Four-star rank

A four-star rank is the rank of any four-star officer described by the NATO OF-9 code. Four-star officers are often the most senior commanders in the armed services, having ranks such as (full) admiral, (full) general, or air chief marshal. This designation is also used by some armed forces that are not North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) members.

US-O10 insignia
A US general's rank insignia[a]

Australia

In the Australian Defence Force the following ranks of commissioned officers are awarded four-star ranks:

The four-star rank is reserved in Australia for the Chief of the Defence Force, the highest position in peacetime.

In times of major conflict, the highest ranks are the five-star ranks: admiral of the fleet, field marshal, and marshal of the Royal Australian Air Force.

Brazil

General do Exército
Brazilian general de exército

The four-star rank is reserved in Brazil for the highest post in the military career. The officers in this position take part of the high command of their corporations. The commanders of army, navy and air force are also four-star generals, but they have precedence to all the others military in this rank.

Canada

General/admiral is the highest rank within the Canadian Armed Forces as defined within the National Defence Act.[1] Usually, only one officer, the Chief of the Defence Staff, carries the rank of full admiral or general at any one time. However, the crown may authorize additional officers at that rank for special cases such as for Canadian officers in the position of Chairman of the NATO Military Committee, who are usually former Chiefs of the Defence Staff seconded to NATO for that duty.

The Queen of Canada, Elizabeth II, is Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed Forces.[2] However, in line with the Letters Patent, 1947, the duties and title of commander-in-chief are normally exercised by the Governor General of Canada.[3] The Minister of National Defence, since not a member of the Canadian forces nor within the military chain of command, has no rank. Prince Philip holds the four-star rank of admiral in the Royal Canadian Navy in an honorary capacity as of 2011.

Before unification in 1968, the rank of air chief marshal (maréchal en chef de l'air) was the four-star equivalent for the Royal Canadian Air Force.

Germany

The equivalent modern German four-star ranks (OF-9) of the Bundeswehr are as follows:

Not to be confused with Generaloberst, the Wehrmacht equivalent until 1945, or Armeegeneral, the National People's Army (East Germany) equivalent until 1990.

India

Indonesia

Italy

  • Generale di Corpo d'Armata con Incarichi Speciali (General with Special Duties) - Chief-of-Staff of the Italian Army
  • Ammiraglio di Squadra con Incarichi Speciali (Admiral with Special Duties) - Chief-of-Staff of the Italian Navy
  • Generale di Squadra Aerea con Incarichi Speciali (General with Special Duties) - Chief-of-Staff of the Italian Air Force
  • Generale di Corpo d'Armata Comandante Generale (Commander General) - Commander of the Carabinieri

Pakistan

Philippines

United Kingdom

See also:

United States

See also:

Former USSR and Russia

While the general armii wore shoulder insignia with four small stars, the marshal and admiral flota wore one single large star on their shoulder boards, and the glavnii marshal the same large star with a laurel wreath, very similar to the modern army general insignia of the Russian Army.

Upon their formation, the Russian armed forces discontinued the ranks of marshal and glavnii marshal.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ This rank insignia is not worn by all NATO officers.

References

  1. ^ Canada - Department of Justice "Laws of Canada: National Defence Act, Schedule I"
  2. ^ Lagassé, Philippe (December 2013). "The Crown's Powers of Command-in Chief: Interpreting Section 15 of Canada's Constitution Act, 1867" (PDF). Review of Constitutional Studies. 18 (2): 189–220.
  3. ^ The Governor General, Commander-in-Chief "[1]"
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-08-21. Retrieved 2012-08-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ RAF Glossary Archived 2008-04-13 at the Wayback Machine, "Air of Authority - A History of RAF Organisation", rafweb.org
Admiral

Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM". The rank is generally thought to have originated in Sicily from a conflation of Arabic: أمير البحر‎, amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea", with Latin admirabilis ("admirable") or admiratus ("admired"), although alternative etymologies derive the word directly from Latin, or from the Turkish military and naval rank miralay. The French version – amiral without the additional d – tends to add evidence for the Arab origin.

In the Commonwealth and the U.S., a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general in the army, and is above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet (or fleet admiral). In NATO, admirals have a rank code of OF-9 as a four-star rank.

Air chief marshal

Air chief marshal (Air Chf Mshl or ACM) is a four-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force, where it is the most senior peacetime air force rank. The rank is also used by the air forces of many countries that have historical British influence and it is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-British air force-specific rank structure.

