François-Nicolas Martinet

François-Nicolas Martinet (1731 - 1800) was a French engineer, engraver and naturalist.

Martinet engraved the plates for numerous works on natural history, especially ornithology. Notable in particular are those for l'Ornithologia, sive Synopsis methodica of Mathurin Jacques Brisson (1760-63).

References

  • L'Histoire des oiseaux, peints dans leurs aspects apparents et sensibles, éd. originale conservée en un unique exemplaire au Trinity College d'Hartford. Nouvelle édition par le Bibliothèque des introuvables, avec les 208 gravures, 450 pages avec le texte originale et des commentaires d'Antoine Reille, ancien producteur de l'émission Les Animaux du Monde.

External links

1800 in France

Events from the year 1800 in France.

1800 in art

The year 1800 in art is often estimated to be the beginning of the change from the Neoclassicism movement, that was based on Roman art, to the Romantic movement, which encouraged emotional art and ended around 1850.

1800 in birding and ornithology

Georg Adolf Suckow, 1800-1801. Anfangsgründe der theoretischen und angewandten Naturgeschichte der Thiere. Von den Vögeln. Zweiten Theiles erste Abtheilung. Landvögel. Raubvögel und Spechtartige Vögel. Zweiten Theiles zweite Abtheilung. Landvögel Singvögel und hühnerartige Vögel

François Marie Daudin Traité Élémentaire et Complet d'Ornithologie ou Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux. (F.M. Daudin, ed.). Chez l'auteur, Paris, France

Johann Conrad Susemihl began a 22 part work on the birds of Germany, "Teutsche Ornithologie oder Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Teutschlands in naturgetreuen Abbildungen und Beschreibungen" completed in 1817.

Jacques Labillardière published the very popular Relation du Voyage à la Recherche de la Pérouse.

Death of Johann Hermann

Death of Jean-Baptiste Audebert

Death of François-Nicolas Martinet

Jean Baptiste Leschenault de la Tour sailed from France as a naturalist on Nicolas Baudin's expedition to Australia. In April 1803 he fell ill and had to be put ashore at Timor. He spent the next three years on Java returning to France in July 1807 with a large collection of plants and birds. Many of the new bird species found on the Baudin Expedition were described by Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot in Nouveau dictionnaire d'histoire naturelle (1816–1819).The specimens are in Muséum national d'histoire naturelle in Paris.

Diederik cuckoo

The diederik cuckoo (Chrysococcyx caprius), formerly dideric cuckoo or didric cuckoo is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes, which also includes the roadrunners and the anis.

Edme-Louis Daubenton

Edme-Louis Daubenton (12 August 1730 – 12 December 1785) was a French naturalist.

Daubenton was the cousin of another French naturalist, Louis Jean-Marie Daubenton. Georges-Louis Leclerc, the Comte de Buffon engaged Edme-Louis Daubenton to supervise the coloured illustrations for the monumental Histoire Naturelle (1749–89). The Planches enluminée started to appear in 1765 and finally counted 1,008 plates, all engraved by François-Nicolas Martinet (1731–1800), and all painted by hand. The Parisian publisher Panckoucke published a version without text between 1765 and 1783. More than 80 artists took part in the realization of the original paintings. 973 plates relate to birds; others illustrate especially butterflies but also other insects, corals, etc. The illustrations were not very successful, but they allow a rather good determination of the species illustrated, some of them now extinct. As Buffon did not follow the system of biological nomenclature developed by Carl von Linné in 1783, Pieter Boddaert (1730–1796) published a table of the correspondence of the names used with their Linnean binomial names.

Edme-Louis Daubenton's tombstone is in the church of Saint-Pierre in Avon, Seine-et-Marne.

Great grebe

The great grebe (Podiceps major) is the largest species of grebe in the world. A disjunct population exists in northwestern Peru, while the main distribution is from extreme southeastern Brazil to Patagonia and central Chile. The population from southern Chile is considered a separate subspecies, P. m. navasi.

Guianan warbling antbird

The Guianan warbling antbird (Hypocnemis cantator) is a insectivorous bird in the antbird family, Thamnophilidae. It is found at lower levels in humid forest in the Guianas, far eastern Venezuela (with Guyana), and north-eastern Brazil (north of the Amazon River and east of the lower Negro River and the Branco River).

Histoire Naturelle

The Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roi (French for Natural History, General and Particular, with a Description of the King's Cabinet) is an encyclopaedic collection of 36 large (quarto) volumes written between 1749–1804 by the Comte de Buffon, and continued in eight more volumes after his death by his colleagues, led by Bernard Germain de Lacépède. The books cover what was known of the "natural sciences" at the time, including what would now be called material science, physics, chemistry and technology as well as the natural history of animals.

Jacques de Sève

Jacques de Sève (fl. 1742 - 1788) was a French illustrator.

Jonathan Dwight

Jonathan Dwight V (1858–1929) was an American ornithologist.

Mascarene parrot

The Mascarene parrot or mascarin (Mascarinus mascarin) is an extinct species of parrot that was endemic to the Mascarene island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean. The taxonomic relationships of this species have been subject to debate; it has historically been grouped with either the Psittaculini parrots or the vasa parrots, with the latest genetic study favouring the former group.

