Forum Holitorium

The Forum Holitorium (Italian: Foro Olitorio; English: Vegetable-sellers' Market) was the site of a commercial marketplace (macellum)[1] for vegetables, herbs and oil in ancient Rome. It was "oddly located" outside the Porta Carmentalis in the Campus Martius, crowded between the Forum Boarium ("Cattle Market") and buildings located in the Circus Flaminius.[2]

Coordinates: 41°53′28″N 12°28′48″E / 41.89111°N 12.48000°E

Forum Holitorium - Lancianu 1893-1901
The Forum Holitorium (lower center)

Temples

Four Republican temples were part of the market complex. The two earliest were built during the First Punic War, the first a Temple of Janus vowed by Gaius Duilius following his victory in a naval battle at Mylae with the Carthaginians in 260 BC.[3] A Temple of Spes ("Hope") was built soon after by Aulus Atilius Calatinus.[4] A Temple of Juno Sospita was vowed by Gaius Cornelius Cethegus in 197 BC for his victory over the Insubrian Gauls,[5] and dedicated two years later. The Temple of Pietas that was dedicated in 181 was later removed and apparently relocated by Julius Caesar to begin construction on the Theater of Marcellus.[6]

San Nicola in Carcare SE
Church of San Nicola in Carcere and Temple of Spes

Under the present church of San Nicola in Carcere are the ruins of three temples, standing side by side with the same orientation and facing the forum Holitorium. Besides some of marble of the later restorations, the architectural fragments are republican period work in travertine, tuff and peperino (previously decorated in stucco). The central and largest of these temples is Ionic, and is probably that of Spes. The northernmost temple is next in size and also Ionic, and is generally assumed to be the temple of Janus which is mentioned in the written sources, and is usually dated to about 90 BC. It is hexastyle, peripteral except at the back, and six of its columns, 0.70 meters in diameter, are still standing, built into the wall of the church. The southernmost temple is the smallest and Doric, and probably that of Juno Sospita.

These ruins are incorporated into and lie beneath the church (possibly after being incorporated into a prison, called carcere, which means prison). Remains of other temples lie under and around the Church of Sant'Omobono.

References

  1. ^ Varro, De lingua latina 5.146.
  2. ^ Lawrence Richardson, A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992), p. 165.
  3. ^ Tacitus, Annales 2.49 http://latin.packhum.org/loc/1351/5/0#129.
  4. ^ Cicero, De Legibus 2.28; Tacitus, Annales 2.49. http://latin.packhum.org/loc/1351/5/0#129
  5. ^ Herbert-Brown, Geraldine (1994). Ovid and the Fasti: An Historical Study. Clarendon Press. p. 39. ISBN 0-19-814935-2. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
  6. ^ Richardson, New Topographical Dictionary, p. 165.

External links

Circus Flaminius

The Circus Flaminius was a large, circular area in ancient Rome, located in the southern end of the Campus Martius near the Tiber River. It contained a small race-track used for obscure games, and various other buildings and monuments. It was ‘built,’ or sectioned off, by Gaius Flaminius in 221 BC.

Columna

Columna may refer to:

Columna (gastropod) a genus of snails

The Column (film), a 1968 Romanian historical film directed by Mircea Drăgan .

Columna Lactaria "Milk Column" was a landmark in ancient Rome in the Forum Holitorium

Columna Lactaria

The Columna Lactaria ("Milk Column") was a landmark in ancient Rome in the Forum Holitorium, or produce market. The Roman grammarian Festus says it was so called "because they would bring babies there to be fed with milk." It seems to have been a public charity where poor parents could obtain milk for their infants, or a central site for locating and hiring wet nurses. It has also been interpreted as a sanctioned site of child abandonment, where parents unable or unwilling to care for newborns could leave the child in the hope that it might be pitied and fostered (that is, given milk).

The Columna Lactaria was located close to the Temple of Pietas, which displayed a painting on the theme of Caritas Romana ("Roman Charity"), about a woman giving breastmilk to an aged parent. The column was probably destroyed by the construction of the Theater of Marcellus, beginning in the 40s BC. One of the neighborhoods razed for the construction of the theater was the Vicus Sobrius, where the residents offered libations of milk to a Punic god Romanized as Mercurius Sobrius. This community may have maintained the Columna Lactaria; Robert E.A. Palmer thought that the milk-offerings of Punic cult might shed light on the significance of the column. Into the early 20th century, the piazza Montanara adjacent to the theater continued to be a place where wet nurses could be sought for hire.

Forum venalium

A forum venalium (pl. fora venalium) was a food market in Ancient Rome during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. These mercantile fora were extensions of the Roman Forum and contained numerous buildings and monuments erected under the Republic and the Empire.

