The Founding Fathers of the United States (or simply Founding Fathers), were a group of leaders who united the Thirteen Colonies, led the war for independence from Great Britain and built a Frame of Government for the new United States of America upon republican principles during the latter decades of the 18th century. Most Founding Fathers at one point considered themselves British subjects; but they came to understand themselves more as patriotic Americans who possessed a spirit distinct from that of their motherland. The group was composed of businessmen, philosophers, politicians, plantation owners and writers from a variety of social, economic, and ethnic backgrounds.
Historian Richard B. Morris in 1973 identified the following seven figures as the key Founding Fathers: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington. Adams, Jefferson, and Franklin were members of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence. Hamilton, Madison, and Jay were authors of The Federalist Papers, advocating ratification of the Constitution. The constitutions drafted by Jay and Adams for their respective states of New York (1777) and Massachusetts (1780) were heavily relied upon when creating language for the U.S. Constitution. Jay, Adams, and Franklin negotiated the Treaty of Paris (1783) that would end the American Revolutionary War. Washington was Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and was President of the Constitutional Convention. All held additional important roles in the early government of the United States, with Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and Madison serving as President. Jay was the nation's first Chief Justice, Hamilton was the first Secretary of the Treasury, and Franklin was America's most senior diplomat, and later the governmental leader of Pennsylvania.
The term Founding Fathers is sometimes used to refer to the Signers of the embossed version of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Signers should not be confused with the term Framers; the Framers are defined by the National Archives as those 55 individuals who were appointed to be delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention and took part in drafting the proposed Constitution of the United States. Of the 55 Framers, only 39 were signers of the Constitution. Two further groupings of Founding Fathers include: 1) those who signed the Continental Association, a trade ban and one of the colonists' first collective volleys protesting British control and the Intolerable Acts in 1774, or 2) those who signed the Articles of Confederation, the first U.S. constitutional document.
The phrase "Founding Fathers" is a 20th-century appellation, coined by Warren G. Harding in 1916. Prior to, and during the 19th century, they were referred to as simply the "Fathers". The term has been used to describe the founders and first settlers of the original royal colonies.
The First Continental Congress met briefly in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1774, consisting of 56 delegates from all thirteen American colonies except Georgia. Among them was George Washington, who would soon be drawn out of military retirement to command the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Also in attendance was Patrick Henry, and John Adams, who like all delegates were elected by their respective colonial assemblies. Other delegates included Samuel Adams from Massachusetts, John Dickinson from Pennsylvania and New York's John Jay. This congress in addition to formulating appeals to the British crown, established the Continental Association to administer boycott actions against Britain.
When the Second Continental Congress convened on May 10, 1775, it essentially reconstituted the First Congress. Many of the same 56 delegates who attended the first meeting participated in the second. New arrivals included Benjamin Franklin and Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, John Hancock of Massachusetts, and John Witherspoon of New Jersey. Hancock was elected Congress President two weeks into the session when Peyton Randolph was recalled to Virginia to preside over the House of Burgesses. Thomas Jefferson replaced Randolph in the Virginia congressional delegation. The second Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. Witherspoon was the only active clergyman to sign the Declaration. He also signed the Articles of Confederation and attended the New Jersey (1787) convention that ratified the Federal Constitution.
The newly founded country of the United States had to create a new government to replace the British Parliament. The U.S. adopted the Articles of Confederation, a declaration that established a national government with a one-house legislature. Its ratification by all thirteen colonies gave the second Congress a new name: the Congress of the Confederation, which met from 1781 to 1789. The Constitutional Convention took place during the summer of 1787, in Philadelphia. Although the Convention was called to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset for some including James Madison and Alexander Hamilton was to create a new frame of government rather than amending the existing one. The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the United States Constitution and the replacement of the Continental Congress with the United States Congress.
The Founding Fathers represented a cross-section of 18th-century U.S. leadership. According to a study of the biographies by Caroline Robbins:
Almost all of them were leaders in their communities. Many were also prominent in national affairs. Virtually every one took part in the American Revolution; at the Constitutional Convention at least 29 had served in the Continental Army, most of them in positions of command. Scholars have examined the collective biography of them as well as the signers of the Declaration and the Constitution.
