The Fourth Council of the Lateran was convoked by Pope Innocent III with the papal bull Vineam domini Sabaoth of 19 April 1213, and the Council gathered at Rome's Lateran Palace beginning 11 November 1215. Due to the great length of time between the Council's convocation and meeting, many bishops had the opportunity to attend. It is considered by the Catholic Church to have been the twelfth ecumenical council and is sometimes called the "Great Council" or "General Council of Lateran" due to the presence of 71 patriarchs and metropolitan bishops, 412 bishops, 900 abbots and priors together with representatives of several monarchs.
During this council, the teaching on transubstantiation— a doctrine of the Catholic Church which describes the method by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrament of the Eucharist becomes the actual blood and body of Christ— was defined. It also infamously was the first to require from Jews (and Muslims) to wear distinctive clothing.
|Fourth Council of the Lateran (Council of Lateran IV)|
|Third Council of the Lateran|
|First Council of Lyon|
|Convoked by||Pope Innocent III|
|President||Pope Innocent III|
|Attendance||71 patriarchs and metropolitans, 412 bishops, 900 abbots and priors|
|Topics||Crusader States, Investiture Controversy, Filioque|
Documents and statements
|70 papal decrees, transubstantiation, papal primacy, conduct of clergy, confession and communion at least once a year, Fifth Crusade|
|Chronological list of ecumenical councils|
Lateran IV stands as the high-water mark of the medieval papacy. Its political and ecclesiastical decisions endured down to the Council of Trent while modern historiography has deemed it the most significant papal assembly of the Later Middle Ages. The Fourth Lateran Council was the largest and most representative of the medieval councils to that date.
In summoning the bishops to a general council, Innocent III emphasized that reforms must be made in the Church and that a new crusade to the Holy Land must be launched. He also reminded them that it was not appropriate that their retinue include birds and hunting dogs.
The agenda laid out in Vineam domini Sabaoth included reform of the Church, the stamping out of heresy, establishing peace and liberty, and calling for a new crusade. During this council, the doctrine of transubstantiation— a Church doctrine which describes the method by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrament of the Eucharist becomes the actual blood and body of Christ— was infallibly defined. The scholarly consensus is that the constitutions were drafted by Innocent III himself.
There were violent scenes between the partisans of Simon de Montfort among the French bishops and those of the Count of Toulouse. Raymond VI of Toulouse, his son (afterwards Raymond VII), and Raymond-Roger of Foix attended the Council to dispute the threatened confiscation of their territories; Bishop Foulques and Guy de Montfort (brother of Simon) argued in favour of the confiscation. All of Raymond VI's lands were confiscated, save Provence, which was kept in trust to be restored to his son, Raymond VII. Pierre-Bermond of Sauve's claim to Toulouse was rejected, and Toulouse was awarded to de Montfort; the lordship of Melgueil was separated from Toulouse and entrusted to the bishops of Maguelonne.
Canons presented to the Council included:
In addition, it threatened excommunication to those who supplied ships, arms, and other war materials to the Saracens.
Effective application of the decrees varied according to local conditions and customs.
Events from the year 1215 in Ireland.Altar candlestick
Altar candlesticks hold the candles used in the Catholic liturgical celebration of Mass.Amice
The amice is a liturgical vestment used mainly in the Roman Catholic church, Lutheran church, some Anglican, Armenian and Polish National Catholic churches.Benedicamus Domino
Benedicamus Domino (Latin: "Let us bless the Lord") is a closing salutation that was formerly used in the Roman Mass instead of the Ite, missa est in Masses which lack the Gloria (i.e., Masses of the season during Advent, Septuagesima, Lent, and Passiontide; ferial Masses per annum at which the Mass of the preceding Sunday was repeated, except in Eastertide; most votive Masses). The response, said afterwards, is Deo gratias ("Thanks be to God"). It is also sung as a versicle at the end of all Offices.Catholic ecumenical councils
Catholic ecumenical councils include 21 councils over a period of some 1900 years. While definitions changed throughout history, in today's Roman Catholic understanding ecumenical councils are assemblies of Patriarchs, Cardinals, residing Bishops, Abbots, male heads of religious orders and other juridical persons, nominated by the Pope. The purpose of an ecumenical council is to define doctrine, reaffirm truths of the Faith, and extirpate heresy. Council decisions, to be valid, are approved by the popes. Participation is limited to these persons, who cannot delegate their voting rights.
