The term "Four Policemen" refers to a post-war council consisting of the "Big Four" that U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed as a guarantor of world peace. The members of the Big Four, called the Four Powers during World War II, were the four major Allies of World War II: the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union and China. The United Nations envisioned by Roosevelt consisted of three branches: an executive branch comprising the Big Four, an enforcement branch composed of the same four great powers acting as the Four Policemen or Four Sheriffs, and an international assembly representing the member nations of the UN.
The Four Policemen would be responsible for keeping order within their spheres of influence: Britain in its empire and in Western Europe; the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe and the central Eurasian landmass; China in East Asia and the Western Pacific; and the United States in the Western hemisphere. As a preventive measure against new wars, countries other than the Four Policemen were to be disarmed. Only the Four Policemen would be allowed to possess any weapons more powerful than a rifle.
As a compromise with internationalist critics, the Big Four nations became the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, with significantly less power than envisioned in the Four Policemen proposal. When the United Nations was officially established in later 1945, France was in due course added as the fifth member of the council at that time due to the insistence of Churchill.
During World War II, President Roosevelt initiated post-war plans for the creation of a new and more durable international organization that would replace the former League of Nations. Prior to the war, Roosevelt had initially been a supporter of the League of Nations, but he lost confidence in the League due to its ineffectiveness at preventing the outbreak of the second World War. Roosevelt wanted to create an international organization that secured global peace through the unified efforts of the world's great powers, rather than through the Wilsonian notions of international consensus and collaboration that guided the League of Nations. By 1935, he told his foreign policy adviser Sumner Welles: "The League of Nations has become nothing more than a debating society, and a poor one at that!"
Roosevelt criticized the League of Nations for representing the interests of too many nations. The President said to the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov that "he could not visualize another League of Nations with 100 different signatories; there were simply too many nations to satisfy, hence it was a failure and would be a failure". Roosevelt's proposal in 1941 was to create a new international body led by a "trusteeship" of great powers that would oversee smaller countries. In September 1941, he wrote:
In the present complete world confusion, it is not thought advisable at this time to reconstitute a League of Nations which, because of its size, makes for disagreement and inaction... There seem no reason why the principle of trusteeship in private affairs should be not be extended to the international field. Trusteeship is based on the principle of unselfish service. For a time at least there are many minor children among the peoples of the world who need trustees in their relations with other nations and people, just as there are many adult nations or peoples which must be led back into a spirit of good conduct.
The State Department had begun drafting a postwar successor to the League of Nations under the auspices of Roosevelt while the United States was still formally a neutral power. Roosevelt was reluctant to publicly announce his plans for creating a postwar international body. He was aware of the risk that the American people might reject his proposals, and he did not want to repeat Woodrow Wilson's struggle to convince the Senate to approve American membership in the League of Nations. When the Atlantic Charter was issued in August 1941, Roosevelt had ensured that the charter omitted mentioning any American commitment towards the establishment of a new international body after the war. The attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 led to a change in Roosevelt's position. He transformed his trusteeship proposal into an organization centered around the Four Policemen: the United States, China, the Soviet Union, and Britain.
The idea that great powers should "police" the world had been discussed by President Roosevelt as early as August 1941, during his first meeting with Winston Churchill. Roosevelt made his first references to the Four Policemen proposal in early 1942. He presented his postwar plans to Molotov, who had arrived in Washington on May 29 to discuss the possibility of launching a second front in Europe. Roosevelt told Molotov that the Big Four must unite after the war to police the world and disarm aggressor states. When Molotov asked about the role of other countries, Roosevelt answered by opining that too many "policemen" could lead to infighting, but he was open to the idea of allowing other allied countries to participate. A memorandum of the conference summarizes their conversation:
The President told Molotov that he visualized the enforced disarmament of our enemies and, indeed, some of our friends after the war; that he thought that the United States, England, Russia and perhaps China should police the world and enforce disarmament by inspection. The President said that he visualized Germany, Italy, Japan, France, Czechoslovakia, Rumania and other nations would not be permitted to have military forces. He stated that other nations might join the first four mentioned after experience proved they could be trusted.
Roosevelt and Molotov continued their discussion of the Four Policemen in a second meeting on June 1. Molotov informed the President that Stalin was willing to support Roosevelt's plans for maintaining postwar peace through the Four Policemen and enforced disarmament. Roosevelt also raised the issue of postwar decolonization. He suggested that former colonies should undergo a period of transition under the governance of an international trusteeship prior to their independence.
