISBN 978-2-221-13117-6


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Further reading

  • Chafer, Tony. "Hollande and Africa Policy." Modern & Contemporary France (2014) 22#4 pp: 513-531.
  • Clift, Ben, and Raymond Kuhn. "The Hollande Presidency, 2012–14." Modern & Contemporary France (2014) 22#4 pp: 425-434; Online free
  • Goodliffe, Gabriel, and Riccardo Brizzi. France after 2012 (2015).
  • Kuhn, Raymond. "Mister Unpopular: François Hollande and the Exercise of Presidential Leadership, 2012–14," Modern & Contemporary France (2014) 22#4 pp: 435-457
  • Merle, Patrick, and Dennis Patterson. "The French parliamentary and presidential elections of 2012." Electoral Studies 34 (2014): 303-309.
  • Wall, Irwin. France Votes: The Election of François Hollande (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.)
  • Weinstein, Kenneth R. "Hollande the hawk?." World Affairs 177.1 (2014): 87-96.

In French

  • Michel, Richard (2011). François Hollande: L'inattendu (in French). Paris: Archipel. ISBN 978-2-8098-0600-7.
  • Raffy, Serge (2011). François Hollande: Itinéraire Secret (in French). Paris: Fayard. ISBN 978-2-213-63520-0.

External links

National Assembly
New constituency Member of the National Assembly
for Corrèze's 1st constituency

Succeeded by
Raymond-Max Aubert
Preceded by
Lucien Renaudie
Succeeded by
Sophie Dessus
European Parliament
Proportional representation Member of the European Parliament
for France

Proportional representation
Political offices
Preceded by
Raymond-Max Aubert
Mayor of Tulle
Succeeded by
Bernard Combes
Preceded by
Jean-Pierre Dupont
President of the Corrèze General Council
Succeeded by
Gérard Bonnet
Preceded by
Nicolas Sarkozy
President of France
Succeeded by
Emmanuel Macron
Party political offices
Preceded by
Lionel Jospin
First Secretary of the Socialist Party
Succeeded by
Martine Aubry
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Nicolas Sarkozy
Honorary Canon of the Papal Basilicas of
St. John Lateran and St. Peter

Succeeded by
Emmanuel Macron
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Nicolas Sarkozy
Co-Prince of Andorra
Served alongside: Joan Enric Vives Sicília
Succeeded by
Emmanuel Macron
2011 French Socialist Party presidential primary

The 2011 French Socialist Party presidential primary was the first open primary (primaires citoyennes) of the French Socialist Party and Radical Party of the Left for selecting their candidate for the 2012 presidential election. The filing deadline for primary nomination papers was fixed at 13 July 2011 and six candidates competed in the first round of the vote. On election day, 9 October 2011, no candidate won 50 percent of the vote, and the two candidates with the most votes contested a runoff election on 16 October 2011: François Hollande won the primary, defeating Martine Aubry.

2012 François Hollande presidential campaign

27President of the General Council of Corrèze and former First Secretary of the French Socialist Party François Hollande launched his campaign in March 2011 to become the Socialist and Radical Left Party candidate for the 2012 French presidential election and announced that he would be contesting the presidential primary. Hollande made the announcement that he was running for President following his re-election as a department executive. On 16 October 2011 he won the Socialist and Radical Left Party nomination with more than 56% of the votes over First Secretary Martine Aubry, following a long campaign. On 22 April he topped the ballot in the first round of voting in the presidential election, and on 6 May he defeated the incumbent Nicolas Sarkozy in the second round run-off, becoming the new President of France.

2012 French presidential election

A presidential election was held in France on 22 April 2012 (or 21 April in some overseas departments and territories), with a second round run-off held on 6 May (or 5 May for those same territories) to elect the President of France (who is also ex officio one of the two joint heads of state of Andorra, a sovereign state). The incumbent Nicolas Sarkozy was running for a second successive and, under the terms of the constitution, final term in the election.

The first round ended with the selection of François Hollande and Nicolas Sarkozy as second round participants, as neither of them received a majority of votes cast in the first round. Hollande won the runoff with 51.64% of the vote to Sarkozy's 48.36%.The presidential election was followed by a legislative election in June.

