Foxtrot

The foxtrot is a smooth, progressive dance characterized by long, continuous flowing movements across the dance floor. It is danced to big band (usually vocal) music. The dance is similar in its look to waltz, although the rhythm is in a 4
4
time signature instead of 3
4
. Developed in the 1910s, the foxtrot reached its height of popularity in the 1930s and remains practiced today.

Foxtrot
Foxtrot
GenreBallroom dance
Time signature4
4
InventorVernon and Irene Castle (see below)
Year1914

History

Ballroom dance
Dancesport version of foxtrot

The dance was premiered in 1914, quickly catching the eye of the husband and wife duo Vernon and Irene Castle, who lent the dance its signature grace and style. The origin of the name of the dance is unclear, although one theory is that it took its name from its popularizer, the vaudeville actor Harry Fox.[1] Two sources, Vernon Castle and dance teacher Betty Lee, credit African American dancers as the source of the foxtrot. Castle saw the dance, which "had been danced by negroes, to his personal knowledge, for fifteen years, [at] a certain exclusive colored club".[2]

W. C. Handy ("Father of the Blues") notes in his autobiography that his "The Memphis Blues" was the inspiration for the foxtrot. During breaks from the fast-paced Castle Walk and One-step, Vernon and Irene Castle's music director, James Reese Europe, would slowly play the Memphis Blues. The Castles were intrigued by the rhythm, and Jim asked why they didn't create a slow dance to go with it. The Castles introduced what they then called the "Bunny Hug" in a magazine article. Shortly after, they went abroad and, in mid-ocean, sent a wireless to the magazine to change the name of the dance from "Bunny Hug" to the "Foxtrot."[3] It was subsequently standardized by Arthur Murray, in whose version it began to imitate the positions of Tango.

At its inception, the foxtrot was originally danced to ragtime. From the late 1910s through the 1940s, the foxtrot was the most popular fast dance, and the vast majority of records issued during these years were foxtrots. The waltz and tango, while popular, never overtook the foxtrot. Even the popularity of the Lindy hop in the 1940s did not affect the foxtrot's popularity, since it could be danced to the same records used to accompany the Lindy hop.

When rock and roll first emerged in the early 1950s, record companies were uncertain as to what style of dance would be most applicable to the music. Notably, Decca Records initially labeled its rock and roll releases as "foxtrots", most notably "Rock Around the Clock" by Bill Haley and His Comets. Since that recording, by some estimates, went on to sell more than 25 million copies, "Rock Around the Clock" could be considered the biggest-selling "foxtrot" of all time.[4] Today, the dance is customarily accompanied by the same big band music to which swing is also danced.

Over time, the foxtrot split into slow and quick versions, referred to as "foxtrot" and "quickstep" respectively. In the slow category, further distinctions exist between the International or English style of the foxtrot and the continuity American style, both built around a slow-quick-quick rhythm at the slowest tempo, and the social American style using a slow-slow-quick-quick rhythm at a somewhat faster pace. In the context of International Standard category of ballroom dances, for some time the foxtrot was called "Slow Foxtrot", or "Slowfox". These names are still in use, to distinguish from other types of foxtrots.

Styles

Three distinct styles of slow foxtrot are in common use among ballroom dancers today: the American Social Style, the American Continuity Style, and the International Style. All three are partner dances in which the dancers progress around the dance floor in a counter-clockwise direction and are danced to much the same music. However, they differ significantly in technique, positions, and figures.

American Social Foxtrot

The American Social Style[5][6][7][8][9] was, and to some extent still is, widely employed in the United States as a social and party dance. It is particularly well suited to dancing in a crowded room, by partners who may or may not know each other well, and who may or may not have had much formal training in dance. Its defining feature is that the dancers close their feet at the end of almost every figure, as opposed to passing their feet as in the other two styles. As a result, the dancers progress fairly slowly around the room, and some figures can even be danced in place. Furthermore, almost every figure begins in much the same position, with the two partners facing each other squarely in the closed position and the man starting on his left foot. Since each figure leads so easily and consistently in the next, it is fairly easy for the leader to string multiple figures together on the fly in an ever-changing sequence. Body contact is unnecessary and not generally expected; all figures can be led through the frame formed by the arms. Hence, the potential social awkwardness of body contact between partners who do not know each other well is avoided. As American Social Style is the only style allowed in bronze (beginner) level American Style dance competition, this style is sometimes also known as "American Bronze Foxtrot".