China was brought in as a member of the Big Four and a future member of the Four Policemen. Roosevelt was in favor of recognizing China as a great power because he was certain that the Chinese would side with the Americans against the Soviets. He said to British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, "In any serious conflict of policy with Russia, [China] would undoubtedly line up on our side." The President believed that a pro-American China would be useful for the United States should the Americans, Soviets, and Chinese agree to jointly occupy Japan and Korea after the war. When Molotov voiced concerns about the stability of China, Roosevelt responded by saying that the combined "population of our nations and friends was well over a billion people."
Churchill objected to Roosevelt's inclusion of China as one of the Big Four because he feared that the Americans were trying to undermine Britain's colonial holdings in Asia. In October 1942, Churchill told Eden that Republican China represented a "faggot vote on the side of the United States in any attempt to liquidate the British overseas empire." Eden shared this view with Churchill and expressed skepticism that China, which was then in the midst of a civil war, could ever return to a stable nation. Roosevelt responded to Churchill's criticism by telling Eden that "China might become a very useful power in the Far East to help police Japan" and that he was fully supportive of offering more aid to China.
Roosevelt's Four Policemen proposal received criticism from the liberal internationalists, who wanted power to be more evenly distributed among the member nations of the UN. Internationalists were concerned that the Four Policemen could lead to a new Quadruple Alliance.
On New Year's Day 1942, the representatives of Allied "Big Four", the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and China, signed a short document which later came to be known as the Declaration by United Nations and the next day the representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures. A new plan for the United Nations was drafted by the State Department in April 1944. It kept the emphasis on great power solidarity that was central to Roosevelt's Four Policemen proposal for the United Nations. The members of the Big Four would serve as permanent members of the United Nation's Security Council. Each of the four permanent members would be given a United Nations Security Council veto power, which would override any UN resolution that went against the interests of one of the Big Four. However, the State Department had compromised with the liberal internationalists. Membership eligibility was widened to include all nation states fighting against the Axis powers instead of a select few. The Dumbarton Oaks Conference convened in August 1944 to discuss plans for the postwar United Nations with delegations from the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China. The Big Four were the only four sponsoring countries of the San Francisco Conference of 1945 and their heads of the delegations took turns as chairman of the plenary meetings. During this conference, the Big Four and their allies signed the United Nations Charter.
In the words of a former Undersecretary General of the UN, Sir Brian Urquhart:
It was a pragmatic system based on the primacy of the strong — a "trusteeship of the powerful," as he then called it, or, as he put it later, "the Four Policemen." The concept was, as [Senator Arthur H.] Vandenberg noted in his diary in April 1944, "anything but a wild-eyed internationalist dream of a world state.... It is based virtually on a four-power alliance." Eventually this proved to be both the potential strength and the actual weakness of the future UN, an organization theoretically based on a concert of great powers whose own mutual hostility, as it turned out, was itself the greatest potential threat to world peace.
The following lists events that happened during 1988 in South Africa.2015 Gurdaspur attack
On 27 July 2015, three gunmen dressed in army uniforms opened fire on a bus and then attacked the Dina Nagar police station in Gurdaspur district of Punjab, India. The attack resulted in the death of three civilians and four policemen, including a superintendent of police; fifteen others were injured. In addition, five bombs were found planted on the Amritsar–Pathankot line on a rail-bridge near Parmanand railway station, five kilometers from the site of the attack. All three attackers were killed in the operation, which lasted almost 12 hours.Such terrorist attacks have been rare in Punjab since the end, in the mid-1990s, of the Punjab insurgency over the formation of an independent Sikh nation of Khalistan. However, such attacks are common in the Disputed Territory of Jammu and Kashmir that borders Gurdaspur, where Islamist insurgents are seeking independence or accession to Pakistan and from where the gunmen were at first suspected to have entered. On the basis of the GPS system found in the terrorists' possession, it was found that they entered India through Pakistan.2018 Mako Brimob standoff
The 2018 Mako Brimob standoff was a three-day prison takeover and stand-off between the Indonesian National Police and inmates convicted of terrorist activities who were imprisoned at the Police's Mobile Brigade Corps's headquarters (Mako Brimob) in Depok, West Java, Indonesia. The inmates took control over one prison block and 6 police officers was taken hostages. As a result of the standoff, five police officers lost their lives, with one inmate dead after being shot by the police. Four policemen were also injured in the incident. The Islamic State claimed its fighters were in the standoff. Another policeman was stabbed to death at the headquarters of the elite Mobile Brigade police after the siege by an Islamic fighter who was later shot and killed.Clarke brothers
Brothers Thomas (c. 1840 – 25 June 1867) and John Clarke (c. 1846 – 25 June 1867) were Australian bushrangers from the Braidwood district of New South Wales. They committed a series of high-profile crimes which led to the embedding of the Felons' Apprehension Act (1866), a law that introduced the concept of outlawry in the colony and authorised citizens to kill bushrangers on sight.Active in the southern goldfields from 1865 until their capture, Thomas and John were joined for a time by their brother James and several associates. They were responsible for a reported 71 robberies and hold-ups, as well as the death of at least one policeman; they are also suspected of killing a squad of four policemen looking to bring them in. The Clarkes also murdered one of their own gang members and a man they wrongly assumed was a police tracker, and shot several other victims. They were captured during a shoot-out in April 1867 and hanged two months later at Sydney's Darlinghurst Gaol. Their execution ended organised gang bushranging in New South Wales.