The Mascarene parrot was 35 cm (14 in) in length with a large red bill and long, rounded tail feathers. Its legs were red, and it had naked red skin around the eyes and nostrils. It had a black facial mask and partially white tail feathers, but the colouration of the body, wings and head in the living bird is unclear. Descriptions from life indicate the body and head were ash grey, and the white part of the tail had two dark central feathers. In contrast, stuffed specimens and old descriptions based on them indicate that the body was brown and the head bluish. This may be due to the specimens having changed colour as a result of ageing and exposure to light. Very little is known about the bird in life.

The Mascarene parrot was first mentioned in 1674, and live specimens were later brought to Europe, where they lived in captivity. The species was scientifically described in 1771. Only two stuffed specimens exist today, in Paris and Vienna. The date and cause of extinction for the Mascarene parrot is unclear. The latest account, from 1834, is considered dubious, so it is probable that the species became extinct prior to 1800, and may have become extinct even earlier.

Mathurin Jacques Brisson

Mathurin Jacques Brisson (30 April 1723 – 23 June 1806) was a French zoologist and natural philosopher.

Brisson was born at Fontenay-le-Comte. The earlier part of his life was spent in the pursuit of natural history, his published works in this field included Le Règne animal (1756) and the highly regarded Ornithologie (1760).As a young man, he was a disciple and assistant of René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur. For a period of time he was an instructor of physical sciences and natural history to the family of the monarch. He held the chair of physics at the College of Navarre, and from 1759 was a member of the Academy of Sciences.

A significant work involving the "specific weight of bodies" was his Pesanteur Spécifique des Corps (1787). In his investigations of electricity, Brisson was opposed to the theories of Priestley and Franklin.He died at Croissy-sur-Seine near Paris.

Rufous-throated antbird

The rufous-throated antbird (Gymnopithys rufigula) is a species of bird in the family Thamnophilidae.

It is found in Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, and Venezuela.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

The French polymath Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon described the rufous-throated antbird in his Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux in 1775. The bird was also illustrated in a hand-coloured plate engraved by François-Nicolas Martinet in the Planches Enluminées D'Histoire Naturelle which was produced under the supervision of Edme-Louis Daubenton to accompany Buffon's text. Buffon did not include a scientific name with his description but in 1783 the Dutch naturalist Pieter Boddaert coined the binomial name Turdus rufigula in his catalogue of the Planches Enluminées. The specific name combines the Latin words rufus "red" and gula "throat". The present genus Gymnopithys was introduced by the French ornithologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1857 with the rufous-throated antbird as the type species.There are three subspecies:

G. r. pallidus (Cherrie, 1909) – south Venezuela

G. r. pallidigula Phelps & Phelps Jr, 1947 – tepuis of extreme southwest Venezuela

G. r. rufigula (Boddaert, 1783) – east Venezuela, the Guianas and northeast Brazil

Rufous nightjar

The rufous nightjar (Antrostomus rufus) is a species of nightjar in the family Caprimulgidae.

It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Lucia, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forest, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, and heavily degraded former forest.

Spotted rail

The spotted rail (Pardirallus maculatus) is a species of bird in the family Rallidae.

It is found in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica]], Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, and possibly Honduras.

The spotted rail is found in marshland and swamps.

White-bellied seedsnipe

The white-bellied seedsnipe (Attagis malouinus) is a species of bird in the Thinocoridae family. It is found in southwestern Argentina and Tierra del Fuego. It is a vagrant to the Falkland Islands. Its natural habitats are temperate grassland and swamps.

Wing-banded antbird

The wing-banded antbird (Myrmornis torquata) is a species of passerine bird in the antbird family, Thamnophilidae. It is placed in the monotypic genus Myrmornis.

It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.The French polymath Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon described the wing-banded antbird in his Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux in 1779. The bird was also illustrated in a hand-coloured plate engraved by François-Nicolas Martinet in the Planches Enluminées D'Histoire Naturelle which was produced under the supervision of Edme-Louis Daubenton to accompany Buffon's text. Buffon did not include a scientific name with his description but in 1783 the Dutch naturalist Pieter Boddaert coined the binomial name Formicarius torquatus in his catalogue of the Planches Enluminées. The specific name torquata or torquatus is the Latin for "collared". The current genus Myrmornis was introduced by the French naturalist Johann Hermann in 1783.There are two subspecies:

M. t. stictoptera (Salvin, 1893) – east Nicaragua to northwest Colombia

M. t. torquata (Boddaert, 1783) – AmazoniaThe online edition of the Handbook of the Birds of the World treats the two subspecies as separate species: the northern wing-banded antbird (Myrmornis stictoptera) and the southern wing-banded antbird (Myrmornis torquata).

Yellow-breasted crake

The yellow-breasted crake (Porzana flaviventer) is a species of bird in the family Rallidae. It was formerly sometimes placed in the obsolete genus Poliolimnas or united with the Ocellated crake in Micropygia, and is now occasionally separated in a monotypic genus Hapalocrex. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA revealed that it is not a part of Porzana proper, and instead belongs within the Coturnicops–Laterallus clade. While its precise relationships are still insufficiently resolved, it is not closely related to Micropygia, and Stervander et al. (2019) suggested that it should be referred to as Laterallus flaviventer pending further data.It is found in most of Central and South America. Its natural habitat is swamps and marshes. This small rail has yellow legs, buff underparts, black barring on the flanks and a dark-streaked back, and a black crown.

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