Ayrault government

The Ayrault government was the 35th and 36th governments in the Fifth Republic of France, and headed by Jean-Marc Ayrault. The first Ayrault government was formed on 16 May 2012 by the presidential decree of President François Hollande. It was composed of members from the Socialist Party (30), the EELV (2) and the Radical Party of the Left (2). This was the first French government to respect gender equality, with equal male and female posts except the Prime Minister. It lasted one month, until the June legislative elections, after which Ayrault submitted his resignation.

Following the legislative defeat, President Hollande immediately charged him with forming a new government, under Article 8 of the French Constitution. The second Ayrault government (cabinet #36) began on 18 June 2012.

Following a landslide defeat in the French mayoral elections, the second Ayrault government was dissolved on 31 March 2014. Manuel Valls was chosen by Hollande to form the next cabinet.

Bernard Cazeneuve

Bernard Guy Georges Cazeneuve (French pronunciation: ​[bɛʁnaʁ kaznøv]; born 2 June 1963) is a French politician and lawyer who served as Prime Minister of France from 6 December 2016 to 10 May 2017. A member of the Socialist Party, he was first elected in 1997 to the National Assembly representing the 5th constituency of the Manche department; he became Mayor of Cherbourg-Octeville in 2001.

In 2012, he was appointed Minister of State for European Affairs in the Ayrault government. A year later, Cazeneuve was named Minister of State for the Budget after the resignation of Jérôme Cahuzac. In 2014, he was appointed Minister of the Interior in the First Valls government, a role he retained with the formation of the Second Valls government. In 2016, Cazeneuve was appointed Prime Minister by President François Hollande, after Manuel Valls resigned to concentrate on his candidacy for the 2017 presidential election. Following the election of Emmanuel Macron as President of the French Republic, Cazeneuve resigned from office and returned to private practice.

Brest Congress

The Brest Congress was the eighteenth national congress of the French Socialist Party (Parti socialiste or PS). It took place from November 21 to 23, 1997.

Corrèze's 1st constituency

The 1st constituency of the Corrèze is a French legislative constituency in the Corrèze department (Limousin).

Dijon Congress

The Dijon Congress was the twentieth national congress of the French Socialist Party (Parti socialiste or PS). It took place from May 16 to 18, 2003.

The objective of the Congress was to start the reconstruction of the weakened party after its shocking defeat in the 2002 French presidential election.

Ecologist Party

The Ecologist Party (founded as écologistes !) is a centre-left French political party created in September 2015 by François de Rugy, the president of the Ecologist group in the National Assembly and Jean-Vincent Placé, the president of the Ecologist group in the Senate.

This party was initially created as a reaction to the decision taken by EELV of making alliances with the Left Front. The aim of UDE founders was to create a reformist centre-left party, accepting globalization and market economy, and supporting president François Hollande. The founders of UDE declared they wanted to become a strong ally of the Socialist Party, and attract people from EELV or from the Democratic Movement.The Ecologist Party currently supports the second Philippe government (of which François de Rugy is Minister of Ecology) and its MPs seat in the parliamentary groups of La Republique en Marche!.

France–Philippines relations

France–Philippines relations refers to the foreign relations between France and the Philippines. In 1947, France and the Philippines signed a Treaty of Amity which established diplomatic relations with the two countries.France is the Philippines' fourth largest trading partner in the European Union after Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom, trade reached $2.39 billion as of October 2014. This represented an increase of 24% from the same period in 2013.In 2015, French President François Hollande made a two-day state visit to the Philippines.

Julie Gayet

Julie Gayet (French pronunciation: ​[ʒyli ɡajɛ]; born 3 June 1972) is a French film actress and film producer. She is also known for being the partner of the former President of the French Republic, François Hollande.

Le Mans Congress

The Le Mans Congress was the twenty-first national congress of the French Socialist Party (Parti socialiste or PS). It took place from November 18 to 20, 2005.

The objective of the Congress was to solve internal divisions created by the French referendum on the European Constitution and designate a new leadership at all levels.

Reims Congress

The Reims Congress was the twenty-second national congress of the French Socialist Party (Parti socialiste or PS), taking place from 14 to 16 November 2008 in the city of Reims in the Marne.

Incumbent First Secretary François Hollande announced that he would not run again, thus opening the way for a three-way battle between 2007 presidential candidate Ségolène Royal; Bertrand Delanoë, Mayor of Paris; and Martine Aubry, mayor of Lille. Each candidate endorsed motions that would be voted upon by the eligible voters as a determinant for the endorsement of each candidate.

