Four Corners

The Four Corners is a region of the United States consisting of the southwestern corner of Colorado, southeastern corner of Utah, northeastern corner of Arizona, and northwestern corner of New Mexico. The Four Corners area is named after the quadripoint at the intersection of approximately 37° north latitude with 109° 03' west longitude, where the boundaries of the four states meet, and are marked by the Four Corners Monument. It is the only location in the United States where four states meet. Most of the Four Corners region belongs to semi-autonomous Native American nations, the largest of which is the Navajo Nation, followed by Hopi, Ute, and Zuni tribal reserves and nations. The Four Corners region is part of a larger region known as the Colorado Plateau and is mostly rural, rugged, and arid. In addition to the monument, commonly visited areas within Four Corners include Monument Valley, Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Canyon, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument and Canyon de Chelly National Monument. The most populous city in the Four Corners region is Farmington, New Mexico, followed by Durango, Colorado.

Four Corners
The Four Corners region is the red circle in this map. The Four Corners states are highlighted in orange.
Fourcorners Aster 2001
False-color satellite image of the Four Corners. Bright red lines are vegetation along the major rivers of the area.
Navajo (young boy) 2007
A young Navajo boy on horseback in Monument Valley. The Navajo Nation includes much of the Four Corners area, including the valley, used in many western movies.
Four Corners Monument (1)
Flags surrounding the Four Corners Monument. In clockwise order starting from the frontmost flag, the state flag of Arizona, Flag of the Navajo Nation (twice), Utah, Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Reservation, Colorado, New Mexico, Navajo Nation (third instance), and the flag of the United States of America
DurangoSilverton1
The Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad, now a heritage railway, formerly connected the Four Corners area to the national rail network.
Bluff UT - aerial with San Juan River and Comb Ridge
Bluff, Utah and Comb Ridge from the air.

History

The United States acquired the four corners region from Mexico after the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. In 1863 Congress created Arizona Territory from the western part of New Mexico Territory. The boundary was defined as a line running due south from the southwest corner of Colorado Territory, which had been created in 1861. This was an unusual act of Congress, which almost always defined the boundaries of new territories as lines of latitude or longitude, or following rivers. By defining one boundary as starting at the corner of another Congress ensured the eventual creation of four states meeting at a point, regardless of the inevitable errors of boundary surveying.[1] The area was first surveyed by the U.S. Government in 1868 as part of an effort to make Colorado Territory into a state, the first of the Four Corners states formed. The first marker was placed at the spot in 1912.[2] The first Navajo tribal government was established in 1923 to regulate an increasing number of oil exploration activities on Navajo land.[3]

Geography

The Four Corners Monument is located at 36°59′56.3″N 109°02′42.6″W / 36.998972°N 109.045167°WCoordinates: 36°59′56.3″N 109°02′42.6″W / 36.998972°N 109.045167°W.[4]

The Four Corners is part of the high Colorado Plateau. This makes it a center for weather systems, which stabilize on the plateau then proceed eastward through Colorado and into the central states. This weather system creates snow and rain fall over the central United States.[5]

Federally protected areas in the Four Corners area include Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Hovenweep National Monument, Mesa Verde National Park, and Canyons of the Ancients National Monument. Mountain Ranges in the Four Corners include Sleeping Ute Mountains, Abajo Mountains, and the Chuska Mountains.[6]

Politics

Six governments have jurisdictional boundaries at the Four Corners Monument: the states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah, as well as the tribal governments of the Navajo Nation and Ute Mountain Ute Tribe.[7] The Four Corners Monument itself is administered by the Navajo Nation Department of Parks and Recreation.[2] Other tribal nations within the Four Corners region include the Hopi and other Ute.[8] The Four Corners is home to the capital of the Navajo tribal government at Window Rock, Arizona.[3] The Ute Mountain Ute Tribal headquarters are located at Towaoc, Colorado.[9]

Cities

The Four Corners region is mostly rural. The economic hub, largest city, and only metropolitan area in the region is Farmington, New Mexico.[10] The populated settlement closest to the center of Four Corners is Teec Nos Pos, Arizona.[11] Other cities in the region include Cortez and Durango in Colorado; Monticello and Blanding in Utah; Kayenta and Chinle in Arizona; and Shiprock, Aztec, and Bloomfield in New Mexico.[10]

