Foundation Seamounts

Foundation Seamounts are a series of seamounts in the southern Pacific Ocean. Discovered in 1992, these seamounts form a 1,350 kilometres (840 mi) long chain which starts from the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Some of these seamounts may have once emerged from the ocean.

The Foundation Seamounts were probably formed by a now-weakening mantle plume called the Foundation hotspot that is located close to the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. It is possible that this hotspot generated additional volcanoes, such as the Ngatemato and Taukina seamounts farther west. The oldest volcanism on the Foundation Seamounts occurred 21 million years ago, while the youngest volcanism appears to be hydrothermal venting and the eruption of a lava flow between 1997-2001 where the Foundation Seamounts intersect the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge.

Foundation Seamounts
Location
LocationSouth Pacific Ocean
CoordinatesCoordinates: 35°S 120°W / 35°S 120°W[1]
Geology
Age of rockMiocene-Pleistocene
History
Discovery date1992

Name and discovery

The Foundation Seamounts were discovered in 1992 through satellite altimetry observations.[2] They are named after the National Science Foundation, a name-giving inspired to the naming of the Society Islands after the British Royal Society. Both toponyms were given in honour of the role that both groups played in science, mapping and navigation.[3]

Geography

The Foundation Seamounts are located in a part of the Pacific Plate where major tectonic events have occurred. The breakup of the Farallon Plate was accompanied by a reorganization of plate movements 26-11 million years ago, causing a change in the trend of local fracture zones.[4] A microplate formed at that time and was eventually attached to the Pacific plate when the spreading zone between the Pacific Plate and the microplate became inactive.[5] Part of the Foundation Seamounts lie on this ex-microplate,[6] which is called the "Selkirk microplate".[7] The passage of this microplate above the hotspot has altered its volcano-building activity, which generated more discrete seamounts while beneath the thicker microplate,[8] and conversely the interaction between the Foundation system and plate boundaries may be responsible for the formation of the Selkirk microplate.[9]

The Foundation Seamounts form a 1,350 kilometres (840 mi) long and 180 kilometres (110 mi) wide band of seamounts that extend northwestward away from the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge[3] towards the Resolution (32°30′S 132°30′W / 32.500°S 132.500°W) and Del Cano (34°30′S 130°00′W / 34.500°S 130.000°W) fracture zones. A small ridge continues from there to the Macdonald seamount, but the relation of this ridge to the Foundation Seamounts appears to be questionable at best,[10] and there are no other clear bathymetric features in between Foundation and Macdonald.[2] Close to the western end of the Foundation Seamounts lie the "Old Pacific Seamounts", which may have the same origin.[11] On the other end of the chain, the seamounts become short ridges decorated by volcanic cones;[12] the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge is migrating northwestward and approaching the hotspot, and the younger crust close to the ridge results in the morphology of developing volcanoes being altered.[13] The Foundation chain eventually becomes a set of three ridges close to the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge, the northern two of which are the more voluminous ones.[14] These northern ridges are probably the main ones; the southern one may have formed through cracks in the crust induced by the northern ridge,[15] but it might also be a "paired" expression of a hotspot similar to the Kea and Loa trends in Hawaii.[16]

The seamounts reach depths of 2,000–180 metres (6,560–590 ft) beneath sea level (the highest seamount is located at 35°54′S 116°02′W / 35.90°S 116.04°W),[17] and contain typical volcanic features such as smaller volcanic cones, calderas and individual rift zones. Some of the seamounts close to the ridge have flat tops and show evidence of having formed islands above sea level in the past.[14] On the other end of the ridge, "Buffon" seamount rises to a depth of 470 metres (1,540 ft) and likewise shows evidence of having emerged above sea level, as well as of extensive erosion.[18] The seamounts were originally named after letters of the alphabet A-Z followed by Aa-Hh;[19] later they were numbered through from west to east[2] and names based on scientists such as Ampere proposed.[17]

The seamount named Hh in 1992 rises to a depth of 579 metres (1,900 ft);[3] however its closeness to a minor ridge might indicate that it is not part of the Foundation Seamounts.[20] The seamounts on the far western end of the Foundation chain have morphologies that differ from those of the main chain and were probably created by a different process.[2]