Many of the Founding Fathers attended or held degrees from the colonial colleges, most notably Columbia known at the time as "King's College", Princeton originally known as "The College of New Jersey", Harvard College, the College of William and Mary, Yale College and University of Pennsylvania. Some had previously been home schooled or obtained early instruction from private tutors or academies. Others had studied abroad. Ironically, Benjamin Franklin who had little formal education himself would ultimately establish the College of Philadelphia based on European models (1740); "Penn" would have the first medical school (1765) in the thirteen colonies where another Founder, Benjamin Rush would eventually teach.
With a limited number of professional schools established in the U.S., Founders also sought advanced degrees from traditional institutions in England and Scotland such as the University of Edinburgh, the University of St. Andrews, and the University of Glasgow.
Many of them had moved from one colony to another. Eighteen had already lived, studied or worked in more than one colony: Baldwin, Bassett, Bedford, Davie, Dickinson, Few, Franklin, Ingersoll, Hamilton, Livingston, Alexander Martin, Luther Martin, Mercer, Gouverneur Morris, Robert Morris, Read, Sherman, and Williamson.
Several others had studied or traveled abroad.
The Founding Fathers practiced a wide range of high and middle-status occupations, and many pursued more than one career simultaneously. They did not differ dramatically from the Loyalists, except they were generally younger and less senior in their professions.
Historian Caroline Robbins in 1977 examined the status of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence and concluded:
Several of the Founding Fathers had extensive national, state, local and foreign political experience prior to the adoption of the Constitution in 1787. Some had been diplomats. Several had been members of the Continental Congress or elected President of that body.
Nearly all of the 55 Constitutional Convention delegates had some experience in colonial and state government, and the majority had held county and local offices. Those who lacked national congressional experience were Bassett, Blair, Brearly, Broom, Davie, Dayton, Alexander Martin, Luther Martin, Mason, McClurg, Paterson, Charles Pinckney, Strong, and Yates.
Franklin T. Lambert (2003) has examined the religious affiliations and beliefs of some of the Founders. Of the 55 delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention, 28 were Anglicans (i.e. Church of England; or Episcopalian, after the American Revolutionary War was won), 21 were other Protestants, and two were Roman Catholics (D. Carroll, and Fitzsimons). Among the Protestant delegates to the Constitutional Convention, eight were Presbyterians, seven were Congregationalists, two were Lutherans, two were Dutch Reformed, and two were Methodists.
Historian Gregg L. Frazer argues that the leading Founders (John Adams, Jefferson, Franklin, Wilson, Morris, Madison, Hamilton, and Washington) were neither Christians nor Deists, but rather supporters of a hybrid "theistic rationalism".
Many Founders deliberately avoided public discussion of their faith. Historian David L. Holmes uses evidence gleaned from letters, government documents, and second-hand accounts to identify their religious beliefs.
The founding fathers were not unified on the issue of slavery. In her study of Thomas Jefferson, historian Annette Gordon-Reed discusses this topic, "Others of the founders held slaves, but no other founder drafted the charter for freedom". In addition to Jefferson, George Washington, John Jay and many other of the Founding Fathers practiced slavery but were also conflicted by the institution which many saw as immoral and politically divisive. Conversely, many founders such as Samuel Adams and John Adams were against slavery their entire lives. Benjamin Rush wrote a pamphlet in 1773 which harshly condemned slavery and beseeched the colonists to petition the king and put an end to the British African Company of Merchants which kept slavery and the slave trade going.
Franklin, though he was a key founder of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society originally owned slaves whom he later manumitted. While serving in the Rhode Island Assembly, Stephen Hopkins introduced one of the earliest anti-slavery laws in the colonies, and John Jay would try unsuccessfully to abolish slavery as early as 1777 in the State of New York. He nonetheless founded the New York Manumission Society in 1785, for which Hamilton became an officer. They and other members of the Society founded the African Free School in New York City, to educate the children of free blacks and slaves. When Jay was governor of New York in 1798, he helped secure—an signed into law an abolition law; fully ending forced labor as of 1827. He freed his own slaves in 1798. Alexander Hamilton opposed slavery, as his experiences in life left him very familiar with slavery and its effect on slaves and on slaveholders, although he did negotiate slave transactions for his wife's family, the Schuylers. John Adams, Samuel Adams, and Thomas Paine never owned slaves.