The American Social style uses both six-count and eight-count figures. The rhythmic alteration between the two is one of the few potential difficulties in the dance. Syncopation is generally avoided.

The six-count figures extend across one and a half measures of music, and utilize the rhythm slow (two counts), slow (two counts), quick (one count), quick (one count). Examples include: the basic movement forward and back, the alternating quarter turns (zig-zag), the rock turns right and left, the promenade, the promenade twist (12 counts), the promenade pivot (12 counts), and the sway step. Social dancers generally use the alternating quarter turns to progress in a zig-zag pattern around the room, alternating for variety with the promenade. Rock turns are used for changes of direction in corners and to avoid collisions. Both the rock turns and balance step can be danced entirely in place, if necessitated by crowded conditions. Many of these figures can be further embellished by underarm turns.

The eight-count figures extend across two measures of music and utilize the rhythm slow (two counts), quick (one count), quick (one count); slow (two counts), quick (one count), quick (one count). Most of them can be further decomposed into two four-count figures, although this would break the convention that every figure begins in closed position with the man stepping on his left foot. Examples include: the forward and reverse box, the left and right box turns, the closed twinkle with promenade close ending, the fallaway twinkles (16 counts), the promenade twinkles (16 counts), and the serpentine (progressive twinkles) with closed footwork. A few, such as the grapevine, utilize a faster rhythm consisting of four quicks. Most of these eight-count figures resemble corresponding figures in the waltz, with the rhythm modified by extending the first step of each figure to occupy two counts. Again, many of these figures can be further embellished by underarm turns.

The only common syncopated figure is the chassé. It is a four-count figure with the rhythm slow (two counts) quick-and-quick (two counts), that may be inserted between a closed twinkle and its promenade close ending.

American Continuity Style

The American Continuity Style[10][11][12][13] is widely employed in the United States as a competitive dance and as a base for formation dance and the performing arts. It is the style generally seen in American musical theater productions and in film. It differs from the social style in that the dancers pass their feet at the end of each figure, rather than closing them. Consequently, dancers progress much more rapidly around the room, in a smooth, continuous manner that gives the style its name. It differs from the International Style in that body contact is optional. This permits the dance partners to assume a much wider variety of positions and, therefore, to execute many types of figures that are not possible in the International Style. As American Continuity Style is expected in Silver Level American Style dance competitions and above, this style is sometimes also known as "American Silver Foxtrot".

Transitions from one dance position to another are an important aspect of the American style. Commonly employed dance positions include normal (closed) position, in which the dancers face each other squarely with the man's right hand around the woman's back; promenade position, in which the partners open slightly in a vee; open position (a two-hand hold with the arms extending forward sideways); and shadow position (in which both partners face the same direction, rather than each other). Partners may even separate completely for short periods of time. "Lines", in which the partners form and hold a special shape for a short period of time, also play an important role. Examples include the oversway, the chair, the check.

In the American Continuity Style, most figures are based upon four-count units with the rhythm slow (two counts), quick (one count), quick (one count) repeating in each measure. A basic dance sequence progressing around the room in a straight line might consist of an open left box turn (eight counts), an open twinkle (four counts), an open right turn (four counts), an open impetus (a/k/a hairpin) (four counts), and a continuity ending (four counts), returning to the start of the sequence. Other figures based upon the same rhythm include the serpentine (a/k/a progressive twinkles) with open footwork; the curved running steps; the outside swivel; the pivot from promenade; and the natural fallaway. Many of these figures may be executed in a variety of positions: for instance, the serpentine may be executed in closed position, open position, or shadow position, with the man facing either forwards or backwards. Many of these figures may be further embellished by underarm turns, especially when changing from one dance position to another. Variations upon this basic rhythm may employ four quick steps (quick, quick, quick, quick) as in the grapevine and the second measure of the weave, or syncopation (slow, quick-and-quick quick) as in the chassé.

Many Continuity-Style Foxtrot figures are similar to those of American Continuity Style Waltz, with the rhythm modified by extending the first step of each figure to occupy two counts. Some, like the open twinkles, are direct developments of the corresponding Social Foxtrot figures in which the footwork has been modified by passing the feet at the end of the figure instead of closing the feet; others are entirely different.