The Foundation Seamounts appear to be continuous with the Macdonald seamount,[2] Austral Islands and Cook Islands;[20] the Ngatemato seamounts and Taukina seamounts could be a connection between the Foundation chain and these chains,[21] an impression bolstered by their dates and their strike direction.[22] The absence of seamounts between the Ngatemato and Foundation chains might reflect discontinuous volcanism.[8] The President Thiers Bank close to Raivavae may also be linked to the Foundation hotspot,[23] and the 135 million years old Magellan Rise may be an oceanic plateau formed by the Foundation hotspot and thus its oldest volcano.[24] Before 25 million years ago the hotspot might have been located below the Farallon Plate. There, it could have given rise to the Iquique Ridge,[25] a submarine ridge now found on the Nazca Plate[26] off Northern Chile.[27]

Geology

The Pacific-Antarctic Ridge is unusually shallow (1,500–1,700 metres (4,900–5,600 ft) depth instead of 2,300–2,600 metres (7,500–8,500 ft)[12]) at the point where the Foundations seamounts intersect the ridge;[20] this thickening of the ridge also alters the chemistry of erupted magmas there, leading to the occurrence of andesite and dacite which are formed within the thickened crust.[28] This area of silicic volcanism extends southward from the point where the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge intersects the Foundation Seamounts.[29] There is no indication of volcanism on the other side of the ridge.[13]

The Foundation Seamounts appear to originate from a hotspot,[21] with the neon and helium isotope ratios suggesting that the hotspot is a mantle plume,[30] which is interacting with the spreading ridge.[12] The Foundation hotspot is considerably weaker than many other hotspots such as the Society hotspot or the Hawaii hotspot,[31] and its volcanoes were constructed in shorter timespans than the Hawaiian ones.[32] Because an age progression was not found at first (Macdonald seamount is active in its own right[2]), a "hot line" origin was proposed at first;[20] argon-argon dating performed later on rocks dredged from the seamounts has demonstrated clearly age progressive volcanism.[33]

The plume may be located either directly underneath the spreading ridge, or about 360–400 kilometres (220–250 mi) west of it;[34] geoid anomalies are centered on the volcanic ridges[13] and indicate a distance of 36 kilometres (22 mi) but with some large uncertainty.[35] It is possible that the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge is "sucking" away hotspot mantle flow towards the ridge, influencing its magma output,[36] the interaction eventually resulting in the formation of the volcanic ridges that occur between the eastern Foundation Seamounts and the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge.[37] These ridges started to form by 7.7 ± 0.1 million years ago[38] and continued until 0.5 ± 0.1 million years ago, which is the youngest date obtained on these ridges.[39]

Composition

The Foundation Seamounts are constructed by various types of alkalic magmas, including alkali basalt, trachyandesite and trachydacite. [40] Dredge samples have found rocks consisting of aphyric basalt with plagioclase phenocrysts and olivine. Manganese crusts and palagonite are also found.[41]

Activity

Volcanic activity of the Foundation hotspot appears to have been steady throughout 23-5 million years ago,[42] but may have weakened dramatically since then.[43] Radiometric dating performed on the Foundation Seamounts shows that their age decreases from 21 million years on their western end to present on their eastern end.[32] On average, age progression along the chain is about 91 ± 2 millimetres per year (3.583 ± 0.079 in/year), comparable to that of the Hawaii hotspot.[8]

Close to the intersection between the Foundation chain and the Antarctic-Pacific Ridge, a lava flow field was emplaced between 1997 and 2001 on a bathymetric high.[44] Hydrothermal coummunities and thermal anomalies have been observed in the same area, suggesting ongoing hydrothermal venting there.[18] This volcanic activity is almost certainly forced by the interaction between the Antarctic-Pacific Ridge and the Foundation hotspot.[45] The main Foundation Seamounts appear to be aseismic;[19] if earthquake activity occurs at the intersection of the Foundation chain with the Antarctic Pacific Ridge, it is drowned out by the general ridge seismicity.[46]

Biology

Among the animals found on the Foundation Seamounts are the seaperch Helicolenus lengerichi,[47] the striped trumpeter,[48] decapods including the genus Paralomis and the species Shinkaia crosnieri,[49] and the spiny lobster Jasus caveorum.[50] The Foundation Seamounts are a candidate for a Ecologically or Biologically Significant Area.[51]