Ecumenical councils are different from provincial councils, where bishops of a Church province or region meet. Episcopal conferences and plenary councils are other bodies, meetings of bishops of one country, nation, or region, such as the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. This article does not include councils of a lower order or regional councils. Ecumenical in the Catholic view does not mean that all bishops attended the councils, which was not even the case in Vatican II. Nor does ecumenical imply the participation of or acceptance by all Christian communities and Churches. Ecumenical refers to "a solemn congregations of the Catholic bishops of the world at the invitation of the Pope to decide on matters of the Church with him". The ecumenical character of the councils of the first millennium was not determined by the intention of those who issued the invitations. The papal approval of the early councils did not have a formal character, which was characteristic in later councils. The Catholic Church did not officially declare these councils to be ecumenical. This became theological practice. Different evaluations existed between and within Christian communities. Today 21 councils are accepted in the Catholic church as ecumenical councils.Not all of the twenty-one councils were always accepted as ecumenical within the Catholic Church. For example, the inclusion of the First Lateran Council and the Council of Basel were disputed. A 1539 book on ecumenical councils by Cardinal Dominicus Jacobazzi excluded them as did other scholars. The first few centuries did not know large-scale ecumenical meetings; they were only feasible after the Church had gained freedom from persecution through Emperor Constantine.County of Melgueil
The County of Melgueil (Occitan: Melguelh, modern Mauguio) was a fief of first the Carolingian Emperor, then the King of France, and finally (1085) the Papacy during the Middle Ages. Counts probably sat at Melgueil from the time of the Visigoths. The counts of Melgueil were also counts of Maguelonne and Substantion from at least the time of Peter's homage to Pope Gregory VII on 27 April 1085. In 1172 Beatriu disinherited her son Bertrand and named her daughter Ermessenda her heiress. Later that year Ermessenda married the future Raymond VI of Toulouse and by her will of 1176 the county was to go to Toulouse. Bertrand refused to recognise his disinheritance and pledged homage as Count of Melgueil to Alfonso II of Aragon in 1172. The county fell to the Toulouse in 1190 and was annexed to the French crown in 1213, during the Albigensian Crusade. At the Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215 it was given to the Diocese of Maguelonne and secular and ecclesiastical authority were merged.Funghellino
The funghellino (Italian for "small mushroom") is a short mushroom-shaped stand used in the Roman Catholic liturgy. It is placed on the altar at a Pontifical Mass to hold the bishop's and higher prelates' skullcap (zuchetto) during the Eucharistic prayer.Henryk Kietlicz
Henryk Kietlicz (1150 – March 22, 1219) was Archbishop of Gniezno from 1199 to 1219 was the main architect of the changes that allowed the Polish church to gain independence from the secular authorities.Henryk was born in 1150 to a Czech family who moved to Silesia and then Poland. Jan Długosz claims he was the son of prince Theodoric Kietlicz, and Eudocia, the daughter of Duke Konrad I Mazowiecki. In his earlier life he was an administrator for Mieszko III. He became Archbishop in 1198 or 1199, and had political skills and influenced both the secular and church politics of his day.
He instigated a program of church reform which included the introduction of celibate clergy, the exclusion of clergy from the authority of secular courts and privileges in the selection of bishops. At the Synod of Borzykowa in June 1210 he gained church privileges including its own courts and tax exemptions, in exchange for his support in gaining the Pope's recognition of the King. Here he negotiated with Leszek the White, Konrad I Mazowiecki and Władysław Odonic to renounce jus spolii. These privileges were enshrined in a papal bull of 1211, and were confirmed and expanded at the Wolbórz Synod in 1216.
He attended Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215, at which the mission to Prussia was approved and Henryk was made Papal legate to Prussia. Here he met with Innocent III who confirmed his support for Henryk's reforms.
At the synod of Wolborz in 1216 he gained further privileges for the church from Leszek I the White, Konrad of Masovia, Duke Wladyslaw and Casimir I of Opole. He then convened similar meetings in 1217 at Dańkowie and Sądowlu 1218, where a pact was formed between the Polish rulers.
Henryk was also active in secular politics, giving his support to the claims of Władysław Odonic over Władysław III Spindleshanks and advocated to Pope Innocent III to reverse the excommunication of High Duke Leszek I the White. He emerged as an advocate of the younger dukes in the divided kingdom period. His activism, however, did produce enemies and he had to spend some time in exile with Henry the Bearded of Silesia.
Despite his success, however, the death of Innocent III in 1216 and the succession of Honorius III saw Henryk lose Papal support. Resentment among Polish nobles and clergy resulted in Gedko Powało Bishop of Płock complaining to the new pope that Henryk was guilty of apparent excess and pride. Henryk Kietlicz was instructed and from that time did not participate in political life.
Henryk Kietlicz died on 22 March 1219.Jewish hat
The Jewish hat also known as the Jewish cap, Judenhut (German) or Latin pileus cornutus ("horned skullcap"), was a cone-shaped pointed hat, often white or yellow, worn by Jews in Medieval Europe and some of the Islamic world. Initially worn by choice, its wearing was enforced in some places in Europe after the 1215 Fourth Council of the Lateran for adult male Jews to wear while outside a ghetto to distinguish them from others. Like the Phrygian cap that it often resembles, the hat originated in pre-Islamic Persia, as a similar hat was worn by Babylonian Jews.