International Style

The International (British) Style[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] is widely employed in Europe and Great Britain as a social and competitive dance. Its defining characteristic is that partners must maintain body contact at all times. Consequently, the variety of possible figures and positions is much more limited than in the American style. Dancers concentrate on creating an image of a smooth, gliding motion around the dance floor. The use of body contact makes it possible to execute very tight turns, which is further enhanced by the extensive use of heel turns. This use of heel turns, and the effort required to produce the desired gliding motion, give International Style Foxtrot a reputation as being perhaps the most difficult of all ballroom dances to execute well.

Most figures are based upon four-count units with the rhythm slow (two counts), quick (one count), quick (one count), repeating in each measure. A basic dance sequence progressing around the room might employ a feather step (four counts), reverse turn with feather finish (eight counts), three step (four counts), natural turn (four counts) with impetus (four count) and feather finish (four count), connecting again to a reverse turn. However, rhythmic variation is used to make up for the loss of variety in figures and positions: thus, for example, the weave uses four quick steps in a single measure, while the change of direction uses a two-measure sequence of four slow steps.

Figures

International Style Foxtrot is the most tightly defined of all the Foxtrot styles, with instructional and competitive syllabi that are tightly controlled by the Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing. Thus, it is possible to present the following list of International or English style foxtrot figures,[14] although this is by no means an exhaustive list.

Basic Figures

  • Three Step
  • Feather Step
  • Natural Turn
  • Reverse Turn
  • Closed Impetus           
  • Feather Finish

Standard Figures

  • Natural Weave
  • Basic Weave
  • Closed Telemark
  • Open Telemark
  • Hover Feather
  • Hover Telemark
  • Hover Cross
  • Open Impetus
  • Reverse Wave

Competition

International Foxtrot is one of the five Standard dances that form the backbone of International Style Dance competitions held around the world under the auspices of the International Dance Sport Federation, its local affiliates, and other organizations. Competitions are generally held at six successive levels of difficulty: Bronze (beginning), Silver (intermediate), Gold (advanced), Novice, Pre-Championship, and Championship. The Bronze, Silver, and Gold levels are syllabus levels: that is, for each level there is a prescribed syllabus of figures from which the competitor is expected to select. The Novice, Pre-Championship, and Championship levels are open levels at which novel, original choreography is permitted and even encouraged. The competitive dance syllabi are defined and tightly controlled by the Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing.