In Politics, Aristotle proposed that a city should have both a free square in which "no mechanic or farmer or anyone else like that may be admitted unless summoned by the authorities" and a marketplace "where buying and selling are done... in a separate place, conveniently situated for all goods sent up from the sea and brought in from the country."

The Roman Forum was originally used for athletic games and trading purposes of all kinds; however, the forum became a political and banking center where bankers and brokers had their offices. The forum civilium (judicial) and fora venalium (mercantile) came into existence under the empire because of the growth of the city and the increase in provincial business. Maenius, one of the Censors, was chiefly instrumental in bringing about these changes.

The smaller fora venalia that specialized by type of produce were started along the Tiber, near Port Tibernius, with the Suarium at the foot of the Quirinal Hill towards the Campus Martius. The Boarium Forum for cattle, Forum Cuppedinis for delicatessen, Forum Holitorium (cabbage market) for vegetables, Forum Suarium for pork, Forum Piscarium for fish, Pistorium Forum for bread, and Forum Vinarium for wine.

The Roman Forum, and the Fora of Caesar and Augustus were fora civilia.

List of ancient monuments in Rome

This is a list of ancient monuments from republican and imperial periods in the city of Rome, Italy.

Manius Acilius Glabrio

Manius Acilius Glabrio was the name (tria nomina) used by several ancient Roman men of the gens Acilia, including:

Manius Acilius Glabrio, a consul of the Roman Republic in 191 BC.

Manius Acilius Glabrio, a suffect consul in 154 BC. In 181 BC, he was on the two-man commission for temple dedications (duumviri aedi dedicandae): he was in charge of the Temple of Pietas in the Forum Holitorium, and a Lucius Porcius Cato the Temple of Venus Erycina near the Colline Gate. He was curule aedile in 166 with Marcus Fulvius Nobilior, in charge of presenting the Ludi Megalenses at which the Andria of the comic playwright Terence was first presented. He served as praetor in the year 157 at the latest. His father had the same name, and his grandfather was a Gaius Acilius Glabrio.

Manius Acilius Glabrio, a tribune of the plebs in 123 or 122 BC who sponsored a lex de repetundis, one of a number of Roman laws aimed at curbing extortion among Roman governors. A Lex Acilia is known from an inscription, and a Lex Rubria Acilia is mentioned in a senatus consultum—an indication that the tribune Gaius Rubrius was a co-sponsor.

Manius Acilius Glabrio, consul in 67 BC.

Manius Acilius Glabrio, possibly a lieutenant who served under Julius Caesar who is more likely a Marcus Acilius. A Marcus Acilius Caninus or Caninianus was quaestor pro praetore in Macedonia 45–44, and suffect consul in 33 BC.

Manius Acilius Glabrio, a consul in AD 91 who was put to death by Domitian.

Manius Acilius Glabrio, consul in 124, and proconsul of Africa in 139/140.

Manius Acilius Glabrio Gnaeus Cornelius Severus, also known as Manius Acilius Glabrio, consul in 152

Manius Acilius Glabrio, consul with Commodus in 186.

Marcus Acilius Glabrio, consul in 256

Acilius Glabrio, grammarian in Bordeaux in the fourth century AD, a student of Ausonius.

Porta Carmentalis

The Porta Carmentalis was a double gate in the Servian Walls of ancient Rome. It was named for a nearby shrine to the goddess or nymph Carmenta, whose importance in early Roman religion is also indicated by the assignment of one of the fifteen flamines to her cult, and by the archaic festival in her honor, the Carmentalia. The shrine was to the right as one exited the gate.

The gate's two arches seem to have been set at angles, and were known by separate names. It was unlucky to leave the city through the arch called Porta Scelerata ("Accursed Gate"), which was supposed to have been named for the military disaster at Cremera in 479 or 478 BC, since the 306 Fabii who died had departed through it. The Servian Walls, however, did not exist at that time. The accursed nature of the gate probably derives from the transport of corpses out of the city proper to funeral pyres on the Campus Martius. The family tomb of the Claudii was located outside the Porta Carmentalis.The other gate was the Porta Triumphalis. A governor returning from his province could not enter through this gate unless he had been awarded a triumph. It therefore must have been routine to use the Porta Scelerata for entering, and the Triumphalis for exiting. Funeral processions reversed the normal direction of traffic flow for the Scelerata, as the triumphal procession did for the Triumphalis. Augustus was accorded the special honor of having his funeral procession exit by the Triumphalis.The temples of Mater Matuta and Fortuna were nearby. The Carmentalis was rebuilt by Domitian, and topped with a sculpture group of a triumphal chariot drawn by elephants. The gate is depicted in relief sculpture dating to the reign of Marcus Aurelius.The Vicus Iugarius forked just before reaching the Porta Carmentalis, with one branch passing through the Forum Holitorium by making a right curve around the foot of the Capitoline Hill, and the other passing through the Forum Boarium to the mouth of the Cloaca Maxima on the Tiber. The precise location of the Porta Carmentalis itself remains unclear, despite excavations in the area from the late 1930s onward. Livy names the Porta Carmentalis as the point of entry for a ritual procession undertaken in 207 BC as part of an expiatory sacrifice for Juno. Two white cows were led from the Temple of Apollo through the Carmentalis and along the Vicus Iugarius to the Forum.