Slaves and slavery are mentioned only indirectly in the 1787 Constitution. For example, Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3 prescribes that "three fifths of all other Persons" are to be counted for the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives and direct taxes. Additionally, in Article 4, Section 2, Clause 3, slaves are referred to as "persons held in service or labor". The Founding Fathers, however, did make important efforts to contain slavery. Many Northern states had adopted legislation to end or significantly reduce slavery during and after the American Revolution. In 1782 Virginia passed a manumission law that allowed slave owners to free their slaves by will or deed. As a result, thousands of slaves were manumitted in Virginia. Thomas Jefferson, in 1784, proposed to ban slavery in all the Western Territories, which failed to pass Congress by one vote. Partially following Jefferson's plan, Congress did ban slavery in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, for lands north of the Ohio River.
The international slave trade was banned in all states except South Carolina, by 1800. Finally in 1807, President Jefferson called for and signed into law a Federally-enforced ban on the international slave trade throughout the U.S. and its territories. It became a federal crime to import or export a slave. However, the domestic slave trade was allowed, for expansion, or for diffusion of slavery into the Louisiana Territory.
In the winter and spring of 1786–1787, twelve of the thirteen states chose a total of 74 delegates to attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. Nineteen delegates chose not to accept election or attend the debates; for example, Patrick Henry of Virginia thought that state politics were far more interesting and important than national politics, though during the ratification controversy of 1787–1788 he claimed, "I smelled a rat." Rhode Island did not send delegates because of its politicians' suspicions of the Convention delegates' motivations. As the colony was founded by Roger Williams as a sanctuary for Baptists, Rhode Island's absence at the Convention in part explains the absence of Baptist affiliation among those who did attend. Of the 55 who did attend at some point, no more than 38 delegates showed up at one time.
Only four (Baldwin, Gilman, Jenifer, and Alexander Martin) were lifelong bachelors. Many of their spouses, like Eliza Schuyler Hamilton, Martha Washington, Abigail Adams, Sarah Livingston Jay, Dolley Madison, Mary White Morris and Catherine Alexander Duer were strong women who made significant contributions of their own to the fight for liberty.
Sherman fathered the largest family: 15 children by two wives. At least nine (Bassett, Brearly, Johnson, Mason, Paterson, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Sherman, Wilson, and Wythe) married more than once. George Washington, "The Father of our Country," had no biological descendants.
Among the state documents promulgated between 1774 and 1789 by the Continental Congress, four are paramount: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. Altogether, 145 men signed at least one of the four documents. In each instance, roughly 50% of the names signed are unique to that document. Only a few persons (6) signed three of the four, and only Roger Sherman of Connecticut signed all of them. The following persons signed one or more of these formative documents:
|CA (1774)||DI (1776)||AC (1777)||USC (1787)|
|John Alsop||New York||1||Yes|
|Josiah Bartlett||New Hampshire||2||Yes||Yes|
|Gunning Bedford Jr.||Delaware||1||Yes|
|William Blount||North Carolina||1||Yes|
|Simon Boerum||New York||1||Yes|
|David Brearley||New Jersey||1||Yes|
|Pierce Butler||South Carolina||1||Yes|