Likewise, American Foxtrot is one of the four Modern Smooth dances that form the backbone of American Style Dance competitions held in the United States under the auspices of the National Dance Council of America and USA Dance, and in some other countries. Competitions are again generally held at six successive levels of difficulty: Bronze (beginning), Silver (intermediate), Gold (advanced), Novice, Pre-Championship, and Championship. The Bronze, Silver, and Gold levels are restricted levels in which the permitted set of figures is restricted by rules – very similar but not identical – published by the sponsoring organization.[23][24] The Novice, Pre-Championship, and Championship levels are open levels at which novel, original choreography is permitted and even encouraged. At the Bronze level, only American Social Style is allowed; this is enforced by rules that require closing the feet at the end of each figure. Either Social or Continuity Style may be employed at the Silver level and higher, but Continuity Style is generally expected. There are multiple, alternative instructional and competitive syllabi published by various organizations, which are compatible to varying degrees with the competitive rule sets.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Fox Trot". Streetswing's Dance History Archives. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
  2. ^ Hawkins, Christina M. (2002). A Compilation and Analysis of the Origins of the Foxtrot in White Mainstream America (Master of Arts thesis). Brigham Young University Department of Dance. p. 18. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
  3. ^ Handy, William Christopher (1941). Father of the Blues. MacMillan. p. 226.
  4. ^ Frazer-Harrison, Alex (November 2010). "'Rock Around the Clock' Tribute". Rockabilly Hall of Fame. Retrieved July 11, 2012. For many years, the Guinness Book of World Records listed Haley's version as the top-selling pop record of all time with 25 million copies sold -- a record that stood until 1997 and which technically remains intact as Elton John's "Candle in the Wind" tribute to Princess Diana was issued a CD-single, not a vinyl 45.
  5. ^ "American Style Foxtrot – Bronze Level". NDCA Approved Figures, Elements, and Restrictions (Rev. July 2015 ed.). National Dance Council of America. 2015. Retrieved 2016. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  6. ^ "NDCA Bronze American Foxtrot". YouTube. National Dance Council of America. 2013. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  7. ^ American Style Smooth Bronze Manual. Las Vegas, NV: DanceVision. 2015.
  8. ^ Maranto, Jim; Maranto, Jenell (2008). American Style Smooth Syllabus: Beginning – Intermediate (Bronze) Foxtrot (DVD)|format= requires |url= (help). Las Vegas, NV: DanceVision.
  9. ^ Sochacki, Slawek; Stachura, Marzena (2013). American Style Smooth Foxtrot Choreography (DVD)|format= requires |url= (help). Las Vegas, NV: DanceVision.
  10. ^ "American Style Foxtrot – Silver Level". NDCA Approved Figures, Elements, and Restrictions (Rev. July 2015 ed.). National Dance Council of America. 2015. Retrieved 2016. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  11. ^ American Style Smooth Silver Manual. Las Vegas, NV: DanceVision. 2015.
  12. ^ Maranto, Jim; Maranto, Jenell (2008). American Style Smooth Syllabus: Advanced I (Silver) Foxtrot (DVD)|format= requires |url= (help). Las Vegas, NV: DanceVision.
  13. ^ Maranto, Jim; Maranto, Jenell (2008). American Style Smooth Syllabus: Advanced II (Gold) Foxtrot (DVD)|format= requires |url= (help). Las Vegas, NV: DanceVision.
  14. ^ a b Moore, Alex; Imperial Society of Teachers of Dance (2002). The Ballroom Technique (10th ed.). London: A & C Black Publishers Limited.
  15. ^ "NDCA Bronze International Foxtrot". YouTube. National Dance Council of America. 2013. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  16. ^ "NDCA Silver International Foxtrot". YouTube. National Dance Council of America. 2013. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  17. ^ Bronze International Style Standard Manual. Las Vegas, NV: DanceVision. 2015.
  18. ^ Silver International Style Standard Manual. Las Vegas, NV: DanceVision. 2015.
  19. ^ Gold International Style Standard Manual. Las Vegas, NV: DanceVision. 2015.
  20. ^ Veyrasset, Victor; Smith, Heather (2008). International Style Standard Syllabus: Beginning-Intermediate (Bronze) Foxtrot (DVD)|format= requires |url= (help). Las Vegas, NV: DanceVision.
  21. ^ Veyrasset, Victor; Smith, Heather (2008). International Style Standard Syllabus: Advanced I (Silver) Foxtrot (DVD)|format= requires |url= (help). Las Vegas, NV: DanceVision.
  22. ^ Veyrasset, Victor; Smith, Heather (2008). International Style Standard Syllabus: Advanced II (Gold) Foxtrot (DVD)|format= requires |url= (help). Las Vegas, NV: DanceVision.
  23. ^ NDCA Approved Figures, Elements, and Restrictions (Rev. July 2015 ed.). National Dance Council of America. 2015. Retrieved 2016. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  24. ^ "1.3 American Style Foxtrot". USA Dance Syllabus Guidebook (2015A.1 ed.). USA Dance, Inc. 2015. p. 7. Retrieved 2016. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)

External links

Dancing with the Stars (U.S. season 12)

Season twelve of Dancing with the Stars premiered on March 21, 2011. Carrie Ann Inaba, Bruno Tonioli, and Len Goodman returned to the show as judges, while Tom Bergeron and Brooke Burke returned as hosts.Professional football player Hines Ward was the winner of the competition with his partner Kym Johnson. Actress Kirstie Alley and Disney star Chelsea Kane came in second and third, respectively.

Dancing with the Stars (U.S. season 14)

Season fourteen of Dancing with the Stars premiered on March 19, 2012. Tom Bergeron and Brooke Burke Charvet returned as hosts, while Carrie Ann Inaba, Len Goodman, and Bruno Tonioli all returned as judges. The Harold Wheeler orchestra and singers provided the music throughout the season.

Green Bay Packers wide receiver Donald Driver won the competition over British classical crossover singer Katherine Jenkins and Cuban-American Telenovela star William Levy, who took 2nd and 3rd place respectively. Driver is also the third NFL player (including retired) to win, after Emmitt Smith won season three and Hines Ward won season twelve.