Modern distinctive or characteristic Jewish forms of male headgear include the kippah (skullcap), shtreimel, spodik, kolpik, kashkets, and fedora; see also Hasidic headwear.Latin Archbishopric of Thebes
The Latin Archbishopric of Thebes is the see of Thebes in the period in which its incumbents belonged to the Latin or Western Church. This period began in 1204 with the installation in the see of a Catholic archbishop following the Fourth Crusade, while the Orthodox metropolitan bishop fled the city.The Latin archbishop of Thebes was the senior-most of the Catholic clergy in the Duchy of Athens, which despite its name had its capital at Thebes. The archbishopric survived as a Latin residential see until 1456, when the duchy fell to the Ottoman Empire.
The see was later revived as a titular see, and has been vacant since 1965.Like other Latin sees in the Latin states of Greece, the names and dates of election of the incumbents during the first century of its existence are unknown, as they were rarely communicated to the papal court.
Along with many of his counterparts from other Latin sees of Greece, the anonymous archbishop of Thebes participated in the Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215. In 1217–18 the archbishop was engaged in a dispute with the Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, Gervasius, who claimed direct jurisdiction over the monasteries in the duchy of Athens and intervened in the administration of the Thebean archdiocese.Manuterge
Manuterge is the name given by the Roman Catholic Church to the towel used by the priest when engaged liturgically.Mea culpa
Mea culpa is a Latin phrase that means "through my fault" and is an acknowledgement of having done wrong.
Grammatically, meā culpā is in the ablative case, with an instrumental meaning.
The phrase comes from a prayer of confession of sinfulness, known as the Confiteor, used in the Roman Rite at the beginning of Mass or when receiving the sacrament of Penance.
The expression is used also as an admission of having made a mistake that should have been avoided, and may be accompanied by beating the breast as in its use in a religious context.Oblation
Oblation, meaning an offering (Late Latin oblatio, from offerre, oblatum, to offer), is a term used, particularly in ecclesiastical use, for a solemn offering or presentation to God.Outline of the Catholic ecumenical councils
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Catholic Ecumenical Councils.
An ecumenical council is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice.
Catholic Ecumenical CouncilsPope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III (Latin: Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Pope Innocent was one of the most powerful and influential of the medieval popes. He exerted a wide influence over the Christian states of Europe, claiming supremacy over all of Europe's kings. He was central in supporting the Catholic Church's reforms of ecclesiastical affairs through his decretals and the Fourth Lateran Council. This resulted in a considerable refinement of Western canon law. He is furthermore notable for using interdict and other censures to compel princes to obey his decisions, although these measures were not uniformly successful.
Innocent greatly extended the scope of the crusades, directing crusades against Muslim Spain and the Holy Land as well as the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars in southern France.
He organized the Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204, which ended in the disastrous sack of Constantinople. Although the attack on Constantinople went against his explicit orders, and the Crusaders were subsequently excommunicated, Innocent reluctantly accepted this result, seeing it as the will of God to reunite the Latin and Orthodox Churches.
In the event, the sack of Constantinople and the subsequent period of Frankokratia led to an increase in the hostility between the Latin and Greek churches. The Byzantine empire was restored in 1261 but it never regained its former strength until its final destruction in 1453.Tunicle
The tunicle is a liturgical vestment associated with Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, and Lutheranism.Use of Hereford
The Use of Hereford or Hereford Use was a variant of the Roman Rite used in Herefordshire before the English Reformation. When Peter of Aigueblanche, Bishop of Hereford, returned to his native Savoy he used it in his church in Aiguebelle.Volksschule
The German term Volksschule generally refers to compulsory education, denoting an educational institution every person (i.e. the people, Volk) is required to attend.
In Germany and Switzerland it is equivalent to a combined primary (Grundschule and Primarschule, respectively) and lower secondary education (Hauptschule or Sekundarschule), usually comprising a mandatory attendance over a period of nine years. In Austria, Volksschule solely is used for primary school from Year One to Year Four. In the Nordic countries they are referred to as Folkskolen and in Finnish, in a direct translation, as Kansakoulu; these schools covered the first years of primary education, from the ages of 7 to 11 or 12.Witch hat
A witch hat is a style of hat worn by witches in popular culture depictions, characterized by a conical crown and a wide brim.
|First seven ecumenical councils|
|Recognized by the|
|Partly recognized by the|
Eastern Orthodox Church
|Partly recognized by the|
Oriental Orthodox Church