Porticus margaritaria

The Porticus Margaritaria was an ancient building in the city of Rome known only from the Notitia et Curiosum. The complex was seemingly commercial in nature as numerous inscriptions refer to jewelers (CIL VI.9207, 9221, 9239, 9418, 9419). It was most likely located outside of the Forum Romanum and adjacent to the House of Vestals. Directly across the Sacra Via was the Basilica Nova. To its south-east was the Temple of Venus and Roma and beyond that the Colosseum. Nothing remains of the Porticus Margaritaria except for some sections of foundation and ruins. Jordan (I.2.476) placed the porticus on the boundary of Region VIII, between the Forum Boarium and the Forum Holitorium.

Portunus (mythology)

Portunus was the ancient Roman god of keys, doors, livestock and ports. He may have originally protected the warehouses where grain was stored, but later became associated with ports, perhaps because of folk associations between porta "gate, door" and portus "harbor", the "gateway" to the sea, or because of an expansion in the meaning of portus. Portunus later became conflated with the Greek Palaemon.

Portunus' festival, celebrated on August 17, the sixteenth day before the Kalends of September, was the Portunalia, a minor occasion in the Roman year. On this day, keys were thrown into a fire for good luck in a very solemn and lugubrious manner. His attribute was a key and his main temple in the city of Rome, the Temple of Portunus, was to be found in the Forum Boarium.

Portunus appears to be closely related to the god Janus, with whom he shares many characters, functions and the symbol of the key. He too was represented as a two headed being, with each head facing opposite directions, on coins and as figurehead of ships. He was considered to be "deus portuum portarumque praeses" (lit. God presiding over ports and gates.) The relationship between the two gods is underlined by the fact that the date chosen for the dedication of the rebuilt temple of Janus in the Forum Holitorium by emperor Tiberius is the day of the Portunalia, August 17.Linguist Giuliano Bonfante has speculated, on the grounds of his cult and of the meaning of his name, that Portunus should be a very archaic deity and might date back to an era when Latins lived in dwellings built on pilings. He argues that in Latin the words porta (door, gate) and portus (harbour, port) share their etymology from the same IE root meaning ford, wading point.

Portunus' flamen, the flamen Portunalis, was one of the flamines minores and performed the ritual of oiling the spear (hasta) on the statue of god Quirinus, with an ointment especially prepared for this purpose and stored in a small vase (persillum).

San Nicola in Carcere

San Nicola in Carcere (Italian, "St Nicholas in prison") is a titular church in Rome near the Forum Boarium in rione Sant'Angelo. It is one of the traditional stational churches of Lent.

Sant'Omobono Area

The Sant'Omobono Area (Italian: Area di Sant'Omobono) is an archaeological site in Rome next to the church of Sant'Omobono, at the junction of via L. Petroselli and il Vico Jugario at the foot of the Campidoglio. It was discovered in 1937 and contains much important evidence for archaic and republican Rome. It contains altars and the sites of the temple of Fortuna and the temple of Mater Matuta.

The temples and their sanctuaries lie between the Forum Holitorium and the Forum Boarium. As of 2012, the archaeological site is under re-investigation by a joint team from the Sovraintendenza ai Beni Culturali of the Comune di Roma, the Università della Calabria, and the University of Michigan.The site of Sant'Omobono is crucial for understanding the related processes of monumentalization, urbanization, and state formation in Rome in the late Archaic period. The Sant'Omobono temple site dates to 7th–6th century BCE, making this pair the oldest known temple remains in Rome.

Spes

In ancient Roman religion, Spes (pronounced [ˈspeːs]) was the goddess of hope. Multiple temples to Spes are known, and inscriptions indicate that she received private devotion as well as state cult.

Temple of Janus

Temple of Janus may refer to:

Temple of Janus (Roman Forum), in the Roman Forum, Rome

Temple of Janus (Forum Holitorium), in the Forum Holitorium, Rome

Temple of Janus (Autun), the Gallo-Roman temple, not truly dedicated to Janus, located in Autun, France

Temple of Janus (Forum Holitorium)

The Temple of Janus (Latin: aedes Jani), is a temple to the Roman god Janus in the Forum Holitorium, Rome.

Temple of Janus (Roman Forum)

In ancient Rome, the main Temple of Janus as it is often called, although it was not a normal temple, stood in the Roman Forum near the Argiletum. It had doors on both ends, and inside was a statue of Janus, the two-faced god of boundaries. The doors (the "Gates of Janus") were closed in times of peace and opened in times of war.