|Charles Carroll of Carrollton||Maryland||1||Yes|
|Richard Caswell||North Carolina||1||Yes|
|Abraham Clark||New Jersey||1||Yes|
|John Collins||Rhode Island||1||Yes|
|Stephen Crane||New Jersey||1||Yes|
|Jonathan Dayton||New Jersey||1||Yes|
|John De Hart||New Jersey||1||Yes|
|William Henry Drayton||South Carolina||1||Yes|
|James Duane||New York||2||Yes||Yes|
|William Duer||New York||1||Yes|
|William Ellery||Rhode Island||2||Yes||Yes|
|William Floyd||New York||2||Yes||Yes|
|Nathaniel Folsom||New Hampshire||1||Yes|
|Christopher Gadsden||South Carolina||1||Yes|
|Nicholas Gilman||New Hampshire||1||Yes|
|Alexander Hamilton||New York||1||Yes|
|Cornelius Harnett||North Carolina||1||Yes|
|John Hart||New Jersey||2||Yes|
|Joseph Hewes||North Carolina||2||Yes||Yes|
|Thomas Heyward Jr.||South Carolina||2||Yes||Yes|
|William Hooper||North Carolina||2||Yes||Yes|
|Stephen Hopkins||Rhode Island||2||Yes||Yes|
|Francis Hopkinson||New Jersey||1||Yes|
|Richard Hutson||South Carolina||1||Yes|
|William Jackson||South Carolina||1||Yes|
|John Jay||New York||1||Yes|
|Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer||Maryland||1||Yes|
|William Samuel Johnson||Connecticut||1||Yes|
|James Kinsey||New Jersey||1||Yes|
|John Langdon||New Hampshire||1||Yes|
|Henry Laurens||South Carolina||1||Yes|
|Francis Lightfoot Lee||Virginia||2||Yes||Yes|
|Richard Henry Lee||Virginia||3||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Francis Lewis||New York||2||Yes||Yes|
|Philip Livingston||New York||2||Yes||Yes|
|William Livingston||New Jersey||2||Yes||Yes|
|Isaac Low||New York||1||Yes|
|Thomas Lynch||South Carolina||1||Yes|
|Thomas Lynch Jr.||South Carolina||1||Yes|
|Henry Marchant||Rhode Island||1||Yes|
|John Mathews||South Carolina||1||Yes|
|Arthur Middleton||South Carolina||1||Yes|
|Henry Middleton||South Carolina||1||Yes|
|Gouverneur Morris||New York||2[b]||Yes|
|Lewis Morris||New York||1||Yes|
|Thomas Nelson Jr.||Virginia||1||Yes|
|Robert Treat Paine||Massachusetts||2||Yes||Yes|
|William Paterson||New Jersey||1||Yes|
|John Penn||North Carolina||2||Yes||Yes|
|Charles Pinckney||South Carolina||1||Yes|
|Charles Cotesworth Pinckney||South Carolina||1||Yes|
|Edward Rutledge||South Carolina||2||Yes||Yes|
|John Rutledge||South Carolina||2||Yes||Yes|
|Nathaniel Scudder||New Jersey||1||Yes|
|Jonathan Bayard Smith||Pennsylvania||1||Yes|
|Richard Smith||New Jersey||1||Yes|
|Richard Dobbs Spaight||North Carolina||1||Yes|
|Richard Stockton||New Jersey||1||Yes|
|John Sullivan||New Hampshire||1||Yes|
|Matthew Thornton||New Hampshire||1||Yes|
|Nicholas Van Dyke||Delaware||1||Yes|
|Samuel Ward||Rhode Island||1||Yes|
|John Wentworth Jr.||New Hampshire||1||Yes|
|William Whipple||New Hampshire||1||Yes|
|John Williams||North Carolina||1||Yes|
|Hugh Williamson||North Carolina||1||Yes|
|Henry Wisner||New York||1||Yes|
|John Witherspoon||New Jersey||2||Yes||Yes|
Subsequent events in the lives of the Founding Fathers after the adoption of the Constitution were characterized by success or failure, reflecting the abilities of these men as well as the vagaries of fate. Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe served in highest U.S. office of President. Jay would be appointed as Chief Justice of the United States and later elected to two terms as Governor of New York.
Seven (Fitzsimons, Gorham, Luther Martin, Mifflin, Robert Morris, Pierce, and Wilson) suffered serious financial reversals that left them in or near bankruptcy. Robert Morris spent three of the last years of his life imprisoned following bad land deals. Two, Blount and Dayton, were involved in possibly treasonous activities. Yet, as they had done before the convention, most of the group continued to render public service, particularly to the new government they had helped to create.