Air chief marshal is a four-star air officer rank and has a NATO ranking code of OF-9. An air chief marshal is equivalent to an admiral in the Royal Navy or a general in the British Army or the Royal Marines. In other forces, such as the United States Armed Forces and the Canadian Armed Forces, the equivalent four-star rank is general.

The rank of air chief marshal is immediately senior to the rank of air marshal but subordinate to marshal of the Royal Air Force. Air chief marshals are sometimes generically considered to be air marshals.

Army general

Army general is a title used in many countries to denote the rank of general nominally commanding an army in the field. Army general is normally the highest rank used in peacetime.

The equivalent position in the Commonwealth, U.S., and several other countries is simply termed general, four-star rank, or informally "full general".

The title "army general" should not be confused with the rank "general of the army", which is more senior, and corresponds to other countries' marshal or field marshal.

Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee

The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (CJCSC) is, in principle, the highest-ranking and senior most military officer, typically at four-star rank, in the Pakistan Armed Forces who serves as a principal military adviser to the civilian government led by elected Prime minister of Pakistan and his/her National Security Council. The role of advisement is also extended to the elected members in the bicameral Parliament and the Ministry of Defence. The Chairman leads the meetings and coordinates the combined efforts of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (JCSC), comprising the Chairman, the Chief of Army Staff and Chief of Air Staff and the Chief of Naval Staff, Commandant of Marines, DG Strategic Plans Division, and commanders of the service branches in the paramilitary command.Even as the Principal Staff Officer (PSO), the Chairman does not have any authority over the command of the combatant forces. The individual service chiefs are solely responsible for the coordination and logistics of the armed and combatant forces. Due to this constraint, the chiefs of army, air force, navy and marines are much in command and control of their respected commands.The Chairman's mandate is to transmit strategic communications to the combatant commanders from the Prime minister and President as well as allocate additional funding to the combatant commanders if necessary. The Chairman is nominated and appointed by the Prime Minister; and is finally confirmed by the President. Unlike United States's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the appointment of Chairman does not need confirmation via majority vote by the Parliament. Although, the appointment needs confirmation from the Prime minister. By statute, the Chairman is appointed as a four-star general, four-star air chief marshal and/or four star admiral. By law required, all four-star officers are required to have vast experience in joint uniformed services of Pakistan during their 40-year-long military careers.The post of CJCSC was created by former Prime minister of Pakistan Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in March 1976, and the first Chairman was four star rank officer, General Muhammad Shariff. The current holder of the office is General Zubair Mahmood Hayat appointed in 2016.

Graduated from Cantt Public School (F G Cantt Public School) Malir Cantt Karachi in 1976.

Chairman of the European Union Military Committee

The Chairman of the European Union Military Committee (CEUMC) is the four-star rank officer representing and presiding over the European Union's (EU) Military Committee (EUMC), composed of the chiefs of defence of the EU member states. The chairman is selected by the national chiefs of defence and appointed by the Council of the European Union for a three year term.

Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan)

The Chief of Army Staff (Urdu: سربراہ پاک فوج‎) (reporting name: COAS), is a military appointment and statutory office held by the four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.The Chief of Army Staff is a senior most appointment in the Pakistani military who is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee in a separate capacity, usually consulting with the Chairman joint chiefs to act as a military adviser to the Prime Minister and its civilian government in the line of defending the land borders of the country. The Chief of Army Staff exercise its responsibility of command and control of the operational, combatant, logistics, and training commands within the army, in contrast to the Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army. Due to its stature, the Chief of Army Staff have been instrumental in enforcing martial laws against the civilian government due to the meltdown of a civil-military relations in the past decades.The appointment, in principle, is constitutionally subjected to be for three years but extension may be granted from the approval and recommendations of the Prime Minister by the President. The Chief of Army Staff is based in the Army GHQ, and the current Chief of Army Staff is General Qamar Javed Bajwa, serving in this capacity since 29 November 2016

Colonel general

Colonel general is a three or four-star rank in some armies, usually equivalent to that of a full general in other armies. North Korea and Russian Federation have used the rank in that fashion throughout their histories. The rank is also closely associated with Germany, where Generaloberst has formerly been a higher rank above full General but below Generalfeldmarschall.

Director of the Joint Staff

The Director of the Joint Staff (DJS) is a three-star officer who assists the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a cabinet of senior military officers within the United States Armed Forces who advise the Secretary of Defense and President on military matters. The Director assists the Chairman in managing the Joint Staff and with the management and organization of the staff's members. The Director also chairs meetings of the Operations Deputies, a subsidiary body comprising the Director and a three-star delegate from each service who preview or resolve issues before they are escalated to the four-star level of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.The Director of the Joint Staff is selected by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in consultation with the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and subject to the approval of the Secretary of Defense. As with all three- and four-star positions, the Director's appointment is subject to Senate confirmation.