Transportation

Air service is available via the Durango-La Plata County Airport in Durango, Colorado, Four Corners Regional Airport in Farmington, New Mexico, and Cortez Municipal Airport in Cortez, Colorado. Interstate 40 passes along the southern edge of the Four Corners region. The primary U.S. Highways that directly serve the Four Corners include U.S. Route 64, U.S. Route 160 (which serves the Four Corners Monument itself), U.S. Route 163, U.S. Route 191, U.S. Route 491 (previously U.S. Route 666[12]), and U.S. Route 550.

The main line of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, now operated by the BNSF Railway, passes along the southern edge of Four Corners. The area is home to remnants of through railroads that are now heritage railways. These include the Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad and the Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad. The Black Mesa and Lake Powell Railroad, which connects a power plant with a coal mine near Kayenta, comes near the Four Corners.[6]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Hubbard, Bill, Jr. (2009). American Boundaries: the Nation, the States, the Rectangular Survey. University of Chicago Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-226-35591-7.
  2. ^ a b "Four corners Monument". Navajo Nation. Retrieved 2016-12-06.
  3. ^ a b "Welcome to the Navajo Nation". Navajo Nation. Retrieved 2016-12-06.
  4. ^ "Four Corners PID AD9256" (text file). NGS Survey Monument Data Sheet. United States National Geodetic Survey. 2003-05-07. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
  5. ^ Ward, Kathleen. "Rainmaker, Go North – Nebraska Needs Help, Too". Kansas State University Research and Extension. Archived from the original on September 12, 2006. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
  6. ^ a b Arizona Road and Recreation Atlas (Map) (2004 ed.). 1:400,000. Benchmark Maps. 2004. § D3. ISBN 0-929591-84-4.
  7. ^ "Ute Mountain Ute Indian Reservation" (PDF). U.S. Department of Energy. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
  8. ^ "Four Corners Indian Tribes". Farmington, New Mexico Convention and Visitors Bureau. Retrieved 2016-12-06.
  9. ^ "Ute Mountain Ute Tribe – Overview and Statistics". Ute Mountain Ute Tribe. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
  10. ^ a b "Four Corners Area Map". Farmington, New Mexico Convention and Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on September 24, 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
  11. ^ "Google Maps". Google using data from Navteq. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
  12. ^ Richard F. Weingroff. "U.S. 666: Beast of a Highway?". (USDOT – FHWA). Retrieved 2007-11-17.

External links

East Lyme, Connecticut

East Lyme is a town in New London County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 19,159 at the 2010 census. The villages of Niantic and Flanders are located in the town.

Four Corners, Contra Costa County, California

Four Corners is an unincorporated community in Contra Costa County, California, United States. It is located 4 miles (6.4 km) north-northeast of Walnut Creek, at an elevation of 49 feet (15 m).

Four Corners, Douglas County, Wisconsin

Four Corners is an unincorporated community located in the town of Superior, Douglas County, Wisconsin, United States. Four Corners is located at the junction of County Roads A and B, 13 miles (21 km) south of the city of Superior.

Four Corners, Florida

Four Corners, also known as Citrus Ridge, is an unincorporated suburban community and census-designated place (CDP) in the U.S. state of Florida, located at a quadripoint formed by Lake, Orange, Osceola, and Polk counties. The population of the Four Corners CDP was 26,116 at the 2010 census.The Lake, Orange, and Osceola County portions of Four Corners are part of the Orlando–Kissimmee–Sanford, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area, while the Polk County portion is part of the Lakeland–Winter Haven Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Four Corners, Maryland

Four Corners is an unincoporated neighborhood located in Montgomery County, Maryland. Many residents of the Four Corners neighborhood consider Four Corners to be a part of Silver Spring. The U.S. Census Bureau defines Four Corners as a distinct census-designated place. Prior to the 2010 U.S. Census, it was defined as a part of the Silver Spring CDP.

