The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 to FP7 with "FP8" being named "Horizon 2020", are funding programmes created by the European Union/European Commission to support and foster research in the European Research Area (ERA). The specific objectives and actions vary between funding periods. In FP6 and FP7 focus was still in technological research, in Horizon 2020 the focus is in innovation, delivering economic growth faster and delivering solutions to end users that are often governmental agencies.
Conducting European research policies and implementing European research programmes is an obligation under the Amsterdam Treaty, which includes a chapter on research and technological development. The programmes are defined by Commission civil servants that are aided by various official advisory group and lobby groups. E.g. to advise the European Commission on the overall strategy to be followed in carrying out the Information and Communication Technology thematic priority, the Information Society Technologies Advisory Group (ISTAG) was set up.
The framework programmes up until Framework Programme 6 (FP6) covered five-year periods, but from Framework Programme 7 (FP7) on, programmes run for seven years. The Framework Programmes, and their budgets in billions of Euros, are presented in the table below. For FP1–FP5, program expenditures were made in European Currency Units; from FP6 onward budgets were in Euros. The values presented below are in Euros.
|ID||Framework Programme||period||Budget (billions of €)|
|FP7||Seventh||2007–2013||50.5 over seven years|
+ 2.7 for Euratom over five years
|FP8||Horizon 2020 (Eighth)||2014–2020||77|
Framework Programme 6 and 7 (2002–2013) projects were generally funded through instruments, the most important of which included:
Horizon 2020 is the eighth framework programme funding research, technological development, and innovation. The programme's name has been modified to "Framework Programme for Research and Innovation". The framework programme is implemented by the European Commission, the executive body of the European Union, either by various internal directorate general (DGs), such as the directorate general for research and innovation (DG RTD) or the directorate general for communications networks, content and Technology, or by executive agencies such as the Research Executive Agency (REA), the Executive Agency for SMEs (EASME), or the ERC Executive Agency (ERCEA). The framework programme's objective is to complete the European Research Area (ERA) by coordinating national research policies and pooling research funding in some areas to avoid duplication. Horizon 2020 itself is seen as a policy instrument to implement other high-level policy initiatives of the European Union, such as Europe 2020 and Innovation Union. The programme runs from 2014–20 and provides an estimated €80 billion of funding, an increase of 23 per cent on the previous phase.
Horizon 2020 provides grants to research and innovation projects through open and competitive calls for proposals. Legal entities from any country are eligible to submit project proposals to these calls. Participation from outside the European Union is explicitly encouraged. Participants from European Union member states and countries associated to Horizon 2020 are automatically funded. Associated countries have signed an association agreement for the purposes of this framework programme. To date, 14 countries are associated to Horizon 2020. Switzerland is considered as "partly associated" due to the 2014 referendums held by Switzerland, which free movement of workers between Switzerland and the EU. Swiss organisations continue to be active participants in Horizon 2020, however, their participation is sometimes covered by national funding. Israel is an "associated country" to Horizon 2020. A central point of negotiation was funding to projects beyond the Green Line. Israel published its views in an Appendix to the official documents. Horizon 2020 supports Open access to research results, in order to create greater efficiency, improve transparency and accelerate innovation.
Horizon 2020 is also implementing the European environmental research and innovation policy, which is aimed at defining and turning into reality a transformative agenda for greening the economy and the society as a whole so as to achieve a truly sustainable development.
The programme consists of three main research areas that are called "pillars": The first pillar, "Excellent Science", focuses on basic science. It has a budget of 24 billion euro. The second pillar is "Industrial Leadership", with a budget of 14 billion euro. It is managed by DG Enterprise and based on Europe 2020 and Innovation Union strategies. The third pillar funds potential solutions to social and economic problems, "Societal challenges" (SC).
The structure follows the previous framework programme (FP7, 2007–13) to the level of the sub-programmes under the pillars. In the industrial pillar the goal is to find ways to modernize European industries that have suffered from a fragmented European market. In societal challenges the goal is implementation of solutions, less on technology development.