Foxtrot-class submarine

The Foxtrot class was the NATO reporting name of a class of diesel-electric patrol submarines that were built in the Soviet Union. The Soviet designation of this class was Project 641. The Foxtrot class was designed to replace the earlier Zulu class, which suffered from structural weaknesses and harmonic vibration problems that limited its operational depth and submerged speed. The first Foxtrot keel was laid down in 1957 and commissioned in 1958 and the last was completed in 1983. A total of 58 were built for the Soviet Navy at the Sudomekh division of the Admiralty Shipyard (now Admiralty Wharves), St. Petersburg. Additional hulls were built for other countries.

The Foxtrot class was comparable in performance and armament to most contemporary designs. However, its three screws made it noisier than most Western designs. Moreover, the Foxtrot class was one of the last designs introduced before the adoption of the teardrop hull, which offered much better underwater performance. Also, although the Foxtrot was larger than a Zulu class submarine, the Foxtrot class had 2 of its 3 decks dedicated to batteries. This gave it an underwater endurance of 10 days, but the weight of the batteries made the Foxtrot's average speed a slow 2 knots at its maximum submerged time capability. Due to the batteries taking up 2 decks, onboard conditions were crowded with space being relatively small even when compared to older submarines such as the much older American Balao-class submarine. The Foxtrot class was completely obsolete by the time the last submarine was launched. The Russian Navy retired its last Foxtrots between 1995 and 2000, units were scrapped and disposed of for museum purposes. During the division of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet, in 1997 one Foxtrot class submarine (later renamed as Zaporizhzhia) was passed to Ukraine as it was not operational since 1991. The ship never effectively served in the Ukrainian Navy and was under repair. In 2005 Ukrainian Ministry of Defence wanted to sell it, but was unsuccessful. Following successful post-repair trials in June 2013, it was recognised as operational. However on March 22, 2014 it was surrendered to or captured by Russia as part of the Russian annexation of Crimea. Russia decided not to accept it due to its age and operational unsuitability. Its subsequent status was unknown.

Foxtrot (2017 film)

Foxtrot (Hebrew: פוֹקְסטְרוֹט‎) is a 2017 internationally co-produced drama film written and directed by Samuel Maoz. It stars Lior Ashkenazi and Sarah Adler as a couple who are informed that their son, an IDF soldier, was killed in action.

The film was screened in the competition section of the 74th Venice International Film Festival where it won the Grand Jury Prize Silver Lion. It was also screened in the Special Presentations section at the 2017 Toronto International Film Festival. It won the Ophir Award for Best Film, therefore becoming the Israeli entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 90th Academy Awards. Later in the year, it made the December shortlist, but ultimately did not receive a nomination.

Foxtrot (album)

Foxtrot is the fourth studio album by the English progressive rock band Genesis, released in October 1972 on Charisma Records. It was their first album to chart in the UK, reaching  No. 12, and features the 23-minute track "Supper's Ready".

The album was recorded following the tour in support of their previous album, Nursery Cryme (1971), which saw them gain popularity, including a well-received slot at the Lincoln Great Western Festival. The album was written over the summer of 1972 and combined songs that had already been performed live with new material worked out in jam sessions. Recording began in August with John Anthony, but sessions were prone to tension and disagreements. After a short Italian tour, sessions resumed with Dave Hitchcock taking over production duties. The cover was the final Genesis work to be designed by Paul Whitehead, featuring a fox wearing a red dress. Frontman Peter Gabriel wore the dress and a fox's head on stage for the following tour, which gathered press attention and greatly improved the group's profile.

Foxtrot was the first Genesis album to chart in the UK and received largely positive reviews. A non-album single "Happy The Man" was released at the same time. The album has continued to attract critical praise and was reissued with a new stereo and 5.1 surround sound mix as part of their 2008 Genesis 1970–1975 box set.

Hefty Fine

Hefty Fine is the fourth studio album by American alternative rock band Bloodhound Gang, released on September 27, 2005. Produced by Jimmy Pop, it was Bloodhound Gang's third release on Geffen Records following the band's smash hit Hooray for Boobies which managed to sell over one million copies in the United States and the European Union. It is also the band's last album with original guitarist Lüpüs Thünder and the only album with drummer Willie the New Guy—they were replaced in 2008 and 2006 by A members Daniel P. Carter and Adam Perry, respectively. Compared to other Bloodhound Gang albums, the musical style of Hefty Fine features a more prominent industrial-rapcore feel, with an electronica texture. The album contains prominent rap metal guitar riffs, electronic instruments, and heavy emphasis on scatological humor.

