Foxtrot-class submarine

The Foxtrot class was the NATO reporting name of a class of diesel-electric patrol submarines that were built in the Soviet Union. The Soviet designation of this class was Project 641.

Foxtrot class SS
Silhouette of a Foxtrot Submarine

The Foxtrot class was designed to replace the earlier Zulu class, which suffered from structural weaknesses and harmonic vibration problems that limited its operational depth and submerged speed. The first Foxtrot keel was laid down in 1957 and commissioned in 1958 and the last was completed in 1983. A total of 58 were built for the Soviet Navy at the Sudomekh division of the Admiralty Shipyard (now Admiralty Wharves), St. Petersburg.[1] Additional hulls were built for other countries.

The Foxtrot class was comparable in performance and armament to most contemporary designs. However, its three screws made it noisier than most Western designs. Moreover, the Foxtrot class was one of the last designs introduced before the adoption of the teardrop hull, which offered much better underwater performance. Also, although the Foxtrot was larger than a Zulu class submarine, the Foxtrot class had 2 of its 3 decks dedicated to batteries. This gave it an underwater endurance of 10 days, but the weight of the batteries made the Foxtrot's average speed a slow 2 knots at its maximum submerged time capability. Due to the batteries taking up 2 decks, onboard conditions were crowded with space being relatively small even when compared to older submarines such as the much older American Balao-class submarine. The Foxtrot class was completely obsolete by the time the last submarine was launched. The Russian Navy retired its last Foxtrots between 1995 and 2000,[2] units were scrapped and disposed of for museum purposes.[3] During the division of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet, in 1997 one Foxtrot class submarine (later renamed as Zaporizhzhia) was passed to Ukraine as it was not operational since 1991. The ship never effectively served in the Ukrainian Navy and was under repair. In 2005 Ukrainian Ministry of Defence wanted to sell it, but was unsuccessful. Following successful post-repair trials in June 2013, it was recognised as operational.[4] However on March 22, 2014 it was surrendered to or captured by Russia as part of the Russian annexation of Crimea.[5] Russia decided not to accept it due to its age and operational unsuitability. Its subsequent status was unknown.

Foxtrot class
Cuban Foxtrot submarine
A Cuban Foxtrot underway
Class overview
Builders: Sudomekh, Leningrad
Operators:
Preceded by: Zulu-class submarine
Succeeded by: Tango-class submarine
Built: 1957–1983
In service: 1958–2014
In commission: 1958–2014
Completed: 74
Lost: 1
Preserved: 7
General characteristics
Type: Submarine
Displacement:
  • 1,952 long tons (1,983 t) surfaced
  • 2,475 long tons (2,515 t) submerged
Length: 89.9 m (294 ft 11 in)
Beam: 7.4 m (24 ft 3 in)
Draft: 5.9 m (19 ft 4 in)
Propulsion:
  • 3 × Kolomna 2D42M 2,000 hp (1,500 kW) diesel engines
  • 3 × Electric motors, two 1,350 hp (1,010 kW) and one 2,700 hp (2,000 kW)
  • 1 × 180 hp (130 kW) auxiliary motor
  • 3 shafts, each with 6-bladed propellers
Speed:
  • 16 knots (30 km/h) surfaced
  • 15 knots (28 km/h) submerged
  • 9 knots (17 km/h) snorkeling
Range:
  • 20,000 nmi (37,000 km) at 8 kn (15 km/h) surfaced
  • 11,000 nmi (20,000 km) snorkeling
  • 380 nmi (700 km) at 2 kn (3.7 km/h) submerged
Endurance: 3-5 days submerged
Test depth: 246–296 m (807–971 ft)
Complement: 12 officers, 10 warrants, 56 seamen
Armament:

Cuban Missile Crisis

Foxtrots played a central role in some of the most dramatic incidents of the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Soviet Navy deployed four Foxtrot submarines to Cuba. US Navy destroyers dropped practice depth charges near Foxtrot subs near Cuba in efforts to force them to surface and be identified. Three of the four Foxtrot submarines were forced to surface, one eluded US forces.[1]

Units

Following is a list of the 58 submarines built during the Soviet Project 641.