According to Livy 1.19 the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, decided to distract the early, warlike Romans from their violent ways by instilling in them awe and reverence. His projects included promoting religion, certain priesthoods, and the building of temples as a distraction with the beneficial effect of imbuing spirituality. The Janus was Numa's most famous architectural project.

Temple of Juno Sospita (Palatine)

Not to be confused with the Temple of Juno Sospita in the Forum Holitorium.

The Temple of Juno Sospita ("Savior") was an ancient Roman temple on the Palatine Hill in Rome, possibly dating from as early as 338 BC.It was probably a term for a small shrine adjoining the Temple of the Magna Mater (recorded by Ovid), parts of which remain in Augustan-era opus reticulatum, although most of the remains belong to a Hadrianic restoration.

A minority interpretation is that 'Temple of Juno Sospita' was another term for the Temple of the Magna Mater's auguraculum.

If still in use by the 4th-and 5th century, it would have been closed during the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire.

Temple of Victory

Not to be confused with the Temple of Victory in the Forum Holitorium.The Temple of Victory (Latin templum Victoriae) is a temple on the Palatine Hill in Rome. It is traditionally ascribed to Evander, but was actually built by Lucius Postumius Megellus out of fines he levied during his aedileship and dedicated by him on 1 August when consul in 294 BC. This temple was used to house Cybele's sacred stone between 204 BC and 191 BC, while her own nearby temple was still being built and Cato the Elder afterwards built a shrine of Victoria Virgo next to the temple of Victory. If still in use by the 4th-century, it would have been closed during the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire.

It was in the Temple of Victory that the spoils of war from Roman victories were eventually deposited. Some of its notable contents came from the spoils of Titus from the Temple of Jerusalem which remained deposited in the Temple of Victory until it was looted by the Vandals in the 5th century and subsequently taken to Africa. The golden roof of the temple was also removed by the barbarians during their pillage of Rome.

There is no record of any restoration of this temple and its exact site is still uncertain. See CJ 1920, 297, where Chase states that Boni identified this temple with foundations found near the arch of Titus. It was doubtless on the Clivus Victoriae, and remains of two dedicatory inscriptions. found about 50 metres west of the present church of San Teodoro, may indicate its position.

Vicus Jugarius

The Vicus Jugarius (Latin: Vicus Iugarius), or the Street of the Yoke-Makers, was an ancient street leading into the Roman Forum. The Vicus Jugarius was very old—perhaps even older than Rome itself. The Latin word jugarius can mean either "yoke" or "ridge".

The Vicus Jugarius entered the Forum from the southwest, along the shoulder of the Capitoline Hill and between the Temple of Saturn and the Basilica Julia near Servilius’ Pool. The Arch of Tiberius (now vanished) was built for the street to pass through here. Its other end, in the southern Campus Martius, was near the Forum Holitorium. This was the extent of the street in late Republican and Imperial times, but in former days, it was much longer, extending as far as the Quirinal Hill and representing a part of the original trade route to the Tiber River. Its ancient name may actually have originally signified a “high-road’, rather than the later sense of “yoke”; something like "the Road along the [Capitoline] Ridge".

A spot on the road known as the Equimaelium perhaps recorded the leveling of the home of Spurius Maelius.

Vincenzo Seratrice the Elder

Vincenzo Seratrice the Elder (Turin, 1851 - Lanuvio, 1922) was an Italian painter, mainly of genre paintings, archaeologist, antiquarian and furniture maker.

He was born to an aristocratic family with connections to the court of Savoy; his father worked with Count Cavour. Adventurous, he abandoned his family and joined a traveling band of acrobats. After much traveling, he married and settled in Lanuvio, working as a furniture maker.

Beyond his work as a sculptor, he helped design of ceremonial costumes for the court of Savoy. He is known to have sold furniture he made as if they were antique original. He was interested in archeology, and held the position of Honorary Inspector for Monuments and Ruins from 1880 to 1912. He documented with photographs the archaeologic dig by British Ambassador Lord Savile Lumley of the perimeter of the sanctuary of Juno Sospita in the Forum HolitoriumHe collected dozens of ancient Roman inscriptions which were all published journals of epigraphy. He uncovered evidence of the 13th-century Vassalletto family of marble carvers of the thirteenth century, who helped carve the columns of a choir in the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome. In 1907, while the Church was being restored, one of the stones from the floor of the main altar carried the name of the famous marble craftsman Vassalletto.He was a resident of Rome for many years. Among his works at the 1881 Exhibition of Fine Arts in Milan are: Lucky Journey; Il Novizio; Ritorno forzato; and La scaccia cornacchie. At the 1883 Exposition of Rome, he exhibited: Le nostre Segarole.

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