The album received poor reviews and holds the dubious accolade of having received the second-worst review on review aggregator website Metacritic. Despite the critical backlash, the album sold well, particularly in Europe, where it debuted in the top ten in Austria, the Netherlands, and Germany. In the US, the album peaked at number 24 on the Billboard 200.

Three singles were released from the album including "Foxtrot Uniform Charlie Kilo", "Uhn Tiss Uhn Tiss Uhn Tiss", and "No Hard Feelings". The album's first two singles were minor hits, the former charting on six charts, and the latter charting on four.

Jeff Tweedy

Jeffrey Scot Tweedy (born August 25, 1967) is an American songwriter, musician, and record producer best known as the singer and guitarist of the band Wilco. Tweedy, originally from Belleville, Illinois, started his music career in high school in his band The Plebes with Jay Farrar, which subsequently transitioned into the alternative country band Uncle Tupelo. After Uncle Tupelo broke up Tweedy formed Wilco which found critical and commercial success, most notably with Yankee Hotel Foxtrot and A Ghost Is Born, the latter of which received a Grammy for Best Alternative Album in 2005.

Across Tweedy's career he has released 18 studio albums, including four with Uncle Tupelo, ten with Wilco, one with his son Spencer, a solo acoustic album, two solo studio albums, along with numerous collaborations with other musicians, most notably Mermaid Avenue with Billy Bragg. On November 30, 2018 Jeff Tweedy released Warm, his first solo album of new material. Warmer, a companion album to Warm, will be released on April 13, 2019.In November 2018, Tweedy released his first memoir, Let's Go (So We Can Get Back).

Military slang

Military slang is an array of colloquial terminology used commonly by military personnel, including slang which is unique to or originates with the armed forces. In English-speaking countries, it often takes the form of abbreviations/acronyms or derivations of the NATO Phonetic Alphabet, or otherwise incorporates aspects of formal military terms and concepts. Military slang is often used to reinforce or reflect (usually friendly and humorous) interservice rivalries.

NATO phonetic alphabet

The NATO phonetic alphabet, officially denoted as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet, and also commonly known as the ICAO phonetic alphabet, and in a variation also known officially as the ITU phonetic alphabet and figure code, is the most widely used radiotelephone spelling alphabet. Although often called "phonetic alphabets", spelling alphabets are unrelated to phonetic transcription systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet. Instead, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) alphabet assigned codewords acrophonically to the letters of the English alphabet, so that critical combinations of letters and numbers are most likely to be pronounced and understood by those who exchange voice messages by radio or telephone, regardless of language differences or the quality of the communication channel.The 26 code words in the NATO phonetic alphabet are assigned to the 26 letters of the English alphabet in alphabetical order as follows: Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliett, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-ray, Yankee, Zulu.Strict adherence to the prescribed spelling words is required in order to avoid the problems of confusion that the spelling alphabet is designed to overcome. As noted in a 1955 NATO memo:

It is known that [the ICAO spelling alphabet] has been prepared only after the most exhaustive tests on a scientific basis by several nations. One of the firmest conclusions reached was that it was not practical to make an isolated change to clear confusion between one pair of letters. To change one word involves reconsideration of the whole alphabet to ensure that the change proposed to clear one confusion does not itself introduce others.

The same memo notes a potential confusion between ZERO and SIERRA is overcome when following the procedures in ACP 125, which specify the use of the procedure word FIGURES in many instances in which digits need to be read.

Quickstep

The quickstep is a light-hearted dance of the standard ballroom dances. The movement of the dance is fast and powerfully flowing and sprinkled with syncopations. The upbeat melodies that quickstep is danced to make it suitable for both formal and informal events. Quickstep was developed in the 1920s in New York City and was first danced by Caribbean and African dancers. Its origins are in combination of slow foxtrot combined with the Charleston, a dance which was one of the precursors to what today is called swing dancing.

Soviet submarine B-39

B-39 was a Project 641 (Foxtrot-class) diesel-electric attack submarine of the Soviet Navy. The "B" (actually "Б") in her designation stands for большая (bolshaya, "large") — Foxtrots were the Soviet Navy's largest non-nuclear submarines. B-39 is now a museum ship on display at the Maritime Museum of San Diego, California, United States.

Submarine U-475 Black Widow

Submarine U-475 Black Widow was a Soviet Navy submarine of the Cold war period, which is now in private hands.