FoxTrot 480 0026
Inside a Foxtrot museum ship
FoxTrot 480 0023
Torpedo room of a Foxtrot museum ship
FoxTrot 480 0022
Opened torpedo tube in a Foxtrot
FoxTrot 480 0044
Control room of a Foxtrot museum ship
Project 641 (NATO: Foxtrot Class)
Number Shipyard Project Laid down Launched Decommissioned Status
B-94 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 03.10.1957 28.12.1957 01.10.1984 Decommissioned for scrapping[1]
B-95 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 02.02.1958 25.04.1958 22.02.1980 Decommissioned for scrapping[1]
B-36 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 29.04.1958 31.08.1958 24.08.1993 Decommissioned for scrapping[1]
B-37 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 18.07.1958 05.11.1958 11.01.1962 Sank after fire and multiple explosions
B-133 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 27.09.1958 26.01.1959 01.10.1983 Renamed B-833
B-135 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 20.12.1958 30.03.1959 01.07.1977 -
B-139 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 25.02.1959 30.05.1959 01.10.1976 Renamed B-839
B-116 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 09.06.1959 10.10.1959 28.09.1994 -
B-130 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 22.08.1959 17.12.1959 01.10.1988 -
B-85 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 23.12.1959 19.03.1960 19.04.1990 -
B-59 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 21.02.1960 06.06.1960 19.04.1990 -
B-156 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 20.04.1960 02.08.1960 19.04.1991 -
B-153 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 06.08.1960 31.01.1961 24.06.1991 Renamed B-854
B-164 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 26.10.1960 02.08.1960 03.07.1992 -
B-33 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 03.02.1961 27.04.1961 24.06.1991 -
B-105 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 01.07.1961 01.10.1961 24.08.1993 -
B-169 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 17.08.1961 29.11.1961 19.04.1990 -
B-38 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 30.10.1961 31.01.1962 25.04.1989 -
B-53 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 08.01.1962 12.04.1962 19.04.1990 renamed B-853
B-50 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 07.03.1962 15.06.1962 03.07.1992 -
B-8 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 09.05.1962 21.07.1962 19.04.1990 -
B-31 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 18.08.1962 03.11.1962 24.06.1991 -
B-2 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 27.10.1962 25.01.1963 24.06.1991 -
B-55 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 22.01.1963 05.04.1963 03.07.1992 renamed B-855
B-98 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 04.04.1963 15.06.1963 2001 Renamed 292 Wilk
B-101 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 19.06.1963 30.08.1963 30.06.1993 -
B-6 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 09.08.1963 30.11.1963 24.08.1994 -
B-103 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 14.12.1963 16.04.1964 24.06.1991 -
B-109 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 22.02.1964 17.06.1964 28.09.1997 -
B-107 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 18.04.1964 25.07.1964 04.08.1995 renamed B-807
B-112 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 19.06.1964 27.10.1964 19.04.1990 -
B-25 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 26.08.1964 22.12.1964 03.07.1992 -
B-205 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 17.06.1969 29.08.1969 31.01.1996 -
B-143 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 21.10.1959 17.02.1960 24.06.1991 Seafront Zeebrugge Museum, Belgium
B-15 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 10.10.1963 21.02.1964 29.10.1992 -
B-427 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 10.04.1971 22.06.1971 28.04.1994 Museum, Long Beach, California, USA
B-39 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 09.02.1967 15.04.1967 05.07.1994 Museum, San Diego, California, USA
B-440 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 01.06.1970 16.09.1970 1999 Museum, Vytegra, Russia
B-435 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 24.03.1970 29.05.1970 Unknown As U-01 "Zaporizhiya" in the Ukraine
B-9 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 26.12.1964 31.03.1965 17.07.1997 -
B-4 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 14.06.1960 03.10.1960 24.06.1991 -
B-57 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 23.04.1959 15.08.1959 24.06.1991 -
B-7 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 14.04.1961 29.06.1961 19.04.1990 -
B-21 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 29.10.1964 16.02.1965 03.07.1995 -
B-26 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 06.05.1965 10.08.1965 24.06.1991 -
B-28 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 24.05.1965 10.08.1965 30.06.1993 -
B-34 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 13.08.1965 16.11.1965 24.06.1991 -
B-40 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 24.09.1965 16.11.1965 30.06.1993 -
B-29 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 25.03.1966 20.05.1966 2003 1988 Renamed 293 Dzik
B-41 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 07.04.1966 20.05.1966 24.08.1993 -
B-46 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 13.08.1966 24.12.1966 30.06.1993 -
B-49 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 12.10.1966 24.12.1966 31.12.1993 Museum, Rochester, Kent, England
B-397 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 07.05.1967 22.08.1967 30.06.1993 -
B-400 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 29.05.1967 22.08.1967 24.09.1991 -
B-413 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 28.06.1968 07.10.1968 1999 Museum, Kaliningrad, Russia
B-416 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 18.07.1968 25.02.1969 03.07.1992 -
B-213 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 01.10.1969 20.01.1970 30.06.1993 -
B-409 Yard 196 Leningrad 641 18.12.1970 02.03.1971 30.06.1993 -