The Foundation-Pacific-Antarctic-Ridge intersection is the first known deep sea hydrothermal system from the southern hemisphere.[45] Hydrothermal communities found at the active hydrothermal venting sites include Bathymodiolus, bythograeids, Munidopsis, Neolepas, polychaetes, snails and zoarcid fish. Filter feeders are found as well and include crinoids and hexactinellid sponges. Actinians, coryphaenid fish and serpulids round out the local fauna.[45]

References

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  2. ^ a b c d e f Devey et al. 1997, p. 192.
  3. ^ a b c Mammerickx 1992, p. 295.
  4. ^ Mammerickx 1992, p. 302.
  5. ^ Mammerickx 1992, p. 303,304.
  6. ^ Mammerickx 1992, p. 301.
  7. ^ Devey, C. W.; Stoffers, P.; Garbe-Schoenberg, D. (2003-12-01). "Geochemistry of Foundation Seamount Chain Eruptives: Effects of Lithospheric Thickness and Ridge-Hotspot Distance on Magma Generation". AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 32: V32A–1001. Bibcode:2003AGUFM.V32A1001D.
  8. ^ a b c O'Connor, John; Stoffers, P; Wijbrans, Jan R (2017). "Distinguishing local from deep sources using high-resolution age-mapping of oceanic hotspot volcanism?". ResearchGate.
  9. ^ Bello-González, Contreras-Reyes & Arriagada 2018, p. 223.
  10. ^ Mammerickx 1992, p. 299.
  11. ^ Hekinian et al. 1999, p. 201.
  12. ^ a b c Hekinian et al. 1999, p. 200.
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  14. ^ a b Maia et al. 2000, p. 69.
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  29. ^ Stoffers et al. 2002, p. 301.
  30. ^ Stroncik, N. A.; Niedermann, S.; Haase, K. M. (2005-12-01). "The Earth's mantle primordial noble gas source: Constraints from He and Ne isotopic patterns of different mantle plumes". AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 13: V13C–0561. Bibcode:2005AGUFM.V13C0561S.
  31. ^ Maia et al. 2000, p. 81.
  32. ^ a b Morgan & Morgan 2007, p. 57.
  33. ^ O´Connor, Stoffers & Wijbrans 2001, p. 635.
  34. ^ Hekinian et al. 1999, p. 219.
  35. ^ Maia et al. 2000, p. 76.
  36. ^ Niu, Y.; Hekinian, R. (2004). Oceanic Hotspots. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. p. 301. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-18782-7_10. ISBN 9783642622908.
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  38. ^ O´Connor, Stoffers & Wijbrans 2001, p. 642.
  39. ^ O´Connor, Stoffers & Wijbrans 2001, p. 645.
  40. ^ Hekinian et al. 1999, p. 205.
  41. ^ O´Connor, Stoffers & Wijbrans 2001, p. 638.
  42. ^ Hekinian et al. 1999, p. 220.
  43. ^ Devey et al. 1997, p. 199.
  44. ^ Stoffers et al. 2002, p. 302.
  45. ^ a b c Stoffers et al. 2002, p. 303.
  46. ^ Mammerickx 1992, p. 305.
  47. ^ Smith, P. J.; Struthers, C. D.; Paulin, C. D.; McVeagh, S. M.; Daley, R. K. (2009-04-01). "Shallow genetic and morphological divergence among seaperches in the South Pacific (family Scorpaenidae; genus Helicolenus)". Journal of Fish Biology. 74 (5): 1104–1128. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2008.02172.x. ISSN 1095-8649. PMID 20735622.
  48. ^ Tracey, Sean R.; Smolenski, Adam; Lyle, Jeremy M. (2007-07-01). "Genetic structuring of Latris lineata at localized and transoceanic scales". Marine Biology. 152 (1): 119. doi:10.1007/s00227-007-0666-4. ISSN 0025-3162.
  49. ^ MARTIN, JOEL W.; HANEY, TODD A. (2005-12-01). "Decapod crustaceans from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps: a review through 2005". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 145 (4): 450. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2005.00178.x. ISSN 0024-4082.
  50. ^ Groeneveld, Johan C.; Heyden, Sophie Von der; Matthee, Conrad A. (2012-10-01). "High connectivity and lack of mtDNA differentiation among two previously recognized spiny lobster species in the southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans". Marine Biology Research. 8 (8): 764. doi:10.1080/17451000.2012.676185. ISSN 1745-1000.
  51. ^ Clark, Malcolm R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Guinotte, John; Dunstan, Piers K.; Williams, Alan; O'Hara, Timothy D.; Watling, Les; Niklitschek, Edwin (2014). "Identifying Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas (EBSA): A systematic method and its application to seamounts in the South Pacific Ocean". Ocean & Coastal Management. 91: 71. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.01.016.