Many of the Founding Fathers were under 40 years old at the time of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776: Alexander Hamilton was 19, Aaron Burr was 20, Gouverneur Morris was 24. The oldest were Benjamin Franklin, 70, and Samuel Whittemore, 81.
A few Founding Fathers lived into their ninties, including: Paine Wingate who died at age 98, Charles Carroll of Carrollton who died at age 95, Charles Thomson who died at 94, William Samuel Johnson who died at 92 and John Adams who died at 90. Among those who lived into their eighties were: Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Whittmore, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, John Armstrong Jr., Hugh Williamson, and George Wythe. Approximately 16 died while in their seventies, and 21 in their sixties. Three (Alexander Hamilton, Richard Dobbs Spaight and Button Gwinnett) were killed in duels. Two, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson died on the same day, July 4, 1826.
The last remaining founders, also poetically called the "Last of the Romans", lived well into the nineteenth century. The last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence was Charles Carroll of Carrollton, who died in 1832. The last surviving member of the Continental Congress was John Armstrong Jr., who died in 1843. He gained this distinction in 1838 upon the death of the only other surviving delegate, Paine Wingate.
The following men and women who had little or nothing to do with actually setting up the American federal government are occasionally called "founders" of the United States by some 21st-century writers:
Several Founding Fathers were instrumental in establishing schools and societal institutions that still exist today:
Articles and books by twenty-first century historians combined with the digitization of primary sources like handwritten letters continue to contribute to an encyclopedic body of knowledge about the Founding Fathers.
Joseph J. Ellis – According to Ellis, the concept of the Founding Fathers of the U.S. emerged in the 1820s as the last survivors died out. Ellis says "the founders", or "the fathers", comprised an aggregate of semi-sacred figures whose particular accomplishments and singular achievements were decidedly less important than their sheer presence as a powerful but faceless symbol of past greatness. For the generation of national leaders coming of age in the 1820s and 1830s – men like Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John C. Calhoun – "the founders" represented a heroic but anonymous abstraction whose long shadow fell across all followers and whose legendary accomplishments defied comparison.
We can win no laurels in a war for independence," Webster acknowledged in 1825. "Earlier and worthier hands have gathered them all. Nor are there places for us ... [as] the founders of states. Our fathers have filled them. But there remains to us a great duty of defence and preservation.
Joanne B. Freeman – Freeman's area of expertise is the life and legacy of Alexander Hamilton as well as political culture of the revolutionary and early national eras. Freeman has documented the often opposing visions of the Founding Fathers as they tried to build a new framework for governance, "Regional distrust, personal animosity, accusation, suspicion, implication, and denouncement—this was the tenor of national politics from the outset." 
Annette Gordon-Reed is an American historian and Harvard Law School professor. She is noted for changing scholarship on Thomas Jefferson regarding his relationship with Sally Hemings and her children. She has studied the challenges facing the Founding Fathers particularly as it relates to their position and actions on slavery. She points out "the central dilemma at the heart of American democracy: the desire to create a society based on liberty and equality" that yet does not extend those privileges to all."
Jack N. Rakove – Thomas Jefferson
Peter S. Onuf – Thomas Jefferson
The Founding Fathers were portrayed in the Tony Award winning musical 1776, a stage production about the debates over, and eventual adoption of, the Declaration of Independence; the popular performance was later turned into the 1972 film
More recently, several of the Founding Fathers – Hamilton, Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Laurens and Burr – were reimagined in Hamilton, an acclaimed production about the life of Alexander Hamilton, with music, lyrics and book by Lin-Manuel Miranda.The show was inspired by the 2004 biography Alexander Hamilton by historian Ron Chernow. The musical won 11 Tony Awards and a Pulitzer Prize for Drama.
In their 2015 children's book, The Founding Fathers author Jonah Winter and illustrator Barry Blitt categorized 14 leading patriots into two teams based on their contributions to the formation of America - the Varsity Squad (Washington, Franklin, Jefferson, John Adams, Madison, Jay, and Hamilton) and the Junior Varsity Squad (Sam Adams, Hancock, Henry, Morris, Marshall, Rush, and Paine).
The founding fathers of Cornwall and ....