Horizon 2020 will be succeeded by Horizon Europe.
IMPETUS (Information Management Portal to Enable the inTegration of Unmanned Systems) is addressing the scientific analysis of information management requirements for a safe and efficient integration of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in very low level airspace. As a result, technologically and commercially feasible service solutions are elaborated and deployed in an experimental testing environment.
The expected growth of future UAS movements in rural as well as urban areas indicates the need for traffic management solutions, ensuring a normal course of trouble free operations of manned as well as unmanned aviation. IMPETUS contributes by investigating potential microservices that serve the airspace user’s needs in all phases of the operation life cycle, from strategical planning over pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight data provision. Since information management is an infrastructural prerequisite of future unmanned traffic systems, the results support the European goal to gain in prosperity by means of the job and business opportunities of an emerging drone service market.
Ensuring a scalable, flexible and cost efficient system, IMPETUS proposes the application of the Function as a Service paradigm and Smart Concepts. Concurrently, data quality and integrity is taken into account to guarantee a safe conduct of all operations. To fulfil these purposes, the project started to characterize data processes and services of vital importance for drone operations. Following the requirements derived from this preliminary studies, a Smart UTM Design is drafted in alignment with the U-Space concept, which describes a framework for a progressive implementation of services to “enable complex drone operations with a high degree of automation to take place in all types of operational environments, including urban areas.” Subsequently, specific microservices will be prototyped and laboratory scale tested in a server-less cloud-based environment.
On behalf of the SESAR Joint Undertaking, IMPETUS is carried out from 2017 – 2019 by a multinational consortium of key stakeholders in unmanned aviation:
Altitude Angel (UK), Boeing Research and Technology Europe (ES), C-Astral (SI), CRIDA (ES), INECO (ES), Jeppesen (DE) and the Technical University of Darmstadt (DE).
A network of Open Access repositories, archives and journals that support Open Access policies. The OpenAIRE Consortium is a Horizon 2020 (FP8) project, aimed to support the implementation of the EC and ERC Open Access policies.
Its successor OpenAIREplus is aimed at linking the aggregated research publications to the accompanying research and project information, datasets and author information.
Open access to scientific peer reviewed publications has evolved from a pilot project with limited scope in FP7 to an underlying principle in the Horizon 2020 funding scheme, obligatory for all H2020 funded projects. The goal is to make as much European funded research output as possible available to all, via the OpenAIRE portal.— openaire.eu FAQ
The programmes have been criticized on various grounds, such as actually diminishing Europe's industrial competitiveness and failing to deliver fundamental excellence and global economic competitiveness. In 2010, the Austrian Research Promotion Agency launched a petition calling for a simplification of administrative procedures, which attracted over 13,000 signatories. The numerous other criticisms of the petitioners were later distilled into a green paper. In Horizon 2020 there are significant simplifications: e.g. fewer funding rates (increasing the funding rates of the large companies), less reporting, less auditing, shorter time from proposal to project kick-off.
Joint Technology Initiatives (JTI) [...] are initiatives emerging from European technology platforms and are financed partly by FP7 funds and by industry.
The Distributed European Infrastructure for Supercomputing Applications (DEISA) was a European Union supercomputer project. A consortium of eleven national supercomputing centres from seven European countries promoted pan-European research on European high-performance computing systems. By extending the European collaborative environment in the area of supercomputing, DEISA followed suggestions of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures.Emin Fuat Keyman
Emin Fuat Keyman (born 1958) is a Turkish academic and political scientist.
Fuat Keyman is Director of Istanbul Policy Center and Professor of International Relations at Sabancı University. Keyman is a leading Turkish political scientist and an expert on civil society development, democratization, globalization, international relations, and Turkey – EU relations. He is member of "Think Tank 20″ and the author of four short articles submitted as a part of the project.