Operators

Most saw service in the Soviet Navy. Foxtrots were also built for the Indian Navy (eight units, from 1967 to 1974), Libyan (six units, from 1978 to 1980), and Cuban (six units, from 1978 to 1983) navies. Some Soviet Foxtrots later saw service in the Polish and Ukrainian navies.

Foxtrot Class submarine.JPEG
A Libyan foxtrot

On display

Several Foxtrots are on display as museums around the world, including:

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Korabli VMF SSSR, Vol. 1, Part 2, Yu. Apalkov, Sankt Peterburg, 2003, ISBN 5-8172-0072-4
  2. ^ "Russian Navy". Fas.org. 2008-05-30. Retrieved 2011-12-29.
  3. ^ http://www.deepstorm.ru/DeepStorm.files/45-92/dts/641/list.htm
  4. ^ In Sevastopol celebrated the anniversary of including the great submarine "Zaporizhia" to the fleet as combat ready (У Севастополі відзначили річницю прийняття великого підводного човна “Запоріжжя” до бойового складу флоту). Ministry of Defence of Ukraine. 21 January 2013
  5. ^ http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/ukraine-crisis/ukrainian-sailors-surrender-submarine-russian-navy-n59451
  6. ^ All photos taken inside museum ship acknowledged to User:Mario52
  7. ^ Navy decommissions last Kalvari-class submarine INS Vagli
  8. ^ "Submarine forces (Libya), Submarines - Submarine forces". Janes. Nov 10, 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
  9. ^ http://www.focus-wtv.be/nieuws/museumduikboot-verdwijnt-uit-zeebrugge
  10. ^ Подводная лодка Б-440 (Submarine B-444) (in Russian)
  • Miller, David (2002). The Illustrated Directory of Submarines of the World. London: Salamander Books. ISBN 1-84065-375-2.
  • А.Б. Широкорад: Советские подводные лодки послевоенной постройки (A.B. Shirokorad: Sowjet Submarines built after WWII) Moscow, 1997, ISBN 5-85139-019-0 (Russian)
  • Y. Apalkow: Корабли ВМФ СССР. Многоцелевые ПЛ и ПЛ спецназначания ("Ships of the USSR - Multi-purpose submarines and Special submarines"), St Petersburg, 2003, ISBN 5-8172-0069-4 (Russian)

External links

B39

B39 or B-39 may refer to:

Bundesstraße 39, a German road

B39 nuclear bomb

XB-39 Superfortress

Soviet submarine B-39, a Foxtrot class submarine

HLA-B39, is an HLA-B serotype

B39 (New York City bus)

Cuban Revolutionary Navy

The Cuban Revolutionary Navy is the naval branch of the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces.

INS Kalvari (S23)

INS Kalvari (S23) was the lead vessel of the Kalvari class of diesel-electric submarines of the Indian Navy. The submarine was laid down on 27 December 1966 as Foxtrot-class submarine B-51 of the Soviet Navy by Novo-Admiralty at Galerniy Island, Leningrad. The submarine was launched on 15 April 1967 and competed on 26 September 1967. B-51 was transferred to the Indian Navy in July 1968. The submarine was removed from service in 1992.

Kalvari is the Malayalam word for tiger shark, a deep-sea predator in the Indian Ocean. The name symbolizes agility, strength and predatory power. The tiger shark (Galeocerdo Cuvier) is a species of requiem shark which are found in tropical and temperate waters.

INS Karanj (S21)

INS Karanj (S21) was a Kalvari-class diesel-electric submarine of the Indian Navy.

INS Vagir (S41)

INS Vagir (S41) was a Vela-class diesel-electric submarine of the Indian Navy.