Colonel Alexander Hamilton Jr. (May 16, 1786 – August 2, 1875) was the third child and the second son of Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton and Alexander Hamilton, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.Alexander Hamilton Jr. (1816–1889)
Alexander Hamilton Jr. (January 26, 1816 – December 30, 1889), was the son of James Alexander Hamilton, and the grandson of Alexander Hamilton, one of the founding fathers of the United States.Angelica Hamilton
Angelica Hamilton (September 25, 1784 – February 6, 1857) was the second child and eldest daughter of Elizabeth Schuyler and Alexander Hamilton, who was the first U.S. Secretary of the Treasury and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.Benjamin Franklin House
Benjamin Franklin House is a museum in a terraced Georgian house at 36 Craven Street, London, close to Trafalgar Square. It is the only surviving former residence of Benjamin Franklin, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. The house dates from c. 1730, and Franklin lived and worked there for sixteen years. The museum opened to the public on 17 January 2006. The chairman is American-British investment banker and philanthropist John Studzinski.The house is listed Grade I on the National Heritage List for England for its historic association with Franklin.Big Jay
Big Jay is a 3,786 ft (1,154 m) mountain in the northern Green Mountains of Vermont, located on the border of Franklin and Orleans counties.
The summit of Big Jay is the highest point of Franklin County. Big Jay is flanked to the south by Little Jay (3,182 ft or 970 m), and to the northeast by Jay Peak (3,865 ft or 1,178 m), the highest summit of the Jay Peak complex.
Jay Peak is named for John Jay (1745–1829) of New York, one of the founding fathers of the United States.
Big Jay stands within the watershed of the Trout River, a tributary of the Missisquoi River, which drains into Lake Champlain, thence into Canada's Richelieu River, the Saint Lawrence River, and into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.
The east and southeast sides of Big Jay drain into Jay Brook, which joins the South Branch Trout River in Montgomery to form the Trout River. The southwest and western sides of Big Jay drain into Hannah Clark Brook, and thence into the Trout. The northern end of Big Jay drains into Black Falls Brook, and thence into the Trout.
There is no official hiking trail on Big Jay, although there is a herd path to the summit from Jay Peak. There is also a summit register. In the summer of 2007 two men cut an illegal ski trail several hundred yards down the eastern side of the protected habitat. The offense carries a maximum $5,000 fine and five years in jail. Hikers and skiers have been encouraged to stay away from the scar caused by the vandalism so that the area can recover.Daniel Parke Custis
Daniel Parke Custis (October 15, 1711 – July 8, 1757) was an American planter and politician who was the first husband of Martha Dandridge. After his death, Dandridge married George Washington, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and the nation's first president.Deborah Read
Deborah Read Franklin (c. 1708 – December 19, 1774) was the common-law spouse of one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, Benjamin Franklin.Institute of Thomas Paine Studies
The Institute for Thomas Paine Studies, or ITPS, is an academic center dedicated to the preservation, study and dissemination of the life, work and legacy of Thomas Paine, and is located on the campus of Iona College in the city of New Rochelle in Westchester County, New York. Thomas Paine was one of the founding fathers of the United States and the key political philosopher of the age of democratic revolutions. He was a resident of New Rochelle and lived on a farm just a short distance up North Avenue from the Iona College campus.
Established in 2013, the ITPS houses one of the world’s unique Paine collections, including multiple first editions and early copies of his famous writings Common Sense, Age of Reason, and Rights of Man. It also contains more than 100 texts, pamphlets, and letters written or published by Paine himself, as well as personal items.James Alexander Hamilton
James Alexander Hamilton (April 14, 1788 – September 24, 1878) was an American soldier, acting Secretary of State, and the third son of Alexander Hamilton, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He entered politics as a Democrat and supporter of Andrew Jackson.John Church Hamilton
John Church Hamilton (August 22, 1792 − July 25, 1882) was a historian, biographer, and lawyer. He was a son of Alexander Hamilton, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.Mount Hancock (New Hampshire)
Mount Hancock is a mountain located in Grafton County, New Hampshire, named after John Hancock (1737–1793), one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The mountain is on the south side of the Pemigewasset Wilderness, the source of the Pemigewasset River in the heart of the White Mountains, between Franconia Notch and Crawford Notch. Mount Hancock is flanked to the northeast by Mount Carrigain, to the south by Mount Huntington, and to the west by Mount Hitchcock. Prior to the completion of the Kancamagus Highway, Mount Hancock was one of the most remote, inaccessible peaks in the White Mountains.