Second Grenoble Congress

The Second Grenoble Congress was the nineteenth national congress of the French Socialist Party (Parti socialiste or PS). It took place from November 24 to 26, 2000

Socialist Party (France)

The Socialist Party (French: Parti socialiste [paʁti sɔsjalist], PS) is a social-democratic political party in France and was, for decades, the largest party of the French centre-left. The PS used to be one of the two major political parties in the French Fifth Republic, along with the Republicans. The Socialist Party replaced the earlier French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) in 1969, and is currently led by First Secretary Olivier Faure. The PS is a member of the Party of European Socialists (PES), the Socialist International (SI) and the Progressive Alliance.

The PS first won power in 1981, when its candidate François Mitterrand was elected President of France in the 1981 presidential election. Under Mitterrand, the party achieved a governing majority in the National Assembly from 1981 to 1986 and again from 1988 to 1993. PS leader Lionel Jospin lost his bid to succeed Mitterrand as president in the 1995 presidential election against Rally for the Republic leader Jacques Chirac, but became prime minister in a cohabitation government after the 1997 parliamentary elections, a position Jospin held until 2002, when he was again defeated in the presidential election.

In 2007, the party's candidate for the presidential election, Ségolène Royal, was defeated by conservative UMP candidate Nicolas Sarkozy. Then, the Socialist party won most of regional and local elections and it won control of the Senate in 2011 for the first time in more than fifty years. On 6 May 2012, François Hollande, the First Secretary of the Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, was elected President of France, and the next month, the party won the majority in the National Assembly.

During his term, Hollande battled with high unemployment, poor opinion ratings and a splinter group of left-wing Socialist MPs known as "frondeurs". On 1 December 2016, Hollande declined to seek re-election and the PS subsequently organized a presidential primary. Left-wing Benoit Hamon was designated as the Socialist candidate after defeating former PM Manuel Valls. Facing the emergence of centrist Emmanuel Macron and leftist Jean-Luc Mélenchon, he failed to re-establish the PS leadership on the center-left and finished 5th in the 2017 French presidential election, gathering only 6.36 percent of the votes. The party then lost the majority of its MPs in the 2017 legislative election, securing 26 seats and becoming the fourth-biggest group in the National Assembly.

The PS also formed several figures who acted at the international level: Jacques Delors, who was the eighth President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1994 and the first person to serve three terms in that office, was from the Socialist Party, as well as Dominique Strauss-Kahn, who was the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund from 2007 to 2011, and Pascal Lamy, who was Director-General of the World Trade Organization from 2005 to 2013.The party had 42,300 members in 2016, down from 60,000 in 2014 and 173,486 members in 2012.

Ségolène Royal

Marie-Ségolène Royal, known as Ségolène Royal (pronounced [se.ɡɔ.lɛn ʁwa.jal] (listen); born 22 September 1953), is a French politician and former Socialist Party candidate for President of France.

She was President of the Poitou-Charentes Regional Council from 2004 to 2014. She won the 2006 Socialist Party primary, becoming the first woman in France to be nominated as a presidential candidate by a major party. In the subsequent 2007 presidential election, she earned further distinction as the first woman to qualify for the second round of a presidential election, but ultimately lost to Nicolas Sarkozy.

In 2008, Royal narrowly lost to Martine Aubry in the Socialist Party's election for First Secretary at the Party's twenty-second national congress. She lost the Socialist Party presidential primary in 2011, and failed in an attempt to win a seat in the National Assembly in the June 2012 parliamentary elections.

François Hollande, the former President, is the father of her four children. She was appointed by him to the vice-Chair directorship of the Banque Publique d'Investissement (BPI) in 2013. She served as Minister for Ecology from 2014 to 2017, in the Valls, then Cazeneuve cabinets.

Valérie Trierweiler

Valérie Trierweiler (French pronunciation: ​[valeʁi tʁiɛʁvɛlɛːʁ]; née Massonneau; born 16 February 1965) is a French journalist and author. She has hosted political talk shows and has contributed to Paris Match. She is best known for having been the partner of the President of the French Republic, François Hollande, until January 2014.

François Hollande
Socialist Party Leader
Presidential campaign
See also


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