The position of Director is considered one of the most desirable three-star positions in the United States military establishment, for the position has historically served as a stepping stone to a four-star position. As of February 2016, 34 of the 43 past Directors and 7 past, short-term, acting Directors (all "acting" were two-star) have been promoted to four-star rank, including a former Director promoted to that rank upon retirement from active duty. Many of them have been promoted to four-star rank within a year of leaving the position of Director of the Joint Staff.

The current Director of the Joint Staff is Vice Admiral Michael M. Gilday, U.S. Navy.

General (United Kingdom)

General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army. The rank can also be held by Royal Marines officers in tri-service posts, for example, General Sir Gordon Messenger the Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff. It ranks above lieutenant-general and, in the Army, is subordinate to the rank of field marshal, which is now only awarded as an honorary rank. The rank of general has a NATO-code of OF-9, and is a four-star rank. It is equivalent to a full admiral in the Royal Navy or an air chief marshal in the Royal Air Force.

Officers holding the ranks of lieutenant-general and major-general may be generically considered to be generals.

General of the Army (United States)

General of the Army (abbreviated as GA) is a five-star general officer and the second highest possible rank in the United States Army. A General of the Army ranks immediately above a general and is equivalent to a Fleet Admiral and a General of the Air Force. There is no established equivalent five-star rank in the other federal uniformed services (Marine Corps, Coast Guard, United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps). Often called a "five-star general", the rank of General of the Army has historically been reserved for wartime use and is not currently active in the U.S. military. The General of the Army insignia consisted of five 3/8th inch stars in a pentagonal pattern, with points touching. The insignia was paired with the gold and enameled United States Coat of Arms on service coat shoulder loops. The silver colored five-star metal insignia alone would be worn for use as a collar insignia of grade and on the garrison cap. Soft shoulder epaulettes with five 7/16th inch stars in silver thread and gold-threaded United States Coat of Arms on green cloth were worn with shirts and sweaters.

The rank of "General of the Army" has had two incarnations. The rank was introduced in 1866, the year after the American Civil War. It was reserved for the single senior officer of the U.S. Army, was a four-star rank, and was held by three different individuals from 1866 to 1888. The rank was revived as the modern five-star rank during World War II, and may be awarded to more than one serving officer at a time. It was held by five different individuals from 1944 to 1981. A special rank of General of the Armies, which ranks above General of the Army, exists but has been conferred only twice, a four-star rank with unique gold (rather than silver) stars to World War I's John J. Pershing, and posthumously to George Washington, by proclamation 177 years after his death, with no specific star insignia designated.

General officer

A General Officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank.

It originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général.

The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction.

Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank. However different countries use different systems of stars or other insignia for senior ranks. It has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank currently in use in a number of armies, air forces and marine organizations.

Lieutenant admiral

Lieutenant admiral is a senior naval military rank in some countries of the world.

In the Royal Netherlands Navy the rank of lieutenant admiral (Dutch: luitenant-admiraal) is a four star rank, senior to vice admiral (Dutch: vice-admiraal) and equivalent to (full) admiral in most other navies. The rank of admiral is ceremonially reserved for a prince of the house of Oranje-Nassau or the king; but is usually no longer active. It is used whenever the Commandant der Strijdkrachten (Dutch for Commander of the Armed Forces) is a Navy-officer.

The rank was used in the Kingdom of England during the sixteenth century for the office of the Lieutenant of the Admiralty.

During the seventeenth century, the senior Dutch fleet commanders Michiel de Ruyter and Cornelis Tromp, had the rank of lieutenant admiral-general (Dutch: luitenant-admiraal-generaal) to distinguish them from other naval officers with the rank of lieutenant admiral.

The Swedish word for Lieutenant admiral is: amiralitetslöjtnant.

List of United States Air Force four-star generals

This is a complete list of four-star generals in the United States Air Force. The rank of general (or full general, or four-star general) is the highest rank normally achievable in the U.S. Air Force. It ranks above lieutenant general (three-star general) and below General of the Air Force (five-star general).

There have been 219 four-star generals in the history of the U.S. Air Force. Of these, 215 achieved that rank while on active duty, 3 were promoted after retirement, and one was promoted posthumously. Generals entered the Air Force via several paths: 60 were commissioned via the U.S. Military Academy (USMA), 49 via the aviation cadet program, 41 via the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA), 40 via Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC) at a civilian university, 12 via AFROTC at a senior military college, 8 via Air Force Officer Training School (OTS), 4 via the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), 2 via direct commission (direct), one via Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) at a civilian university, one via direct commission inter-service transfer from the Army National Guard (ARNG), and one via direct commission inter-service transfer from the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF).