The Appalachian Mountain Club considers both Mount Hancock and the officially unnamed peak to its south to be "four-thousand footers" because the south peak rises more than 200 feet above the col that adjoins it to the higher north peak.Philip Hamilton (the second)
Philip Hamilton (June 1 or 2, 1802 – July 9, 1884) was the youngest child of Alexander Hamilton, who was the first U.S. Secretary of the Treasury and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was named in memory of his oldest brother, also Philip Hamilton.Sons of Ben (MLS supporters association)
The Sons of Ben (SoBs) is an independent supporters group for Philadelphia Union of Major League Soccer. The group was created in January 2007 by soccer fans from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and its greater metropolitan area, using such existing Major League Soccer fan clubs as the Screaming Eagles, La Barra Brava, and Section 8 Chicago as models. The name of the club alludes to Benjamin Franklin, who was one of the most well-known Founding Fathers of the United States and a particularly iconic figure of Philadelphia.Syng inkstand
The Syng inkstand is a silver inkstand used during the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the United States Constitution in 1787. It is one of four objects (besides paper documents) still existing that were present during the Constitutional Convention, along with Independence Hall itself, the Liberty Bell, and the chair that George Washington sat in as the Constitutional Convention's presiding officer.
The inkstand was made by Philip Syng in 1752 for the provincial assembly of Pennsylvania. It is both a work of art and an important historical artifact, as it was used by such prominent Founding Fathers of the United States as Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Hancock, Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, James Madison, and the other signers of the founding documents.Desktop inkstands hold ink for quill pens and other tools that require ink. Ornate versions include a pen holder, an inkpot, a candle to melt sealing wax, and a pot similar to a salt or pepper shaker used to pour pounce to aid in the sizing of parchment or vellum. The Syng inkstand is decorated in late Rococo style and includes a pounce pot, quill holder, and inkpot (left to right in the image shown).
Syng immigrated to America from Ireland in 1713. He was a renowned silversmith who created fine works in silver and gold for the wealthy families of Philadelphia. He was an associate of Benjamin Franklin and a prominent member of the Philadelphia community who assisted in founding the Library Company of Philadelphia, the American Philosophical Society, the Union Fire Company, and the University of Pennsylvania.
The Syng inkstand became the property of the State of Pennsylvania and was moved to the state capital in Harrisburg soon after the Constitutional Convention ended. It was returned to the City of Philadelphia in 1876, on the centennial of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, where it became famous. It was displayed in Independence Hall on a desk in front of George Washington's chair. Cracks appeared in the plaster ceiling of Independence Hall in 1922 and stoked fears that the building would collapse, and the inkstand was considered such an important artifact that it was removed at the same time that the first floor was cleared of visitors.The National Park Service acquired the inkstand when it took over maintenance of Independence Hall from the City of Philadelphia. It is now on display in a special case in Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, along with copies of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.The Morals of Chess
The Morals of Chess is an essay on chess by the American intellectual Benjamin Franklin, which was first published in The Columbian Magazine in December 1786.
Franklin, who was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, played chess from at least 1733. Evidence suggests that he was an above-average player, who, however, did not reach the top level. He outlined the essay around 1732, but did not publish it until 1786. After a short prologue in which Franklin details the history of chess he gets to the main part of his essay. He compares chess to life and writes that foresight, circumspection and caution can be learnt from the game. After describing the effects chess can have on one's perception of life he describes a set of moral rules that a chess player should hold, including to not cheat and not disturb the opponent. Franklin suggests that the opponent be told about mistakes he makes, for example if he would lose a piece.
The essay is one of the first texts about chess that was published in the United States; it appeared in the first chess-related book that was published in Russia in 1791. It still is widely reproduced, especially on the Internet. In 1999 Franklin was inducted into the U.S. Chess Hall of Fame.
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