INS Vagli (S42)

INS Vagli (S42) was a Vela-class diesel-electric submarine of the Indian Navy, commissioned in 1974. Along with her sister ship Vela, she spent almost 10 years undergoing a protracted refit by Hindustan Shipyard. After 36 years of active service, INS Vagli was decommissioned on 9 December 2010.

INS Vagsheer (S43)

INS Vagsheer (S43) was a Vela-class diesel-electric submarine of the Indian Navy.

Kherson Class Submarine

The Kherson class Submarine was the only class of submarine used by the Ukraine Navy. The Kherson class was a modified variant of Foxtrot class submarine.

Libyan Navy

Libyan Navy is the maritime force of Libya, established in November 1962. It is a fairly typical small navy with a few missile frigates, corvettes and patrol boats to defend the coastline, but with a very limited self-defence capability. The Navy has always been the smallest of Libya's services and has always been dependent on foreign sources for equipment, spare parts, and training.

List of submarine museums

This is a list of museums that include submarines that can either be toured or viewed on display.

ORP Dzik

Dzik has been the name of three ships of the Polish Navy:

ORP Dzik (P52), a British U-class submarine transferred to the Polish Navy and serving between 1942 and 1946

ORP Dzik (Foxtrot class), a Foxtrot-class submarine

ORP Dzik (254), a T43-class minesweeper

ORP Wilk

Two ships of the Polish Navy have been named ORP Wilk:

ORP Wilk (1929), a Wilk-class submarine launched in 1929 and scrapped in 1954

ORP Wilk (1987), a Foxtrot-class submarine acquired in 1987

Small Victories

"Small Victories"

is the first episode from season four of the science fiction television series Stargate SG-1. Penned by Robert C. Cooper and directed by Martin Wood, the episode first aired on the American subscription channel Showtime on June 30, 2000. "Small Victories" resumes the story of the season 3 finale, "Nemesis", in which the SG-1 team encountered the Replicators for the first time. As the Replicators threaten Earth and the Asgard home galaxy, the team must split to master their job.

"Small Victories" was another visual effects milestone for the series. The Replicators and the Asgard character Thor were computer-animated for parts of the episode. Some scenes were filmed in and outside of a Russian Foxtrot class submarine. "Small Victories" was nominated for Best Special Effects in 2001 for an Emmy, a Gemini Award and a Leo Award.

Soviet submarine S-350

Soviet Submarine S-350 was a Romeo class submarine.

Submarine U-475 Black Widow

Submarine U-475 Black Widow was a Soviet Navy submarine of the Cold war period, which is now in private hands.

It is currently moored at Strood, on the River Medway, in South-East England.

Vela-class submarine

Vela-class submarines of the Indian Navy were variants of the later Soviet Foxtrot-class submarines. The last of the class was decommissioned from the Indian Navy in December 2010.

INS Vagli is planned to be preserved as a museum in Tamil Nadu, though the process has been plagued with issues and is currently on hold.

Zulu-class submarine

The Soviet Navy's Project 611 (NATO reporting name: Zulu class) were one of the first Soviet post-war attack submarines. They were roughly as capable as the American GUPPY fleet-boat conversions. They were a contemporary of the Whiskey-class submarines and shared a similar sonar arrangement. Like most conventional submarines designed 1946-1960, their design was influenced by the German Type XXI U-boat of the World War II era.The first few boats of the class were equipped with twin 57mm and twin 25mm anti-aircraft guns and no snorkels, although the guns were removed and snorkels added soon after the boats entered service. Six were converted in 1956 to become the world's first ballistic missile submarines, one armed with a single R-11FM Scud missile and five others with two Scuds each. They were designated as Project AV 611 and received the NATO reporting name of Zulu V. The missiles were too long to be contained in the boat's hull, and extended into the enlarged sail. To be fired, the submarine had to surface and raise the missile out of the sail. Soviet submarine B-67 successfully launched a missile on 16 September 1955.The Zulus were the basis for the very successful Foxtrot-class submarine, which lent their hull to the Golf class of ballistic missile submarine.

Twenty-six boats were built overall, entering service from 1952 to 1957, 8 of them in Leningrad and 18 in Severodvinsk. Their names were initially B-61 through B-82 and B-88 through B-91, with most renamed in the 1970s or 1980s. The class received the NATO reporting names Zulu I through Zulu V, the last referring to the five converted missile-firing submarines (excluding the prototype). It is unclear from references how many of each subclass were built. Most were converted to non-combat uses and eventually scrapped.

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