List of United States Marine Corps four-star generals

This is a complete list of four-star generals in the United States Marine Corps. The rank of general (or full general, or four-star general) is the highest rank in the Marine Corps. It ranks above lieutenant general (three-star general).

There have been 71 four-star generals in the history of the United States Marine Corps. Of these, 53 achieved that rank while on active duty, 17 were promoted upon retirement in recognition of combat citations ("tombstone promotions", 1942-1959), and one was promoted posthumously. Generals entered the Marine Corps via several paths: 29 via Officer Candidates School (OCS), 23 via Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC) at a civilian university, 10 via the United States Naval Academy (USNA), 3 via Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) at a civilian university, and 6 via ROTC at a senior military college.

Military ranks and insignia of the Sri Lanka Air Force

The following tables present the military ranks and insignia of the Sri Lanka Air Force. Upon the formation of the Sri Lanka Air Force in 1951, rank titles and badges for ORs were adopted from the Royal Air Force officer ranks and enlisted ranks, specifically the Royal Flying Corps. Sri Lanka does have an Air Chief Marshal rank, but it is only awarded to the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) or as an honorary rank; Air Chief Marshal Roshan Goonetileke was the only Sri Lankan Air Force officer to hold a four-star rank while in active service.

Military ranks and insignia of the Sri Lanka Army

The following tables present the military ranks and insignia of the Sri Lanka Army. These ranks generally correspond with those of Western or Commonwealth Nations militaries, and reflect those of the British Warrant Officer, Non Commissioned Officer and enlisted ranks and the Commissioned officer ranks. Sri Lanka does have a General rank, but it is usually only awarded to the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) or as an honorary rank; Field Marshal Sarath Fonseka was the only Sri Lankan army officer to hold a four-star rank while in active service.

Military ranks and insignia of the Sri Lanka Navy

The following tables present the military ranks and insignia of the Sri Lanka Navy. These ranks generally correspond with those of Western or Commonwealth Nations militaries, and reflect those of the British warrant officer, non-commissioned officer and enlisted ranks and the Commissioned officer ranks. Sri Lanka does have an Admiral rank, but it is usually only awarded to the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) or as an honorary rank; Admiral Wasantha Karannagoda was the only Sri Lankan naval officer to hold a four-star rank while in active service.

Tikka Khan

General Tikka Khan (Urdu: ٹِکّا خان ‎),

(February 1915 – 28 March 2002) HJ, S.Pk, was a four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army who served as the first chief of army staff from 3 March 1972 till retiring on 1 March 1976.Gaining commission as an artillery officer in the British Indian Army to participate in World War II in 1940, his military career commanded the infantry divisions in the war with India in 1965. In 1969, he was posted to command the IV Corps while acting as martial law administrator in West Pakistan under President Yahya Khan. In 1971, he took over the command of army's Eastern Command in East Pakistan and appointed as Governor of East Pakistan where he oversaw the planning and the military deployments to execute the military operations to quell the liberation war efforts by Awami League. His tough rhetoric to deal with political enemies earned him the notoriety and a nickname of "Touka" (means cleaver) and was soon relieved of his command by President Yahya Khan.

After commanding the II Corps in the war with India in 1971, Tikka Khan was promoted to four-star rank and appointed as the first chief of army staff of the Pakistan Army in 1972. As an army chief, he provided his support to the clandestine nuclear weapons programme alongside with Ghulam Ishaq Khan— a bureaucrat. Upon retirement from the military in 1976, he was subsequently appointed as National Security Advisor by Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, only to be removed in 1977 as a result of enforced martial law. In the 1980s, he remained active as a political worker of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and emerged as its leader when appointed as Governor of Punjab after the general elections held in 1988. After Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto was dismissed by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan in 1990, his tenure was terminated and was succeeded by Mian Muhammad Azhar. He retired from the politics in 1990. He died on 28 March 2002 and was buried with full military honours in Westridge cemetery in Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.

Vice admiral

Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal. A vice admiral is typically senior to a rear admiral and junior to an admiral. In many navies, vice admiral is a three-star rank with a NATO code of OF-8, although in some navies like the French Navy it is an OF-7 rank, the OF-8 code corresponding to the four-star rank of squadron vice-admiral.

Star officer grades
By star ranks
By titles
Ancient
Modern

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