Prior to joining Sabancı University, Keyman taught at the Department of International Relations of Koç University from 2002 to 2010 and at the Department of Political Science and Public Administration at Bilkent University between 1994 and 2002. He was also Visiting Professor at Carleton University in the summer of 1997.
Keyman has received numerous prestigious grants from the Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development and the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey. He has been the research director of various projects, such as Peter Berger and Samuel Huntington's Many Civilizations, Civicus, and Mapping Civil Society in Turkey. He holds several post-doctoral Fellowships from Wellesley College and Harvard University.
Keyman has conducted extensive research and written copiously on the political and social trends in Turkey, urban transformation in Anatolian cities, the symbiotic relationship between globalization and local development, the impact of this relation on Turkey's bid for joining the European Union as well as the culture of living together in Turkey.
He is the author and editor of twenty books, including Hegemony through Transformation; Modernity, Democracy and Foreign Policy in Turkey (2013), Türkiye’nin Yeniden İnşası (Remaking Turkey, 2013), Symbiotic Antagonisms: Competing Nationalisms in Turkey (with Ayşe Kadıoğlu, 2011), Cities: The Transformation of Anatolia, the Future of Turkey (2010), Competing Nationalism in Turkey (2010), Turkey in a Globalizing World (2010), Remaking Turkey, Globalization, Alternative Modernities and Democracy (2008), Turkish Politics in a Changing World (with Ziya Öniş, 2007), Citizenship in a Global World: European Questions and Turkish Experiences (2005), Changing World, Transforming Turkey (2005).
Keyman has also authored numerous articles published in prestigious, peer-reviewed international journals such as, Journal of Democracy, European Journal of Social Theory, Theory, Culture & Society, and Review of International Political Economy. His recent working papers and policy briefs were published in the "Global Turkey in Europe" series. He has been a member of respected international academic boards, such as the International Studies Association and has served on the editorial boards of the journals published by these organizations.
He received his PhD in Political Science, with a concentration in International Relations and Comparative Politics from Carleton University. He completed his Bachelor's and master's degrees at the Middle East Technical University in Ankara, Turkey.Estonian Space Office
The Estonian Space Office (ESO; Estonian: Eesti Kosmosebüroo) is the unit established within Enterprise Estonia by the Government of Estonia to facilitate membership in the European Space Agency and related commercial and research ties. In addition ESO serves as a contact point with the IAF, EURISY and EUMETSAT in procurement-related matters.ESO is not a space agency. State space policy as it exists is managed through the Space Affairs Council at the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications. ESO functions as a centre for technology and business competence alongside Tartu Observatory which has responsibility for space science, space exploration and remote sensing. Various activities within the Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development of the European Union for education, science and innovation, including funding for space programs, are coordinated by the Archimedes Foundation.Since 2010, the Riigikogu has had a 'Space Studies Support Group' (Kosmose valdkonna toetusrühm) currently chaired by Anne Sulling.Eurescom
Eurescom is a private organisation for managing European research and development projects in telecommunications. Eurescom is based in Heidelberg, Germany, and currently has 16 network operators as members performing collaborative research and development.European Platform of Women Scientists
The European Platform of Women Scientists EPWS is an umbrella organisation bringing together networks of women scientists and organisations committed to gender equality in research in all disciplines in Europe 27 and the countries associated to the European Union’s Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development. The Platform welcomes researchers working in any discipline and working in science in its widest sense, ranging from natural to social sciences, including, but not restricted to, science, engineering and technology. EPWS currently counts more than 100 member organisations, together working for more than 12.000 women researchers all over Europe active in academia and in industrial research.Future Internet Research and Experimentation
Future Internet Research and Experimentation (FIRE) is a program funded by the European Union to do research on the Internet, its prospects, and its future, a field known as "future Internet".Future Internet testbeds experimentation between BRazil and Europe
Future Internet testbeds / experimentation between BRazil and Europe (FIBRE) is a research project co-funded by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (Council for Scientific and Technological Development or CNPq) of Brazil and the European Commission under the seventh of the Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development (FP7).Gasera
Gasera Ltd. is a Finnish high-tech company focused on the analysis of gases, liquids and solid materials. The main focus of Gasera is measuring harmful air pollutants in order to protect humans and the environment. Other applications include e.g. greenhouse gas monitoring, automotive and ship emissions monitoring, dissolved gas analysis in transformer oil, CWA and TIC detection, material identification and food production and safety.Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities
The Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities (also called The Guild) is a university network founded in 2016. It currently comprises 19 pluridisciplinary universities which focus on a high research activity.