Four Corners, Minnesota

Four Corners is an unincorporated community in Saint Louis County, Minnesota, United States; located 10 miles northwest of the city of Duluth at the junction of U.S. Highway 53 and Saint Louis County Road 13 (Midway Road).

Four Corners is more commonly known in the present day as the Pike Lake business district of Canosia Township.

Four Corners is located near the survey point boundary line for Canosia Township, the city of Hermantown, Grand Lake Township, and Solway Township. The actual survey point boundary line where the three townships and the city of Hermantown meet is located nearby at the intersection of Seville Road and Solway Road.

State Highway 194 (MN 194) and Martin Road (County Road 9) are also near Four Corners – Pike Lake business district.

Four Corners, San Diego County, California

Four Corners is an unincorporated community residential community in San Diego County, California, United States. Four Corners borders San Diego Country Estates communities to the south in the North County Inland region of the San Diego metropolitan area. Part of Four Corners is also located within the San Diego Country Estates limits or census-designated place.

Four Corners, Virginia

Four Corners is an unincorporated community in Fairfax County, in the U.S. state of Virginia.

Four Corners, Wyoming

Four Corners is a small unincorporated community in Weston County, Wyoming, United States. It is located in northeastern Wyoming near the Bear Lodge Mountains, part of the Black Hills, at the intersection of U.S. Route 85 and Wyoming Highway 585. It is located north of Newcastle, southeast of Sundance, Wyoming, and southwest of Lead, South Dakota. Originally a stage station on the famous stagecoach road Cheyenne Black Hills Stage Route connecting Cheyenne and the Union Pacific Railroad with the gold fields of Deadwood, it is today the site of a small store, bed-and-breakfast ranches, vacation homes, and tourist camps. Camp Mallo is nearby.

Four Corners (Australian TV program)

Four Corners is an Australian investigative journalism/current affairs documentary television program, the longest of its kind nationally. Broadcast on ABC in HDTV, it premiered on 19 August 1961 and celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2011. Founding producer Robert Raymond (1961–62) and his successor Allan Ashbolt (1963) did much to set the ongoing tone of the program. The program is one of only five in Australia inducted into the Logie Hall of Fame.

Four Corners (patience)

Four Corners, also known as Les Quatre Coins, Cornerstones, or Corner Patience, is a solitaire card game which is played with two decks of playing cards. It is so called because of the pile of four cards at the corners of the tableau. The version discussed in this article is the more prevalent versions printed in two books: Card Games for One by Peter Arnold and The Complete Book of Solitaire and Patience Games by Albert Morehead and Geoffrey Mott-Smith.

Four Corners Monument

The Four Corners Monument marks the quadripoint in the Southwestern United States where the states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah meet. It is the only point in the United States shared by four states, leading to the area being named the Four Corners region. The monument also marks the boundary between two semi-autonomous Native American governments, the Navajo Nation, which maintains the monument as a tourist attraction, and the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Reservation.

The origins of the state boundaries marked by the monument occurred just prior to, and during, the American Civil War, when the United States Congress acted to form governments in the area to combat the spread of slavery to the region. When the early territories were formed, their boundaries were designated along meridian and parallel lines. Beginning in the 1860s, these lines were surveyed and marked. These early surveys included some errors, but even so, the markers placed became the legal boundaries, superseding the written descriptions of geographical meridians and parallels. This includes the Four Corners Monument, which has been legally established as the corner of the four states.

Four corners offense

The four corners offense, technically four corner stall, is an offensive strategy for stalling in basketball. Four players stand in the corners of the offensive half-court while the fifth dribbles the ball in the middle. Most of the time the point guard stays in the middle, but the middle player would periodically switch, temporarily, with one of the corner players. It was a strategy that was used in college basketball before the shot clock was instituted.

The team running the offense typically would seek to score, but only on extremely safe shots. The players in the corners might try to make backdoor cuts, or the point guard could drive the lane.

Even if the team wanted to hold the ball until the end of the game, some such strategy was necessary since the rules did not (and still do not) let a player hold the ball for more than five seconds while closely guarded. So some mechanism to facilitate safe passes would be needed, which the four corners provided. There were other slowdown strategies, but the four corners was the most well known.