Some modern-day writers have described the Clarkes as the most bloodthirsty bushrangers of all, and according to one journalist, "Their crimes were so shocking that they never made their way into bushranger folklore — people just wanted to forget about them."Delivering as One
Delivering as One is a United Nations report established by the then UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan in 2005 on the topics of development assistance, humanitarian aid and environmental issues. The panel issued its report in November 2006, and sets out a program of reform of the UN's development operations. It focuses on four main principles: One Leader, One Budget, One Programme and One Office. This effort is mostly led by the United Nations Development Group, a group of 32 United Nations specialised agencies working on International Development issues. As a result, countries — both Government and UN partners — have undertaken efforts to work together more effectively and efficiently. Eight countries—Albania, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Pakistan, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uruguay, and Viet Nam—volunteered to be pilots for the initiative.Global policeman
Global policeman is an informal term for a state which seeks or claims global hegemony. It has been used, firstly, of the British Empire and, since 1945, of the United States, the most influential of the Four Policemen victorious in World War II.In recent years there has been speculation that China may take over the role as it reaches out to protect shipping lanes, protect its overseas workers, and 'creeps into the superpower league'. The West, according to two columnists of the Financial Times, 'should view this as an opportunity, not a threat.'Hard Hat Riot
The Hard Hat Riot occurred on May 8, 1970, in New York City. It started around noon when about 200 construction workers, at the behest of the Nixon Administration, were mobilized by the New York State AFL-CIO to attack some 1,000 college and high school students and others who were protesting the May 4 Kent State shootings, the Vietnam War, and the April 30 announcement by President Richard Nixon of the U.S. invasion of Cambodia. The Hard Hat Riot, breaking out first near the intersection of Wall Street and Broad Street in Lower Manhattan, soon spilled into New York City Hall, and lasted approximately two hours. More than 70 people, including four policemen, were injured on what became known as "Bloody Friday". Six people were arrested.James Belcastro
James "Mad Bomber" Belcastro (1895 – August 23, 1945) was a Black Hand gang member, extortionist, and later chief bomber for the Chicago Outfit during Prohibition.
Known as "King of the Bombers", Belcastro was highly skilled at constructing improvised explosive devices. He used these skills to extort money from business owners in Chicago's Little Italy district during the 1910s. In the early 1920s, Johnny Torrio and Al Capone formed the Chicago Outfit and put the Black Hand gangs out of business. However, Capone invited Belcastro to join the Outfit and he soon became a prominent member. During the mid to late 1920s, Belcastro was suspected of causing over 100 deaths while bombing saloons that refused to buy alcohol from Capone.
During the 1927 Chicago primary elections—the so-called "Pineapple Primary"—Belcastro launched a bombing campaign against the opponents of Capone ally and Mayor, William Hale Thompson. He primarily attacked voting stations in wards where opinion was thought to oppose Thompson. killing at least 15 people. Lawyer Octavius Granady, an African American who dared challenged Thompson's candidate for the African American vote was chased through the streets on polling day by cars of gunmen before being shot dead. Belcastro was arrested in October 1927 and charged with Granady's murder, his co charged included four policemen; all charges were dropped after key witnesses recanted their statements. By the end of the 1920s, the Chicago Crime Commission had listed Belcastro on its famous "public enemies" list.January 2009 Dera Ismail Khan bombings
January 2009 Dera Ismail Khan bombings involved two incidents in Dera Ismail Khan. The first occurred on 4th day of month in front of Polytechnic College, killing ten people, including four policemen and two journalists, and injuring 28. The other occurred when a bomb planted on motorcycle exploded on 26 January near town hall, killing 6 people and injuring 24.John Sleaver
John Arthur Sleaver (August 18, 1934 in Copper Cliff, Ontario - November 19, 2001) was a professional ice hockey player who played 13 games in the National Hockey League. He played with the Chicago Black Hawks.