One of the objectives of the Guild is to promote common positions on higher education and research, especially towards prestigious institutions. For example, in early 2018, the Guild produced a few reference and positioning documents on the FP9, the next Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development.Horizon (online magazine)
Horizon is an online-only, open-access magazine covering research and innovation, published in Brussels since 2013 by the European Commission. It covers a wide range of topics, including agriculture, energy, environment, frontier research, health, ICT, industry, policy, science in society, security, social sciences, space and transport.
Horizon publishes three to five articles per week and in English only and normally covers research projects which were funded by the European Union (EU) through its Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, such as FP7 and Horizon 2020, and through the European Research Council. Occasionally, Horizon also publishes policy announcements from the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Research and Innovation.
Articles from Horizon Magazine can be republished under a license which requires simple attribution. Horizon articles have been shared or re-published, among others, by the European Space Agency, by the University of Oxford, by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, by the University of Trento and by the Welfare State Futures Coordination Office at Humboldt University of Berlin and by the BBC's The Naked Scientists podcast.Horizon is produced, on the European Commission’s behalf, by ICF Mostra, a Brussels-based communications division of ICF International.PCRD
PCRD may refer to:
Pacific Century Regional Developments Limited, a Singapore-based company
"Programme cadre de recherche et de développement", the French-language expression for the European Union Framework Programmes for Research and Technological DevelopmentSHARE Israel
SHARE-Israel is the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a multidisciplinary and cross-national panel database of micro data on health, socio-economic status as well as social and family networks of individuals aged 50 or over.Simple Sensor Interface protocol
The Simple Sensor Interface (SSI) protocol is a simple communications protocol designed for data transfer between computers or user terminals and smart sensors. The SSI protocol is an Application layer protocol as in the OSI model.
The SSI protocol has been developed jointly by Nokia, Vaisala, Suunto, Ionific, Mermit and University of Oulu. Currently SSI is being developed within the Mimosa Project, part of the European Union Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development.
The SSI protocol is used in point-to-point communications over UART and networking nanoIP applications. SSI also provides polling sensors and streaming sensor data. For RFID sensor tags SSI specifies memory map for sensor data.
The criteria for SSI protocol development are:
simple – minimal overhead
small footprint on the server (sensor) sideSample implementation of the SSI protocol for MSP430 microcontrollers will be published as open source during August 2006 by Nokia.TSSG
The Telecommunications Software & Systems Group (TSSG) is a large Irish information and communications technologies (ICT) research institute in Waterford Institute of Technology. It is based in the WIT West Campus, having brought in the funding for the two research buildings located there: ArcLabs Research and Innovation Centre (opened 2005), combining the TSSG with incubation and innovation space, formally opened by the Taoiseach in October 2006 (note that this combined Enterprise Ireland and Higher Education Authority funding), and NetLabs (opened 2011, used Higher Education Authority funding), formally opened by Minister of Education in March 2014.