It was most frequently used to retain a lead by holding on to the ball until the clock ran out. The trailing team would be forced to spread their defense in hopes of getting a steal, which often allowed easy drives to the basket. Sometimes it was used throughout the game to reduce the number of possessions in hopes of getting an upset against a stronger team.The "5 seconds closely guarded" rule was originally introduced partly to prevent stalling, and other rule changes were made to the college rules through the 1970s in hopes of eliminating stalling without using a shot clock as the National Basketball Association had since the 1954–55 season. (Thus, the four corners has always been a strategy of high school and college basketball.) There was a perception that the NBA shot clock did not allow time to work the ball to get a good shot, and that it would reduce the opportunity for varied styles of play.

The offense was created by head coach (Neal Baisi of WV Tech fame in the mid-1950s) John McClendon, and popularized (at the Div.1 level) by longtime University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill head coach Dean Smith in the early 1960s. He used it to great effect under point guard Phil Ford; it was during his career that some writers referred to the offense as the "Ford Corners."However, by the 1980s, fans were fed up. In the nationally televised 1982 ACC championship game between the University of North Carolina Tar Heels and the University of Virginia Cavaliers, UNC held the ball for roughly the last seven minutes of the second half to nurse a small lead, eventually winning 47–45. This style of offense was so distinctive that a local restaurant-bar in Chapel Hill, NC, was called Four Corners in homage to Smith, a local hero.The next year, the ACC and other conferences introduced a shot clock experimentally, along with a three-point line to force the defense to spread out. In 1985, the National Collegiate Athletic Association adopted a shot clock nationally and added the 3-pointer a year later.On February 21, 2015 the Tar Heels, coached by Smith protege Roy Williams, successfully ran the offense on the opening possession against the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets as a tribute to the recently deceased Smith.

Kapp Records

Kapp Records was an independent record label started in 1954 by David Kapp, brother of Jack Kapp (who had set up American Decca Records in 1934). David Kapp founded his own label after stints with Decca and RCA Victor. Kapp licensed its records to London Records for release in the UK.

In 1967, David Kapp sold his label to MCA Inc. and the label was placed under Uni Records management; Kapp was consolidated with MCA's other record labels in 1971 and, in 1973, MCA Records released the last Kapp record. Catalogue albums that continued to sell were renumbered and reissued on the MCA label.Kapp's subsidiaries included Medallion Records (an audiophile label), Congress Records, Leader Records, and Four Corners Records with its "4 Corners of the World" logo. Four Corners was formed to promote European artists, such as Françoise Hardy, Raymond Lefèvre, and the Barclay Singers.

Today, the Kapp Records catalog is owned by MCA's successor-in-interest Universal Music Group through its Geffen Records subsidiary.

Mansfield, Connecticut

Mansfield is a town in Tolland County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 26,543 at the 2010 census.

Mansfield was incorporated in October 1702 from the Town of Windham, in Hartford County. The community was named after Major Moses Mansfield, the original owner of the town site. When Windham County was formed on 12 May 1726, Mansfield then became part of that county. A century later, at a town meeting on 3 April 1826, selectmen voted to ask the General Assembly to annex Mansfield to Tolland County. That occurred the following year.

The town of Mansfield contains the community of Storrs, which is home to the main campus of the University of Connecticut and the associated Connecticut Repertory Theatre.

Mount Tom (New York)

Mount Tom is a mountain in the Central New York region of New York. It is located north of Springfield Four Corners, New York.

Professional wrestling tag team match types

Much like singles matches, tag team professional wrestling matches can and have taken many forms. Just about any singles or melee match type can be adapted to tag teams; for example, hardcore tag team matches are commonplace. Tag team ladder match and variations are also frequently used as a title feud blow-off match. Stipulations, such as "I quit" or "loser leaves town" may also be applied.

The following are match variations that are specific to tag team wrestling.

Sin Nombre orthohantavirus

Sin Nombre orthohantavirus (SNV) (from the Spanish meaning "the nameless virus") is the prototypical etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS).Because it was discovered near the Four Corners point in the United States, its original name was "Four Corners virus". The name was changed after local residents raised objections.

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