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Jasus caveorum

Jasus caveorum is a species of spiny lobster found on a single seamount in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, discovered in 1995 by fishermen from New Zealand. It is most similar to Jasus frontalis from the nearby Juan Fernández Islands, but is more closely related to species from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

List of submarine volcanoes

A list of active and extinct submarine volcanoes and seamounts located under the world's oceans. There are estimated to be 40,000 to 55,000 seamounts in the global oceans. Almost all are not well-mapped and many may not have been identified at all. Most are unnamed and unexplored. This list is therefore confined to seamounts that are notable enough to have been named and/or explored.

List of volcanoes in the Pacific Ocean

A list of active and extinct volcanoes in the Pacific Ocean.

Macdonald seamount

Macdonald seamount (named after Gordon A. MacDonald) is a seamount in Polynesia, southeast of the Austral Islands and in the neighbourhood of a system of seamounts that include the Ngatemato seamounts and the Taukina seamount. It rises 4,200 metres (13,800 ft) from the seafloor to a depth of about 40 metres (130 ft) and has a flat top, but the height of its top appears to vary with volcanic activity. There are some subsidiary cones such as Macdocald seamount. The seamount was discovered in 1967 and has been periodically active with gas release and seismic activity since then. There is hydrothermal activity on Macdonald, and the vents are populated by hyperthermophilic bacteria.

Macdonald seamount is the currently active volcano of the Macdonald hotspot, a volcanic hotspot that has formed this seamount and some other volcanoes. Eruptions occurred in 1967, 1977, 1979–1983 and 1987–1989, and earthquakes were recorded in 2007. The activity, which has produced basaltic rocks, has modified the shape of the volcano and may lead to the formation of an island in the future.

Macquarie Triple Junction

The Macquarie Triple Junction is a geologically active tectonic boundary located at 61°30′S 161°0′E at which the Indo-Australian Plate, Pacific Plate, and Antarctic Plate collide and interact. The term Triple Junction is given to particular tectonic boundaries at which three separate tectonic plates meet at a specific, singular location. The Macquarie Triple Junction is located on the seafloor of the southern region of the Pacific Ocean, just south of New Zealand. This tectonic boundary was named in respect to the nearby Macquarie Island, which is located southeast of New Zealand.

Ngatemato seamounts

Ngatemato seamounts (Name derived from a ruling family in Rapa) are a series of seamounts in the southern Pacific Ocean.

These seamounts have the shape of ridges and display calderas. The Aureka (28°12′S 141°13′W) and Make (28°32′S 140°13′W) seamounts are part of the Ngatemato track. Dredged rocks are weakly tholeiitic basalts of Oligocene age. They are about 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) high and 20 kilometres (12 mi) wide at their base. Despite being smaller in size than the Macdonald seamounts however the Ngatemato seamounts have larger volumes which is masked by stronger plate deformation; the magma output that created the Ngatemato and Taukina chains when summed up is about 0.04 cubic kilometres per year (0.0096 cu mi/a).The seamounts were discovered in 1996 by the RV Maurice Ewing in the Austral Islands. Potassium-argon dating yields ages of about 30 million years; the seamounts developed close to the East Pacific Rise. Away from the Austral Islands the Ngatemato seamounts merge with the Foundation seamounts, with which they may share an origin.Macdonald seamount and associated seamounts as well as the Taukina seamounts developed close to the Ngatemato seamounts, the deformation of the Pacific Plate imposed by the Ngatemato seamounts may have triggered the formation of these other two seamounts. Alternatively the Ngatemato seamounts and Macdonald may have been formed by individual hotspots, such as the Foundation hotspot in Ngatemato's case, although the Ngatemato seamounts may to fit a lithospheric fracture-induced volcanism model better than the mantle plume model. Finally, it is possible that the formation of the seamounts was directed by the interaction between the Foundation hotspot and lithospheric fractures.

Outline of oceanography

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