The TSSG was established in 1996 by Willie Donnelly and Eamonn de Leastar. They were joined later by Mícheál Ó Foghlú and Barry Downes to form the executive team. Thus Willie, Eamonn, Mícheál and Barry are co-founders of the TSSG. Initially the group was focused on applied research funded by a series of EU Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development projects. The first project was DIFFERENCE. The TSSG has retained this emphasis on EU funding, engaging in large number of projects in FP5, FP6 and FP7, the most recent large EU project led by the TSSG is SOCIETIES. The group built on this foundation to address basic research, funded by Higher Education Authority PRTLI programme projects M-Zones and FutureComm (Serving Society), and by a series of Science Foundation Ireland projects including FAME. In parallel the TSSG strengthened its focus on industry, particularly through commercialisation activity funded by Enterprise Ireland (e.g. IMS-ARCS). As well as licensing technology to existing companies the TSSG has been actively engaged in the creation or attraction of over 17 start-up companies (spin-in and spin-outs) from 2000-2017, such as FeedHenry and Zolk C creating over 100 additional jobs directly in the region.The TSSG has grown in size since it was established employed over 100 staff and students from 2004 onwards, funded by an active portfolio of between 30 and 40 research projects at any one time. In its history it has brought in €65 million of funding from over 160 individual projects.The TSSG is actively engaged in standards groups in general, and has been a member of the W3C and the Telemanagement Forum, and is helping to steer the Future Internet agenda in Europe as a partner and member of a number of European Technology Platforms (Net!Works, NEM, NESSI) and strategic groups of Industry collaborators including the Future Internet Assembly (FIA) and ETSI.The TSSG ethos continues to be an attempt to straddle all of these types of activity, each with its own priorities, to ensure the continued relevance of its research and development activities. This Innovation Model was formally documented in a submission to the Irish Innovation Task Force in 2009, but draws on its much longer history of innovation.In 2010 Mícheál Ó Foghlú took a leave of absence from the TSSG to join the TSSG spinout FeedHenry Ltd.and in 2014 published his personal perspective on the history of the TSSG. In total TSSG has created 15 start-ups since its inception and 12 since 2006. The TSSG also provides a wide range of innovation services to start-ups and multinationals, particularly those based in Ireland, and as of 2014 completes around 40 or more direct industry innovation projects a year.In 2011 the TSSG restructured into a series of Research Units (RUs) that each have active basic, applied and commercial activity. More narrowly focused units are called groups rather than units, usually driven by a single funding source rather than the full mix.
3MT (Mobile, Messaging & Middleware) – Full lifecycle of integrated services, Inter-discipline service management research, cognitive mechanisms, federation, virtual infrastructure & cloud computing
Data Mining and Social Computing
Design and Usability
ENL (Emerging Networks Laboratory)These units collaborate on larger projects, and bring in funding to strategically grow each of these research areas.
In 2012, the TSSG restructured its management team and the TSSG is now led by Prof. Willie Donnelly as Director and Barry Downes as CEO and supported by a Senior Management Team.In March 2014, Ruairi Quinn, Minister for Education, officially opened NetLabs, as part of the Research & Innovation cluster of WIT's West Campus.Ultra high temperature ceramic matrix composite
Ultra-high temperature ceramic matrix composites (UHTCMC) or Ultra-high Temperature Ceramic Composites (UHTCC) are a class of refractory ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), the motivation to develop UHTCMCs is to overcome the limits associated with the bulk UHTCs like ZrB2, HfB2, or their composites due to a catastrofic fracture easily under mechanical or thermo-mechanical loads because of cracks initiated by small defects or scratches. The European Commission funded a research project, C3HARME, under the NMP-19-2015 call of Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development in 2016 (still ongoing) for the design, development, production and testing of a new class of ultra-refractory ceramic matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide fibers and Carbon fibers suitable for applications in severe aerospace environments as possible near-zero ablation thermal protection system (TPS) materials (e.g heat shield) and for propulsion (e.g. rocket nozzle). The demand for reusable advanced materials with temperature capability over 2000°C has growing. Recently carbon fiber reinforced zirconium boride-based composites obtained by slurry infiltration (SI) and sintering has been investigated.Yamir Moreno
Yamir Moreno (1970; Havana) is a Cuban Associate Research Professor of Physics at the Institute for Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems, University of Zaragoza.