While playing for the EPHL Sudbury Wolves, Sleaver was involved in an incident with a spectator in Trois-Rivières, Quebec on December 27, 1959. He was alleged to have swung his stick at fan Michel Beauchamp, who was hit on the wrist. A warrant was issued for Sleaver's arrest. Four policemen were sent to the Wolves' dressing room after the game, but Sleaver had already changed and left. Provincial police stopped the Wolves' team bus on its way back to Sudbury, but Sleaver was not found aboard.June 2017 Pakistan attacks
On 23 June 2017, a series of terrorist attacks took place in Pakistan resulting in 96 dead and over 200 wounded. They included a suicide bombing in Quetta targeting policemen, followed by two blasts at a market in Parachinar, and the targeted killing of four policemen in Karachi.Responsibility for the Quetta attack was claimed by Jamaat-ul-Ahrar and ISIL, while no group accepted responsibility for the Parachinar attack. According to the Pakistani military, both attacks were coordinated from terrorist sanctuaries in Afghanistan.List of Iraqi security forces fatality reports in Iraq
This is a comprehensive list of Iraqi security forces members killed in the Iraq War. There are also totals here for each year.
The "Iraq Index" of the Brookings Institution also keeps a running total of Iraqi security force casualties.The highest reported number of policemen and soldiers killed in the war has been 15,196 for the period between January 2004 and December 2009 (with the exceptions of April 2004 and March 2009). With the previously reported 260 policemen and 23 Kurdish peshmerga fighters killed in 2003, and 67 dead in March 2009, and a further 1,100 deaths in 2010, and 897 deaths in 2011, the total number of security forces members killed can be estimated to be at least 17,543.Naalu Policeum Nalla Irundha Oorum
Naalu Policeum Nalla Irundha Oorum (English: Four policemen and a town that used to be trouble-free) is a 2015 Tamil comedy film written and directed by Srikrishna. The film features Arulnithi and Remya Nambeesan in the leading roles while Bagavathi Perumal, Singampuli, Rajkumar, Yogi Babu, and Thirumurugan play supporting roles. The film was highly panned by critics for its poor story and screenplay. The movie failed to perform well at the box office. It is loosely based on the 1939 British film Ask a Policeman and the swedish film kopps .Quadruple Alliance
Quadruple Alliance may refer to:
The 1673 alliance between the Netherlands, Austria, Spain, and Brandenburg, during the Franco-Dutch War.
The 1718 alliance between Austria, France, the Netherlands, and Great Britain during the War of the Quadruple Alliance.
The Treaty of Warsaw (1745) between Great Britain, Austria, the Netherlands, and Saxony (the Quadruple Alliance) to uphold the Pragmatic Sanction, allowing Maria Theresa to succeed to the Habsburg dominions.
The Quadruple Alliance (1815) between the United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, and Russia following the Napoleonic Wars.
The 1834 alliance between the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and Portugal to enforce the Concession of Evoramonte.
The Quadruple Alliance (1912-1913), also known as the Balkan League, representing a system of alliances between Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia
The Quadruple Alliance (1915-1918), formed when Bulgaria joined the other three Central Powers of World War I (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire).
The major Allies of World War II: the United States, Great Britain, China, and the USSR, dubbed the "Big Four" or the "Four Policemen".
In Harry Turtledove's Southern Victory Series, set in an alternate reality where the Confederate States win the American Civil War, a Quadruple Alliance (the United States, Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire), fights in an alternate Great War (1914-1917) against the Quadruple Entente (the Confederate States, Great Britain, France and Russia).Simacota
Simacota is a town and municipality in the Santander Department in northeastern Colombia. In 1965, the city had briefly been invaded by more than 100 members of the anti-government Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN), the "National Liberation Army") and "captured the public imagination" in its first act as a new guerrilla organization. The invaders murdered three of Simacota's four policemen, robbed the local bank, harassed the townspeople and looted the local pharmacy of its medicines, before being driven out by the Colombian Army. Only three of the 100 ELN men were captured.T. V. Newton
Thumbegedara Vittie Newton was a Sri Lankan police inspector, former OIC of the Angulana Police Station, who was sentenced to death for the murder of Dinesh Tharanga Fernando and Dhanushka Udayakantha Aponso.Terrorist incidents in Pakistan in 2007
In 2007, 34 terrorist attacks and clashes, including suicide attacks, killings, and assassinations, resulted in 134 casualties and 245 injuries, according to the PIPS security report. The report states that Pakistan faced 20 suicide attacks (mostly targeted at security forces) during 2007, which killed at least 111, besides injuring another 234 people. PIPS report shows visible increase in suicide attacks after Lal Masjid operation.Tunisian Islamic Front
According to American counter-terrorism analysts the Tunisian Islamic Front is a group with ties to terrorism.
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