It is currently moored at Strood, on the River Medway, in South-East England.

Valentin Chmerkovskiy

Valentin Aleksandrovich "Val" Chmerkovskiy (Ukrainian: Валентин Олекса́ндрович Чмерковський; born March 24, 1986) is a Ukrainian-American professional dancer, best known for his appearances on the U.S. version of Dancing with the Stars, which he won twice. Chmerkovskiy is a two-time World Latin Dance Champion (Junior and Youth) and a 14-time U.S. National Latin Dance champion.

Whiskey Tango Foxtrot (NCIS)

"Whiskey Tango Foxtrot" is the first episode of the eleventh season of the American police procedural drama NCIS, and the 235th episode overall. It originally aired on CBS in the United States on September 24, 2013. The episode is written by Gary Glasberg and directed by Tony Wharmby, and was seen by 20.02 million viewers.

Whiskey Tango Foxtrot (film)

Whiskey Tango Foxtrot is a 2016 American biographical war comedy-drama film directed by Glenn Ficarra and John Requa, and written by Robert Carlock, based on the memoir The Taliban Shuffle: Strange Days in Afghanistan and Pakistan by Kim Barker. The film stars Tina Fey, Margot Robbie, Martin Freeman, Christopher Abbott, Alfred Molina, and Billy Bob Thornton. It was released on March 4, 2016 by Paramount Pictures. It received mixed reviews from critics who praised the acting but criticsed the predictable screenplay and execution and was a box office failure grossing only $24.9 million against its $35 million budget.

Wilco

Wilco is an American alternative rock band based in Chicago, Illinois. The band was formed in 1994 by the remaining members of alternative country group Uncle Tupelo following singer Jay Farrar's departure. Wilco's lineup changed frequently during its first decade, with only singer Jeff Tweedy and bassist John Stirratt remaining from the original incarnation. Since early 2004, the lineup has been unchanged, consisting of Tweedy, Stirratt, guitarist Nels Cline, multi-instrumentalist Pat Sansone, keyboard player Mikael Jorgensen, and drummer Glenn Kotche. Wilco has released ten studio albums, a live double album, and four collaborations: three with Billy Bragg and one with The Minus 5.

Wilco's music has been inspired by a wide variety of artists and styles, including Bill Fay, The Beatles and Television, and has in turn influenced music by a number of modern alternative rock acts. The band continued in the alternative country style of Uncle Tupelo on its debut album A.M. (1995), but has since introduced more experimental aspects to their music, including elements of alternative rock and classic pop. Wilco's musical style has evolved from a 1990s country rock sound to a current "eclectic indie rock collective that touches on many eras and genres."Wilco garnered media attention for their fourth album, Yankee Hotel Foxtrot (2001), and the controversy surrounding it. After the recording sessions were complete, Reprise Records rejected the album and dismissed Wilco from the label. As part of a buy-out deal, Reprise gave Wilco the rights to the album for free. After streaming Foxtrot on its website, Wilco sold the album to Nonesuch Records in 2002. Both record labels are subsidiaries of Warner Music Group, leading one critic to say the album showed "how screwed up the music business is in the early twenty-first century." Yankee Hotel Foxtrot is Wilco's most successful release to date, selling over 670,000 copies. Wilco won two Grammy Awards for their fifth studio album, 2004's A Ghost Is Born, including Best Alternative Music Album. Wilco released their ninth studio album, Star Wars, in July 2015, and in September 2016 released their tenth studio album, Schmilco.

Yankee Hotel Foxtrot

Yankee Hotel Foxtrot is the fourth album by Chicago-based rock band Wilco. The album was completed in 2001, but Reprise Records, a Warner Music Group label, refused to release it. Wilco acquired the rights to the album when they subsequently left the label. On September 18, 2001, Wilco streamed the entire album for free on their website. Wilco signed with Nonesuch Records (another Warner label) in November of that year, and the album was officially released on April 23, 2002.

Yankee Hotel Foxtrot was acclaimed by music critics, and is widely regarded as one of the greatest albums of the 2000s. It is also Wilco's best-selling work, having reached number 13 on the Billboard 200 chart. It is the band's first album with drummer Glenn Kotche, and last with multi-instrumentalist and songwriter Jay Bennett.

In 2012, Rolling Stone ranked it #493 on its list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time.

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